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mark of nobility, as having a feudal al- not yet rendered him morose; and füre lufion (the French term it, å nömme de ly victory cannot have bhunted his feels terre) it was, of course, omitted on the inys, and made him at once hauglity extinction of titles.

24it's and inferible! No no! there is not a Mad. Lafayette is an eminent instance prince of his house, from the obscare of the instability of greatness, the mu- Count de Hapfburg, of a former period, tability of fortune, and the inefficacy of to the late powerful tenant of the Impewealth. Descended from an ancient rial diadem, who has had more occalineage, united to an amiable and il- fion to find and to feel that he is a man. lustrious husband, who poffeffed eftates Weeping beauty did not fupplicate in in Europe, America, and the Weft In- vain; the German monarch raised her dies; the, neverthelefs, has not been from her lowly posture, and promifed exempted from the most bitter calami- better days. With his permission, the ties that can affli&t fuffering humanity. Aew on the wings of affection, and,

When Lafayette tefifted the com- strengthened by conjugal love, knocked mands of the sole remaining legitimate at the gate of the fortress that confined power in France, his " widowed wife" her dearly beloved husband, whose speewas arrested. Under the defpotifm of dy deliverance (vain idea!) the hoped Robespierre, fhe escaped death only by instantly to announce.!!! a miracle, (part of her family was ac The massive bolts of the dungeon give tually immolated to his vengeance) but way, the gratiog hinges of the iron doors what to fome will appear more terrible, pierced the ears"; she and her virgin the experienced an unremitting captivi- daughters are eyed, searched, tiled," by ty of fifteen months, during which, she an odious and horrible góáfer; and those luffered all the horrors of a close con- whó, but a moment before, deemed finement, being immured within four themselves deliverers, now find thema walls, subjected to a fcanty and preca- felves captives !! rious diet, fecluded from her children, Reclining in the bottom of thy duna and prohibited even from the light of geon, these teårs cannot be feen, these heaven.

fighs cannot be heard, nor can the quick On the death of the tyrant, the voice decay of youth and beauty, capkered in of humanity was once more heard, and the bloom, and diffolving "amidst the she was liberated, and reltored to the horrors of a German prison, be con: arms of her afflicted daughters. But templated. But the heart of fympathy She was a wife as well as a mother ! throbs for you, ye lovely mourners; the and her beloved hufband was still in indignation of mankind is aroused; the bondage; for he who had endeavoured present age shudders at your unremitted to avert the execution of Louis XVI. sufferings ; and "posterity will shed a

ge(such is the gratitude of courts) was nerous tear at their recital. Anguish languishing in an Austrian prison ! Y may not yet rend the bofoms of your

She accordingly repaired to Ham- persecutors, but a dreadful Fulurity 2burgh, accompanied by her children on- waits them, and, were it pollible to e ly, for she had not wealth sufficient to scape the scourge of offended Heaven, hire a single domestic, and the poffeffes they will yetexperience all the vengeance a lofty sense of independence, which of indignant history ! ***** taught her to reje&t pecuniary allistance,

Necker, even from her few remaining friends. A native of Geneva, a banker of Paris, As soon as her health was a little re- and for some time partner to an eminent ftored, fhe posted to Vienna, and prof- merchant of London (Louis Texier). trated herself at the feet of the emperor. This celebrated man was destined to

Francis Hl. is in the flower of his rise from the desk of a compting-house, youth. The chilling hand' of age has to one of the highest employments in


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Europe, that of minister of finance to jects with ease, and without premedithe French monarchy. Vanity, ego. tation ; but he was both indolent and tism, oftentation ; these are said to be negligent; he despised mankind, yet he his failings ; but, on the other hand, a loved liberty, and he died for it on a good husband, a good father, a good public scaffold, in 1793. citizen ;-he is in possession of all the

PASTORET public and private virtues. If he evin- Beth thought and wrote before the reces less ability than his rival Calonne, volution. In 1788, he published a be it remembered, that he can boast of work, entitled, “ Moise considéré coma spotless integrity. Sufpicion has never me Legislateur & comme Moraliste," blasted his fair fame, with the charge of by way of supplement to his cmparison unaccounted millions. A man of busin between Zoroaster, Confucius, and Maness in office, a philosopher in disgrace ; homet, which conferred fome celebrity he never allowed himself to be elevated on his talents, and breathed throughout or depressed, by either the smiles or a spirit of liberty and investigation. frowns of a king ; he still remembered Such works as thefe, taught the people that he was a citizen of Geneva ! to think also, and they began to be pu

He, however, experienced a variety blifhed in great plenty. Even in 1787, * of mortification, for which he indemni- M. Mathon de la Cour, a member of fied himself, perhaps, by the hope of the Academy of Lions and Villefranche, proving serviceable to mankind.-Old obtained the prize from the Academy Maurepas never allowed him to fit in of Chalons-sur-Marne, by his “ Dil

. his presence.

cours sur les meilleurs Moyens de faire To the preponderance of the Tiers naitre, et d'encourager le' Patriotisme Etat, produced entirely by his means, dans une Monarchie;" in which he France is indebted for her Revolution ; discriminates between patriotism and but for this, the nation would have re- the love of one's country. « Patrio. lapsed into servitude, and the crown be- tism, more rare," says he,“ becaufe ing hors de page, into despotism. He it is more disinterested than the love of was once banished, and once recalled our country, is an ardent desire of serve from the country of his adoption ; his ing our compatriots, and of contributing lalt, perhaps final retreat, was voluntary to their welfare, happiness, and security. on his part.

This desire, disinterested in itself, is He resides at present at Capelle, a such as is felt by the noble and virtuous lordship purchased by him, and situated mind; while the most despicably selfish within the territy of Berne. Geneva wretch loves his country only as it conwould scarcely be a secure asylum for cerns his own welfare, the true patriot is him ; at least, it would not have been always ready to sacrifice to it, not only io formerly:

his dearest interests, but even his life." VERGNIAUD,

This magical word patriotism, which A native of Limoges, and one of began to be known and proclaimed the deputies from Bourdeaux, was an throughout France, contained within it able orator in the convention ; in short, the embrio of liberty; and Pastoret, he was inferior, in point of eloquence, Condorcet, and Brisfot, but developed to no man who has appeared in France the germ, planted indeed by the hands 1ince Mirabeau. On the oth of Aug. of nature in the human heart, and only 1792, he occupied the president's chair, watered by Rousseau and Voitaire. and conducted himself with an uncom On the dissolution of the States Ge. mon dignity, on that very critical oc. neral, which had assumed the more mocasion. He was gifted with a happy dern name of the National Assembly, delivery, and an easy flow of words ; Pastoret was elected a deputy to the this enabled him to speak on all fub- convention, from which he afterwards

retired in disgust. He is a member of Pastoret was returned a deputy for Paris. the prefent legislature, and has lately He is confidered in general to be an proposed fome falutary regulations re- Aristocrat, and his reproaches against specting the trial by jury, fo far as the Condorcet for writing in a newspaper intention, or wbat we technically term dedicated to: liberty (Le Journal de the quo animo, is concerned.

Paris) will never be forgotten or forDuring the disputes with the sections, given by the patriots of 1789. about the re-election of the two-thirds,


THE DUTCH. I Have Nightly mentioned to you servants are to be seen paddling below, somewhere the love of ornament among ankle-deep, and spouting above at the the Dutch, as inconsistent with the windows as if they were playing off an weight, not to say heaviness, of their engine to extinguish confiagration; al. appearance. I think this over-finery is though the great end proposed, is only, to be discovered principally in their live. to wash away the dust that may have ries, which are often gaudy and rich, gothered on the falhes, in the course sometimes elegant. It is exhibited also of the week. An English traveller who in their furniture, barges, chimneys, comes from the comfort of a dry room, china, and mills. It even shews itseif or whose state of health would suffer in certain indescribable places, yet, ge from damps, must reconcile to this desa nerally speaking, all these things are so agrement as well as he can ; as he will; out of keeping with their own figures from an intention of civility, be Thewo and fashions—such, for instance, as into an apartment just washed, he had their deep brown or blue suits of Dutch better double his defence, by an adhomespun or Pruffian, their unyielding ditional pair of socks, or stockings; for features, immence breeches, preposterous the Dutch landlord would deem it rude petticoats, stupendous hip-pads, and mea- to take his guest into a room that has sured pace-that they seem as little of a not been laid under water since the last piece as if the said homespun jerkins, company went out of it, and were you &c. were to be trimmed with gold to argue against the thing, he would and filver foils and fringes.

set you down as a dirty traveller, who As to the waterfaring men (fresh or did not know how to behave yourself in falt) they are be-buttoned from top to

a clean country. toe, each button, not excepting those Through every part of Holland, the of the waist band, a third part larger natives are great observers of symmetry, than an English crown piece, and al- ls a brush, for example, part of the ways of solid Giver.

furniture of a room, it will be found I have praised the Dutch Deatness ; it hanging up, equi-distant with another of is worthy of praise ; but occasionally the same fize, shape, and fashion, to carried to excess. It now and then


answer it. into caricature. You have always the Cup faces cup, each faucer hasits brother, fear of the pail and scrubing brushes be- And half the cupboard just reflects the fore your eyes. On the grand cleaning

other. day, which here is Friday, the maid

From Pratt's Gleanings. ON THE FLEXIBILITY OF THE BRASILIAN STONE*. : OF this very curious and rare fosfil, at Paris, in January 1984. Toe spethe Baron Dietrich read a description cimeo which Dr Hutton examined was before the Royal Academy of Sciences in the poffeffion of the late Lord Gar* Being the fubitance of Dr Hotton's dc


It was

12 inches long 5 count, published in the Edin. Phil. Tranf. vol. 3. broad, and half an inch thick. When


fupported at both ends in a horizontal that curvature mult, in the present case, position, its midle funk more than a be greatly increafed, in order to produce quarter of an inch. The stone had a the measure of distension among the porous or fpungy texture, and much particles which necessarily precedes a resembled a compreffed ftratum of snow. general rupture. Jis transverse fection shewed no traces Dr Hutton conjectues that the Bra of a fibrous or laminated structure, and zilian stone had originally been attend nothing heterogeneous in its compofi- dant on Alpine limestones, and contion : it seemed to consist entirely of solidated by calcareous spar; and that pure transparent quartz. On spliting it the conglutinating substance was, in the longitudinally, however, it shewed de- Japfe of ages, diffolved by the penecidely a foliated stratification ; and close trating influence of a humid atmosphere. inspection, affifted by experiment, de- This fuppofition is countenanced by the tected specular transparent plates of mi- report, that the folitary mineral was acca, nicely bedded in quartzose matter. tually found lying exposed on the soil. Hence Dr H. derives an explication It probably requires a rare concurrence of the fingular property of the Brazilian of circumstances to riproduce the Brastone. He considers “ the particles of zilian stone : but other stones may

exist quartz, which have little cohesion, as that possess the same property, though being bound together by these thin in a lower degree. Of this kind is the plates of mica ; and these connecting fellsten or gestellfein of the Swedes and plates being flexible, this allows a certain Germans, employed by them for buildmotion of the rigid particles among ing furnaces, and composed, according to themselves, without a fracture or gene- Cronstedt, of quartze and mica ; fince ral separation of the stone.” In fact, to sustain the alternations of heat and the principle is the same with that on cold, and the sudden and partial exwhich depends the flexibility of timber, pansions and contractions thereby proand different fossils of the amianthus duced, it must admit of moderate flexkind. Those bodies consist of parallel ure. The marble tables preserved in fibrcs, feebly cohering together, but of the Borghese Palace at Rome, under great tenacity in the direction of their the name of Pietra Elastica, belong allength. The most brittle substances fo to the same species. They contain bend freely when divided into filaments particles of talc intermingled with the or chin plates ; and this facility of flex. loose consistence of the marble. ure we may concisely explain: for the Our readers in the vicinity of this protraction of the convex fide beyond metropolis may gratify their curiosity, the concave is manifestly proportional to by viewing this specimen of flexible the curvature and to the interval between ftone in Weir's Museum, to which it was these concentric arcs, and consequently presented by the late Lord Gardenston.


Edinburgh, July 1796.
If the inclosed Observations on the Importance of Cleanlinefs in our streets and

dwellings, and on the Prejudices to lonoculation, are consistent with the plan

of your miscellany, I hope you will favour me by giving them a piace.obot ON ATTENTION TO CLEANLINES, AND THE PROPRIETY OF INNOCULATION.

« What I believe, I'll wail;
What know, believe, and what I can redress,
As I shall find the time to friend, I will.”

SHAKESPEAR, THE general inattention to ciell obvious.“ The necessity of sentulatliness, in the towns of Scotland, is veral in human habitations, (lays an elegant.


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many deaths.

tournalisti) has not yet been found by forell, and that there are infances of
our northern neighbours : and even in malignant fevers,, occasioned by the
houses well built and elegantly furnished, cuvia of putrid cabbages. He also
a stranger may be sometimes forgiven, if relaces, that at Cork, where a great
he allows himself to wish for a fresher number of cattle are slaughtered for the
air ;” and in respect to our villages, al- navy, the offals being, at one time,
though formed but by one street, each left to corrupt in the street, an epide-
house has a dunghill in front. Such mic fever was produced, which raged
accumulations of filth, as every town from August 10 January.
and village in Scotland presents, cor Profpor Alpinus relates, that the pri-
rupts the atmosphere of every dwelling, trid esalations from Itaguant canals, at
with the volatile particles of putrid Grand Cairo, is the annual return of a
animal and vegetable matter, which be- maligoant kind of small-pox, and allo
ing at all times inhaled into the human of the putrid and pestilential fevers that
system, not only pre disposes it to pu- prevail in March, April, and May,
trid diseases, but in small-

l-pox will in- which are the summer months of that
variably produce that degree of malig- country.
nancy, which is the fatal cause of to

Clouds of locusts often lay waste the

mild fields of the Tartars; their apTo confirm the truth of this obser- proach darkens the horizon; and so vation, the testimony of many celebra- enormous is their multitude, it hindes ted men may be adduced.

the light of the fun ; this plague would Galen relates, that putrid effluvia of spread over countries better cultivated, of lakes and marshes, produces malig- and Greece and Alia Minor would be nant fevers ; and in this opinion Hip- more frequently exposed, did not the pocrates agrees, but imputes it to the Black Sea swallow up most of those humid and close state of the atmosphere, swarms which attempt to pass this bar, local to such places.

rier." I have often seen" says De Faustus relates something of a plague Totsmemours, 66 the shores of the Pon: (now understood putrid fever,) which tus_Euxinus, towards the Bosphorus raged at Venice, caused by the putre- of Thrace, covered with their dried refaction of a small kind of fih, caught mains': this produced an infection fo great, in that part of the Adriatic Sea ; and that it was several days before they records very particularly, that, from the could be approached.” Baltiness of the streets, the plague was Dr Rush imputes the origin of the very frequent at Cologne and Paris. awful yellow fever, wbich desolated

In the year 1448, Famagustia, in Cy- many towns in America, two years prus, was visited by a malignant fever, fire, to the fermentation and putrefa&tion produced by exhalations from a putrid of a great quantity of damaged coffee, lake. It is asserted by Professor Silvius in the fore-houses of Philadelphia. de la Boe, who practised at that time, · A few years ago an epidemic fever that two-thirds of the inhabitants died. arose at Kelso, fron inattention to clean

- Before drains were constructed a- ing the streets, the history of which is round Rome, the people were frequenc- recorded in the Statistical account of ly attacked by fatal fevers; and when Scotland, by Dr Douglas of that place. that city, was subdued by the Goths, The testimony of the preceding auwho destroyed all the drains, the whole thors may be summed up in the words Roman territory became one continued of an elegant poet, (Darwin's Botanic marsh, which, for many years produced Garden, “ All contagious matter pris extreme desolation.

ginates either from animal bodies, or Dr Roger in his effay on epidemic from putrid moraffes ; these latter prodiseases, observes, that vegetables rot- dece agues in the colder climates, and ling in a close place, yield a cadaverous malignant fevers in the warmer ones.


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