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retired in disgust. He is a member of Pastoret was returned a deputy for Paris. the present legislature, and has lately He is confidered in general to be an proposed fome falutary regulations re. Aristocrat, and his reproaches against specting the trial by jury, so far as the Condorcet for writing in a newspaper intention, or wbat we technically term dedicated to liberty (le Journal de the quo animo, is concerned.

Paris) will never be forgotten or forDuring the disputes with the sections, given by the patriots of 1789 about the re-election of the two-thirds,


THE DUTCH. w I have slightly mentioned to you fervants are to be seen paddling below, somewhere the love of ornament among ankle-deep, and spouting above at the the Dutch, as inconsistent with the windows as if they were , playing off an weight, not to say heaviness, of their engine to extinguish conflagrarion ; al. appearance. I think this over-finery is though the great end proposed, is only to be discovered principally in their live. to wash away the dust that may have ries, which are often gaudy and rich, gothered on the falhes, in the course sometimes elegant. It is exhibited also of the week. An English traveller who in their furniture, barges, chimneys, comes from the comfort of a dry room, china, and mills. It even shews itseif or whose state of health would suffer in certain indescribable places; yet, ge from damps, must reconcile to this desa nerally speaking, all these things are so agrement as well as he can ; as he will; Out of keeping with their own figures from an inteption of civility, bę lhewo and fashions—such, for instance, as into an apartment just washed, he had their deep brown or blue suits of Dutch better double his defence, by an adhomespun or Pruffian, their unyielding ditional pair of socks, or stockings; for features, immence breeches, preposterous the Dutch landlord would deem it rude petticoats, stupendous hip-pads, and mea- to take his gueit into a room that has sured pace that they seen as little of a not been laid under water since the last piece as if the said homespun jerkins, company went out of it, and were you &c. were to be trimmed with gold to argue against the thing, he would and Gilver foils and fringes.

set you down as a dirty traveller, who As to the waterfaring men (fresh or did not know how to behave yourself in falt) they are be-buttoned from top to a clean country. toe, each button, not excepting those Through every part of Holland, the of the waist band, a third part larger natives are great observers of symmetry. than an English crown piece, and al- ls a brush, for example, part of the ways of solid Giver.

furniture of a room, it will be found I have praifed the Dutch neatness; it hanging up, equi-distant with another of is worthy of praise ; but occasionally the same fize, shape, and fashion, to carried to excess. It now and then goes

answer it. into caricature. You have always the Cup faces cup, each saucer hazits brother, fear of the pail and scrubing brushes be. And half the cupboard just reflects the fore your eyes. On the grand cleaning

other. day, which here is Friday, the maid

From Pratt's Gleanings. ON THE FLEXIBILITY OF THE BRASILIAN STONE*. OF this very curious and rare fosil, at Paris, in January 1784. Ine fpethe Baron de Dietrich read a description cimeo which Dr Huttun examined was before the Royal Academy of Sciences in the possession of the late Lord Gar* Being the subítance of Dr Hutton'o dc


12 inches long 5 count, published in the Edin. Phil. Trunf. vol. 3. broad, and half an iach thick. When


It was

supported at both ends in a horizontal that curvature mult, in the present case, position, its midle funk more than a be greatly increafed, in order to produce quarter of an inch. The stone had a the measure of distension among the porous or fpungy texture, and much particles which necessarily precedes a resembled a comprefied ftratum of snow. general rupture. Jis transverse fection shewed no traces Dr Hutton conjectues that the Bram of a fibrous or laminated structure, and zilian stone had originally been attend. nothing heterogeneous in its compofi- dant on Alpine limestones, and con tion : it seemed to consist entirely of solidated by calcareous spar; and that pure transparent quartz. On spliting it the conglutinating substance was, in the Jongitudinally, however, it shewed de- lapse of ages, diffolved by the penecidely a foliated stratification ; and close trating influence of a humid atmosphere. inspection, affisted by experiment, de. This fuppofition is countenanced by the tected fpecular transparent plates of mi- report, that the folitary mineral was acca, nicely bedded in quartzofe matter. tually found lying exposed on the foil. Hence Dr H. derives an explication It probably requires a rare concurrence of the fingular property of the Brazilian of circumstances to produce the Brastone. He considers “ the particles of zilian ftone : but other stones may exist quartz, which have little cohesion, as that possess the same property, though being bound together by these thin in a lower degree. Of this kind is the plates of mica ; and these connecting Pellsten or gestellfein of the Swedes and plates being flexible, this allows a certain Germans, employed by them for build. motion of the rigid particles among ing furnaces, and compofed, according to themselves, without a fracture or gene- Cronstedt, of quartze and mica ; since ral separation of the stone.” In fact, to sustain the alternations of heat and the principle is the same with that on cold, and the sudden and partial exwhich depends the flexibility of timber, pansions and contractions thereby proand different foffils of the amianthus duced, it must admit of moderate flexkind. Those bodies consist of parallel ure. The marble tables preserved in fibres, feebly cohering together, but of the Borghese Palace at Rome, under great tenacity in the direction of their the name of Pietra Elastica, belong allength. The most brittle substances fo to the same species. They contain bend freely when divided into filaments particles of talc intermingled with the or thin plates ; and this facility of flex. loose consistence of the marble. ure we may concisely explain : for the Our readers in the vicinity of this protraction of the convex side beyond metropolis niay gratify their curiosity, the concave is manifestly proportional to by viewing this specimen of flexible the curvature and to the interval between stone in Weir's Museum, to which it was these concentric arcs, and confequently presented by the late Lord Gardenston.


Edinburgh, July 1796.
If the inclosed Observations on the Importance of Cleanliness in our ttreets and

dwellings, and on the Prejudices to Innoculation, are consistent with the plan

of your miscellany, I hope you will favour me by giving them a piace.obit ON ATTENTION TO CLEANLINES, AND THE PROPRIETY OF INNOCULATION.

13707l!!! " What I believe, I'll wail ; What know, believe, and what I can redress, As I shall find the time to friend, I will."

SHAKESPEAR, THE general inattention to clean obvious. • The necessity of sentulatliness, in the towns of Scotland, is veral in human habitations, (lays an elegant.

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many deaths.

tournalist,) has not yet been found by smell, and that there are intances of
our northern neighbours : and even in malignant fevers, occasioned by the
houses well built and elegantly furnished, Muvia of putrid cabbages. He also
a stranger may be fometimes forgiven, if relaces, that at Cork, where a great
he allows himself to wish for a fresher number of cattle are laughtered for the
air ;” and in respect to our villages, al- navy, the offals being, at one time,
though formed but by one ítreet, each left to corrupt in the street, an epide-
house has a dunghill in front. Such mic fever was produced, which raged
accumulations of filth, as every town from August 10 January,
and village in Scotland presents, cor- Prefpor Alpinus relates, that the pu-
rupts the atmosphere of every dwelling, trid esalations from Itagnant canals, ac
with the volatile particles of putrid Grand Cairo, is the annual return of a
animal and vegetable matter, which be- malignant kind of small-pox, and also
ing at all times inhaled into the human of the putrid and pestilential fevers that
system, not only pre disposes it to pu- prevail in March, April, and May,
trid diseases, but in small-pox will in- which are the summer months of that
variably produce that degree of malig- country.
nancy, which is the fatal cause of lo Clouds of locusts often lay waste the

mild fields of the Tartars; their ap. To confirm the truth of this obser- proach darkens the horizon; and so vation, the testimony of many celebra- enormous is their multitude, it hides ted men may be adduced.

the light of the fun ; this plague would Galen relates, that putrid effluvia of spread over countries better cultivated, of lakes and marshes, produces malig- and Greece and Alia Minor would be nant fevers ; and in this opinion Hip- more frequently exposed, did not the pocrates agrees, but imputes it to the Black Sea swallow up most of those humid and close state of the atmosphere, swarms which attempt to pass this barlocal to such places.

rier. “ I have often seen” says De Faustus relates something of a plague Totsmemours, 66 the shores of the Pons (now understood putrid fever,) which tus Euxinus, towards the Bosphorus raged at Venice, caused by the putre- of Thrace, covered with their dried refačtion of a small kind of fish, caught mains': this produced an infection fo great, in that part of the Adriatic Sea ; and that it was several days before they records very particularly, that, from the could be approached.” Baltinefs of the streets, the plague was Dr Ruth imputes the origin of the very frequent at Cologne and Paris. awful yellow fever, which desolated

In the year 1448, Famagustia, in Cy- many towns in America, two years prus, was visited by a malignant fever, firwe, to the fermentation and putrefaction produced by exhalations from a putrid of a great quantity of damaged coffee, lake. It is asserted by Professor Silvius in the store-houses of Philadelphia. de la Boe, who practised at that time, A few years ago an epidemic fever that two-thirds of the inhabitants died. arose at Kelso, fron inattention to clean

- Before drains were constructed a- ing the streets, the bistory of which is round Rome, the people were frequent- recorded in the Statistical account of ly attacked by fatal fevers ; and when Scotland, by Dr Douglas of that place. that city, was subdued by the Goths, The testimony of the preceding auwho destroyed all the drains, the whole thors may be summed up in the words Roman territory became one continued of an elegant poet, (Darwin's Botanic mash, which, for many years produced Garden,)“ All contagious matter oria extreme defolation,

ginates either from animal bodies, or Dr Roger in his effay on epidemic from putrid moraffes ; these latter prodiseases, observes, that vegetables rot- dece agues in the colder climates, and ride in a close place, yield a cadaverous maligoant fevers in the warmer ones.”


It may now, however, seem neces- which, although not so quick in their sary to be demonstrated, that the noxious operation,

are not much more salubrious vapours of lakes, and marshes, are of a than the Grotto del Cano. fimilar nature, or equally mephitic with The particles of exhalations, poffef. the effluvia of dung-hills, and the nalti- sing an insular situation in the atmofness of streets ; although this is indeed phere into which they ascend, like the fufficiently obvious, I will observe, in particles of course flour dispersed thro' the words of the ever to be celebra. water, are inhaled into the human fysted Pringle, “ That exhalations from tem, at every inspiration, in a proportion marshes do not consist of watery ra- confonant to the acting cause; and pours alone, but also of putrid esuvia, where any tendency to putridity exists, arising from innumerable animals and will act like a ferment, and accelerate vegetables that rot and die therein :" and accumulate disease, or both. This Sir John adds, that the relaxation is precisely' the theory of fermenting of the fibres, and greater tendency in bread: The prepared dough has little the humours to putrify, consequent on tendency to ferment; this would go on this state of the atmosphere, may be fowly but for the addition of a ferconsidered as the internal and predif- ment; let it, however, be observed, pofing cause of malignant fevers." The that when the fermentation has comfame author, speaking of the yellow menced, fo rapidly would it goven to fever, fays, “ it may be proper to take putrify, that nothing would stop it; notice, that we have also fevers of this the fourness of some bread arises from kind in Britain, but I must add, that the fermentation not being soon enough unless in marshy places, the distemper checked by the operation of the oven's is mild, and scarce ever epidemic, that heat; the accetous fermentation has breathing a foul air will exert the vi- then begun in the dough, and can by rulence of any eruptic disease.”

no means be overcome. It will thus appear, that innoculatioo, It is remarked by a French chymist, without attention to cleanliness, in every that such smells a3 putrifying matter respect, may fail to produce its happy exhale, “penetrates every where, and influence; and the disease introduced, seems to affect the bodies of animals, when the patient breathes a poisoned like a fermenting substance, capable of air, may assume a degree of malignancy altering their fluids." more fatal, than the ordinary cases of The metropolis of Scotland is not nataral small pox.

free from the dangers incident to such It cannot be denied,' that the efflu- causes as have been mentioned; the via of marshes is highly deliterious, nor, obscure lanes, by much the most poputhat the vapours arising from the filthe of Jous parts of the city, are nafty in the streets, are equally noxious, as being of a extreme, and the inhabitants of Prince's fimilar nature. Respecting effluvia in the street, have a, stagnant marsh in front abstract, whether aromatic or mephitic, of their dwellings. our notions may not be very correct ; but Some time ago, through the medium we know that it is something materical*; of a news paper, the propriety of checknow, as all matter must occupy space, ing the eruption of putrid effluvia, from it would be easy to prove, that noxious the grounds alluded to, was suggested effluvia will become local to our bodies, to the gentlemen of this place, by such our dwellings, and our food, by ad- means as would beautify their prospect, hering to our raiment, furniture, &c. and insure an excessive interest for the besides being in a diffufed ftate in the money that might be expended, which, atmosphere, which we breathe. This to a collective body, would be a very is clearly evinced by the fashionable trifle, even should the plan fail in renopractice of using perfumes, fome of vating the atmosphere, the great object This word is not to be found in John

in view.

fan'e Tii

ITo be continued


joint of meat and a pudding, with a moTHE late complaints of scarcity derate share of wine. The latter was of provisions, which were allowed to be generally purchased for the occasion well founded, have excited the merito- from a neighbouring tavern, but no one sious labours of many persons of hu- thought of having a large stock on manity and opulence, and various steps hand, partly because it was a temptahave been judiciously taken to alleviate tion to consume it thoughtlessly, and an extent of distress, which it was found partly because a great deal of money impoflible immediately to remove al- was thereby funk. A very eminent together. Ruminating on these dircum- tavern-keeper, who, fome years before Itances, the other night, I was led to his death, rose to the highest municipal consider the subject in various lights ; offices in the city of London, has often and by digrefling into the manners of related to his friends, that when he common life, I had almost determined lived as porter in the house of which that the great causes of such evils in a he afterwards became malter, his emnation are pl 'cisely the same, or nearly ployment, all the morning, was to colthe same, wA h produce similar effects lect in baskets the empty wine-bottles in the case of ndividuals, I mean the from reputable tradesmen's houses in folly of living p to our income, and the neighbourhood, who having a friend neither foreseein nor providing for the to entertain, went as far as the luxury evil day. Blest we are, in this coun- of one or two bottles of wine, upon such try, with a fruitfl foil, and a tempe- great occasions. 'rate and regular climate, we never sup- Now let us consider the difference pofe it posible that a time may come of the present mode of living. When when our soil thall thereby be less pro- a tradesman, of the same rank, enter, ductive, and our climate less falubrious, tains company, the table is covered We enjoy the present hour, and are with a great variety of dishes, many of satisfied; and, with more humanity than them expensive, and scarce vegetables prudence, we allist others with what and rare fruits are procured at any price we consider as fuperfluous to purselves. to grace the board. Instead of sending It is not uncommon to be pampered to the tavern for a few bottles of wine, with wealth, but it is a misfortune to for the occasion, he presents you with have never experienced want.

wines of three or four different kinds, The modes of living in private fa- and informs you, that he has a pipe of milies have undergone so complete a one, half a pipe of another, and, perchange, within the last thirty years, that haps, two pipes of a third, and what it may

be doubted whether five hundred an excellent cellar he has built, which pounds per annum, did not then go keeps his wine remarkably cool! To as far as one thousand can go now. suppose that he had sent for the wine on This, some people aff:ct to attribute to purpose, would not only be unjust, bethe progresive increase of taxes, but caufe untrue, but would be the greatest that, I am perfuaded, if well considered, affront you could offer him. Now, Sir, will by no means account, in any per- if we take the most superficial estimate ceptible degree, for the different value of the two dinners, we shall God, that

Between thirty and forty the one 'mult decaffarily be thrce times years ago, what are called genteel fa- more expensive than the other a difmilies, in the middle ranks of life, fub- ference by no means created by taxes, ftantial tradesmen, for example, thought but by the increased variety of expenthey entertained their friends in a very five articles, and the increased conhandsome manner, if they gave a plain fumption, or, I am afraid, the increa* These remarks chiefly apply to London. fed waste.

lt Vol. LVIII.

5 A

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