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It may now, however, seemi neces- which, although not so quick in their sary to be demonstrated, that the noxious operation, are not much more salubrious vapours of lakes and marshes, are of a than the Grotto del Cano. similar nature, or equally mephitic with The particles of exhalations, poffefthe effluvia of dung-hills, and the nalti- fing an insular situation in the atmofness of streets ; although this is indeed phere into which they ascend, like the fufficiently obvious, I will observe, in particles of course flour dispersed thro' the words of the ever to be celebra. water, are inhaled into the human fysted Pringle, “ That exhalations from tem, at every inspiration, in a proportion marshes do not consist of watery va- consonant to the acting cause; and pours alone, but also of putrid efluvia, where any tendency to putridity exists, arising from innumerable animals and will act like a ferment, and accelerate vegetables that rot and die therein :" and accumulate disease, or both. This Sir John adds, " that the relaxation is precisely the theory of fermenting of the fibres, and greater tendency in bread: The prepared dough has little the humours to putrify, consequent on tendency to ferment; this would go on this state of the atmosphere, may be lowly but for the addition of a fer. considered as the internal and predif- ment; let it, however, be observed, posing cause of malignant fevers." The that when the fermentation has comfame author, speaking of the yellow menced, fo rapidly would it go en to fever, says, “ it may be proper to take putrify, that nothing would itop it; notice, that we have also fevers of this the fourness of fome bread arises from kind in Britain, but I must add, that the fermentation not being soon enough unless in marshy places, the distemper checked by the operation of the oven's is mild, and scarce ever epidemic, that heat; the accetous fermentation has breathing a foul air will exert the vi- then begun in the dough, and can by rulence of any eruptic disease.” no means be overcome.

It will thus appear, that innoculatioo, It is remarked by a French chymist, without attention to cleanliness, in every that such smells a3 putrifying matter respect, may fail to produce its happy exhale,“ penetrates every where, and influence ; and the disease introduced, seems to affect the bodies of animals, when the patient breathes a poisoned like a fermenting substance, capable of air, may assume a degree of malignancy altering their fluids." more fatal, than the ordinary cases of The metropolis of Scotland is not nataral small pox.

free from the dangers incident to such It cannot be denied,' that the efflu. causes as have been mentioned ; the via of marshes is highly deliterious, nor, obscure lanes, by much the most poputhat the vapours arising from the filthe of lous parts of the city, are nafty in the streets, are equally noxious, as being of a extreme, and the inhabitants of Prince's similar nature. Respecting effluvia in the street, have ar stagnant marsh in front abstract, whether aromatic or mephitic, of their dwellings. our notions may not be very correct; but Some time ago, through the medium we know that it is something materical *; of a news paper, the propriety of checknow, as all matter must occupy space, ing the eruption of putrid effluvia, from it would be easy to prove, that noxious the grounds alluded to, was suggested effluvia will become local to our bodies, to the gentlemen of this place, by such our dwellings, and our food, by ad- means as would beautify their prospect, hering to our raiment, furniture, &c. and insure an excessive interest for the besides being in a diffused state in the money that might be expended, which, atmosphere, which we breathe. This to a collective body, would be a very is clearly evinced by the fashionable trifle, even should the plan fail in renopractice of using perfumes, fome of vating the atmosphere, the great object This word is not to be found in John. in view.

(To be continued.).

fon's Di&ionary.


joint of meat and a pudding, with a moTHE late complaints of scarcity derate share of wine.

The latter was of provisions, which were allowed to be generally purchased for the occasion well founded, have excited the merito- from a neighbouring tavern, but no one rious labours of many persons of hu- thought of having a large stock. on manity and opulence, and various steps hand, partly because it was a temptahave been judiciously taken to alleviate tion to consume it thoughtlessly, and an extent of distress, which it was found partly because a great deal of money impossible immediately to remove al- was thereby funk. A very eminent together. Ruminating on these dircum- tavern-keeper, who, fome years before stances, the other night, I was led to his death, rose to the highest municipal consider the lubject in various lights ; offices in the city of London, has often and by digresang into the manners of related to his friends, that when he common life, I had almost determined lived as porter in the house of which that the great causes of such evils in a he afterwards became master, his emnation are pl 'cisely the same, or nearly ployment, all the morning, was to colthe sanie, wa 'h produce similar effects lec in balkets the empty wine-bottles in the case of ndividuals, I mean the from reputable tradesmeo's houses in folly of living p to our income, and the neighbourhood, who having a friend neither foreseein nor providing for the to entertain, went as far as the luxury evil day. Bleft we are, in this coun- of one or two bottles of wine, upon

such try, with a fruitfil soil, and a tempe- great occasions. 'rate and regular climate, we never sup Now let us consider the difference pofe it posible that a time may come of the present mode of living. When when our foil shall thereby be less pro- a tradesman, of the same rank, enter, ductive, and our climate less falubrious, tains company, the table is covered We enjoy the present hour, and are with a great variety of dishes, many of satisfied ; and, with more humanity than them expensive, and scarce vegetables prudence, we affist others with what and rare fruits are procured at any price we consider as fuperfluous to purselves. to grace the board. Instead of fending It is not uncommon to be pampered to the lavero for a few bottles of wine, with wealth, but ic is a misfortune to for the occasion, he presents you with have never experienced want.

wines of three or four different kinds, The modes of living in private fac and informs you, that he has a pipe of milies have undergone so coinplete a one, half a pipe of another, and, perchange, within the last thirty years, that haps, two pipes of a third, and what it

may be doubted whether five hundred an excellent cellar he has built, which pounds per annum, did not then go keeps his wine remarkably cool! To as far as one thousand can go now, suppose that he had sent for the wine on This, some people aff:ct to attribute to purpose, would not only be unjust, bethe progressive increase of taxes, but cause untrue, but would be the greatest that, I am perfuaded, if well considered, affront you could offer him. Now, Sir, will by no means account, in any per- if we take the most superficial estimate ccprible degree, for the different value of the two dinners, we shall find, that

Between thirty and forty the one 'mult necaffarily be three times years ago, what are called genteel fa- more expensive than the other--a difmilies, in the middle ranks of life, sub- ference by no means created by taxes, ftantial tradesmen, for example, thought but by the increased variety of expenthey entertained their friends in a very five articles, and the increased conhandsome manner, if they gave a plain fumption, or, I am afraid, the increa* These remarks chiefly apply to London. fed waste.


5 A

of money.

does nor obliged



to pay the tax, who dreamt of. Now, you have no: but gentlemen of birth, of landed and

in the fa- the happiness of his dépendants and

It would be well if the evil (for an live, and its closeness unwholesome. eyil I cannot help thinking it is,) were There is, first, a temporary residence at to hop bere ; but it descends into all fome genteel, that is, extensive waterthe inferior ranks of life. The servants, ing-place; and theo'a 'pernianent villa plied, by, always fitting down to plen- hot-houfe, coach house, ftabling for tiful tables, acquire the same contempt eight or ten horses, and all the et cetefor economy, and the same luxurious ras belonging to such' an establishment. appetites as their masters, and equally A coach house must have a coach, and learn to despise homely food and plain horses must be provided for the ftabrourishment. Hence, when they come ling, and a groom for the horses. The to distress, or when they come to live young gentlemen of the family are proupon their own earnings, they carry in. vided with smart horses as soon as, or a to the cottage the same appetites which fittle before, they are able to ride ; a can be indulged only in the mansion, fine dreffed fervant toʻride behind, and and have few ideas of the art of making a fine sum of money, that they may not a little go a great way. Every person, appear shabbt": All these are natural therefore, who is conversant in the care consequences. It is true, that these , of the poor, knows how difficult it is things are taxed, and perhaps heavily to reconcile them to a homely diet, taxed, but it is equally true, that no Gituation.

the article ; and the he. But to return to the manners of the ceffity of fuch "articles is at

matter, middle ranks. Having established this least in my mind, not decisively afcer. ; mode of living, two consequences na- tained. turally follow the one is, that they These things were not known forty cannot leave it off; and the second, that years ago. There was then a line of it extends to every other department of distinction drawn between the tradefgentility. In a tradesman's roonis, you man and the gentleman, which the forformerly saw no other ornaments of the mer rarely, if ever, thought of jumping kind, than a print of the King and over. By gentlemen, it is obvious that Queen, or perhaps some family pic here are not meant thofe abfurd things tures, stiff and starched, (but not un who call themselves gentlemen, merely like the originals) in flowing petiwigs; from wearing fine clothes, speaking big à fideboard of plate was never heard words, and infulting public decency, only an expensive fideboard of plate, opulent estares, and whose style of life feldom used but by housebreakers, and was naturally more expensive and grand; you

behold the most elegant prints, and necessarily so," becaufe an expensive and sometimes piểures, in rich and establishment in the hands of a man of gaudy frames. It is nothing now to real wealth, is the only means by wtich give eight or ten guineas for a pair of he can encourage industry, and promote prints, which are new, and fhion. And so much does this fashion ' neighbours, and he could afford it betChange, that it is rare to see the famé "ter than thofe who live by the precafurniture of this kind for many years rious advantages of trade. In probity, together Wolfe must give way to honour, and fometimes, perhaps, even Chatham, Chatham to Valenciennes, and in actual wealth, the tradesman was his Valenciennet to the Firh of June. equal; but in manners and mode of liv.

Proceeding farther, we find the fame ing he thought it abfürd to em ułaté him, system expanding in every direction and he thoughtfuftfy. The smoke of the city becomes offen--- In those days, it must be allowed,



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that when a tradesinan had, by the af- tends to his family, who, according :o siduities of a long series of years, amaf. the same pernicious fystem, have been sed a real and independent fortune, he indulged in hopes which can never be extended his mode of living very con- gratified, and have received an educa siderably. He had his villa for the re- tion which unfits them from gaining a ception of his friends, for the elegant livelihood in ways that are hunible and indulgences of retirement, and some reputable. And lastly, its effects upon times, it might happen, for the recep- fociety in general are abundantly detion of illustrious visitors ; but the fame structive : It destroys confidence beprudence and good sense accompanied tween man and man, makes the whole him in his elevation, that had enabled system of life a deception, and encouhim to attain it. His expences were rages false manners, false civilıty, and such as could be spared, such as injured pretended friendship. It then becomes no man, and such as he was well en. every man's interest to deceive his titled to contract, as some gratifying re. neighbour, to take unfair advantages, ward for a life spent in honourable in- and to leave the plain and equal path dustry. The elegant expences of a ju- of moderate profits, for the wild ridicious man are always useful. sionary prospects of speculation. The

Besides, all this was performed in true spirit of trade is lost, and that of . the decline of life. Just the reverse is adventure is substituted. The peace of the cafe now. Tradesmen, who wish a nation becomes thereby disturbed by to be thought genteel, begio precisely the clamours of men, who, if they comwhere they should leave off; and the plained justly, would complain only of consequence very frequently is, that their own folly and madness. they are compelled to leave off ere they Such is the unhappy infatuation which have well begun; and pride does not too much prevails among a very mueasily conform itself to a change which merous class of men, and such are the mult soon be proclaimed in public. consequences which must ever follow, They struggle, by various improper when men are regardless of the past and means, to support the grandeur they the future, and think only of present commenced with, and when support is enjoyments. Those who may be feduno longer posible, they “ dissolve," and ced by the same infatuation, and have literally " leave not a wreck behind.” not yet suffered its punishment, woủld It would be unnecessary to comment on do well to remember in time, that there a practice fo absurd and destructive, yet is no absolute necessity imposed upon there are reasons why in ought to be any man to ruin himself for the gratificondemned in the most severe manner. cation of his neighbours; and that the

First; because of its consequences reign of fashion in trade, is a mere uupon the party himself. He is thus furpation, a llavery from which they fent back into the world, without friends, would do well to emancipate themselves, without credit, and without reputation, by establishing that solid credit with the and he is driven to commit frauds and wife and the undustrious, which cannot crimnes at which he would have once, be shaken by the hiss of ignorancı, or startled with all the indignation of the the clamour of dili nation. I am, fir, molt virtuous mind. Secondly, it ex. yours, &c.


have given house-room., An old ChiATTENDING an auction of pic. nese cabinet fold at 15 guineas, not half tures, old furniture, &e. not long ago, so pretty, nor so commodious, as a' moI saw what I thought, very large sums dern mahogany one, w


may be

goc paid for articles to which I would not for eight; and some other things more

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out of the way.

What struck me most tobacco stoppers. Of the first he has was an old head, all tattered and dirty, all preached by Sacheverel, and the said to be John Knox's the Reformer, rest of the loyal supporters of church which was likely to bring any price, had and state ; and of the last, above thirty not a gentleman, more knowing than cut out of the royal oak. One of the some of the connoiseurs and collectors, collectors of black letter books, a few whispered that it was a mistake, for the months ago, purchased a Hebrew manuhead was not done for Knox, nor was fcript for a Caxton, and as he never the painting an original antique. On reads, it answered his purpose quite as my return, my thoughts naturally turn. well. The fame gentleman had a great ed upon what I had seen, and I dhall collection of Narikin, and other old trouble


with a few observations that china, much of which was imported inoccurred to me, on the folly of those to this country before we had any comwho call themselves

merce with the East Indies.

We have collectors of perriwigs and The first of these is the Antiquary, tobacco-pipes : one of these gentlemen who is ignorant of every thing that paf- lately gave a considerable fum for the fes under his own eye, pays no atten- black wig which was worn by Charles tion to any improvement made in his ll. ; and the other paid a high price for own time, and looks with cold disre- the tube out of which the auctioneer pogard upon all objects, let their local and stively asserted Sir Walter Raleigh temporary importance be ever so great, smoked his first pipe of best Virginia. if they have not passed through the fun. We have also collectors of tobacco panel of antiquity,

pers and message cards ; and at an aucA rusty coin, an old worm-eaten post, tion, not long ago, upward of two and A mouldy fragment of an author lost, twenty thousand, which, at great cost, is, with these gentlemen, of more value a collector had got together, and with than the most elegant piece of modern great pains had palted in a port-folio, art, or the most sublime effort of mo- were, upoo his demise, brought under dern genius. One of them, at a most the hammer, and, strange to tell, sold enormous expence, collects all the an.

for seven shillings and sixpence !--not cient maps of all parts

of the world, one third of the expence of pasting them and makes it his boat, that among fe into the book. The message cards and veral thousands which are in his study, shop bills are got together merely to there is not one in which any one place thew where the traders and men of rank is put near, either the proper latitude

lived, from the earliest appearance of ci. longitude. Similar to this are your col- vilization in this country. lectors of fiarce prints, who will give

There is another set of learned cri. forty or fifty guideas for an unfinished tics, who collect all the cancelled leaves; imprislior, upon no other grounds than these will shew the first thoughts of our the engraving being taken off for an ex. first writers, and prove by their alteraperiment before the principal figure was tions that second thoughts are beít. As introduced, or pay thirty pounds for a to collectors of pictures, Bramston has print not worth thirty farthings, because described those who lived in his time, i he artist engraved it while he was an

and it exactly agrees with thofe who apprentice. This has properly enough live in this : been said to be burying a man of talents In curious paintings I'm exceeding nice, in the ruits of his baby-house ; for sure. And know their several beauties by their ly such things are little deserving to be Auctions and sales I constantly attend, consigned to the port-folio. There is But chuse my pictures by a skilful friend. another collector of a very singular talte. Originals and copies much the fame, He confines his collections to two ob- The picture's value is the painter's name. je&ts, thirtieth of January sermons, and.



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