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they may be, they are highly valuable, to him-merely objects of speculation; if it were only for the purpose wich their serious consequences he leaves to forms the subject of this letter, namely, the mariner, but the “ pitiless pelting to avert the horrors of a rainy day. of the storm,” has no effect upon his The want of temper, peevishnefs, litt- temper, and he

can meet his friends lessness, and other uncomfortable fymp- with cheerfulness, though even in the toms, are in themselves very serious circumstances 'which Shakespeare attrimisfortunes, and require a remedy. butes to the meetings of witches. Whether the one I have proposed will In thunder, lightning, or in rain. be acceptable, I know not, but I am,

I am, Sir, &c. from long experience, fo well convinced

Old Lilly, of its utility, that I do not hesitate, as P. S. Does not Solomon allude some far as my opinion may have weight, to how to my subject, when he says, “A add probatim eft. . A man who has re- continual dropping in a very rainy day sources within himself has little to fear and a contentious womar, are alike?”. from externals. Wind and weather are

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HISTORY OF THE PARISHES OF WHITEFORD AND HOLYWELL. Remarkable Instances of the Affedion of Origin of Brandy. --BRANDY, it is

Fofler Fathers, &c. in former Times, probable, was not, at that time (1642)

OF the affection between the fofter in fashion in Wales : yet nurse, in Rófather, foster mother, and foster-brother, meo and Juliet, calls for it amain, unthe following instances in Wales were der the name of aqua frequent. The fidelity of Robin ap In- Some aqua vita, ho! my lord, my lady! ko, foster-brother to Jevan ap Vychan, It appears to have been chiefly used in of the Gwedir, in the reign of Edward thole days for medical purposes. IV, was a molt noted one. * In a fatal

Io Captain Wyndham's voyage to feud between Jevan and his brother-in- Guinea, there was brandy on board for law Rys ap Howel, the latter, expec. the use of the lick cilors. It was faid to ting a fray, provided a butcher to mur- bave been invented by Raymundus Lulder Jevan in the confufion of the battle, lius who died in the year 1315. Charles and to him he gave orders in these the Bad, King of Navarre, came to a terms. The butcher not being acquaint- moft horrible end, says Mezerey, who, ed with Jevan, Ap Rys faid, " Thou to restore his strength, weakened by fhalt foone discerne him from the rest debauchery, was wrapped in theets steepby his stature, and he will make way ed in eau de vie. His yalet by accident before him. There is a foster-brother set fire to them : after the third day he of his, one Robin ap Inko, a little fel. died in the molt dreadful tortures, and low, that useth to match him behind : it is to be hoped thus expiated the crimes take heed of him, for be the encountre of his most execrable life. I am inneper fo hot, his eye is ever on his fof. debted for the origin of brandy to a ter brother:"_and so it happened. Ro- most elaborate ellay on it, which I rebin fufpected the treachery, and watch- ceived from Mr William. Taylor, of ing his opportunity, cane behind him, Norwich, by favour of my friend Dr and knocking him on the head in the Aikin. moment in which he had come behind

Singular Event. At one end of the Jeran, and had aimed one at his belov- gallery, at Moltyn Hall, in Flintshire, ed brother. The patrimony of his is a great room, remarkable for a

fo. faithful follower was in the parish of gular event. During the time that Llanderfel; and to thỉs day retains the Henry Earl of Richmond was secreily name of Tyddin Inko.

laying the foundation of the overthrors

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of the house of York, he passed con

“ P. S.-How does your head do cealed from place to place, in order to this morning ?--mine aches confoundform an interest among the Welsh, who edly." favoured his cause on account of their At this time money was so scarce, respect to his grandfather Owen Tudor, that 41. was a price for a pair of oxen; their countryman.

While he was at and the baronet of Mostyn was thought Moityn, a party attached to Richard Ill. very liberal in sending his heir apparent arrived there to apprehend him. He to the university with 2ol. in his pocket. was then about to dine, but had just Typographical Anecdote.-Mr Pen. time to leap out of a back-window, nant, after having given an account of and make his escape through a hole, the curious manuscripts and ancient wbich, to this day, is called the King's. books in the Mostyn Library, adds : Richard ap Howel, then lord of Mo. “ to this classical list let ne add a mostyn, joined Henry at the battle of Bof- dern edition of the Bible, remarkable worth; and after the victory, received for its magnificence, but more so for a from the King, in token of gratitude for fingular erratum. It was printed by his preservation, the belt and sword 'he Basket, at the Clarendon press, in 1717, wore on that day; he also pressed Rich, in two vaft volumes. It is adorned ard greatly to follow him to court: but with a frontispiece, and various headbe nobly answered, like the Shunamitish pieces, from paintings by Sir J. Thornwoman: “I dwell among mine own hill, aod others, engraven by Vander people.” The sword and belt were Gutch, de Bosche, &c. The ridicupreserved in the house till within tbese lous mistake is in the running-title to few

years. It is observable, that none the twentieth chapter of St Luke ; in of our hiflorians account for a certain which “ Parable of the vineyard, ," is period of Henry's life, previous to his printed “ Parable of the vinegar ;” and acceshon. It is very evident that he on that account the edition is better passed the time, when he disappeared known by the name of the Vinegar Bifrom Bretagne, in Wales. Many co- ble, than any other. temporary bards, by feigned names, The Utility of Great Farms.-Suprecord this part of his life, under those posing all farms are reduced to an e. of the Lion, the Eagle, and the like, quality, and all made small ones, the which were to restore the empire to the ground must be divided into little porBritons : for the inspired favourers of tions for the support of a miserable team, the house of Lancaster did not dare to or of a few cows, or for raising small deliver their verses in other than terns quantities of corn. No magazines could allegorical, for fear of the reigning be formed against evil days; the proPrince.

duce of the dairy would be small, and Value of Money in last Century.—Sir the provision for fodder ferve for little Roger Mcftyn had a great intimacy more than to support the live stock. A with Pyers Pennant, his cotemporary few hobbets * of corn would be sent to neighbour at Bychton. Both seem to market to pay the rent; the rest might have been boon companions, as is evi- ferve to maintain the family till the redent from the P. S. to the following turn of harvest: and if the stock should curious epiftle:

be consumed before that season, how Mostyn,

. 1674 would they wish for the restoring of the 6 Dear Pyers,

great farms ! Many of the little farmers “ I hope you will excuse me for

* A hobbet consists of eighty-four quarts asking for the 41. you owe me for the

A measure is half a hobbet. A peck is half pair of oxen; for I want the money to a measure. These measures are used in all make

up 2012 to send my son 10 Ox- the Flintshire markets; they extend also to ford next week. I ani, dear Pyers, other Welih counties, and even HerefordYour's, &c. &c. Roger MOSTYN. fbire.


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are also day-labourers': to whom could of the opulent farmer, for the sake of . they apply for work, the very support increased rent. He will (as fad exam of them and their families ? Never has ples prove) depopulate his country by there been a famine in England since the removing the Iturdy labourers to the introduction of great farms. Únavoid ground of wiser landlords, and leave able scarcities will happen, from causes his own weakened by their defertion ; inevitable : But there has not been an while the fields of the former laugh and instance, for numbers of centuries, of fing, but round his own, ingens erit folithe poor running into corners to die for tudo.

want of food ; of their seeing infants I could wish (was it in my power) - perish before their eyes; and perhaps a to add even to the cottages of my la

plague night ensue, the consequence of bourers two or three fields, that they famine, to thin the land of multitudes might have the comfort of a cow, to of the miserable survivors.

supply their families with milk. They I speak disinterestedly; for I have are too useful a class of men to be nenot on my estate a single great farmer. glected: to be left to the precarious I find no merit in this affertion; had it posibility of getting any of that invigobeen otherwise, I should have supported rating fluid, fo necessary for their inhim in all that was right, in common fapts, and even for the support of their with my poorest tenant, and my poorest own strength, to sustain them through tenant perhaps in preference to him. their labour. Give them a dry Nated

I would never grant a lease to a great cottage, with an upper floor, and a kind
corn-tenant. I would preserve a power landlord, and a British labourer need
over his granary, which legislature will not envy Cæsar.
Dot or cannot assume. Should he at- Before I take leave' of the subject,
tempt by exportation to exhaust it, in let me define the size of a great and a
years of scarcity, and not leave a fuffi- small farm in this parish. Our greateft
cient supply for the country which pro- farm is rented at 11ol. per annum, at
duced the grain ; should he attempt. a the rate of about 14s. per acre. Our
monopoly; should he refuse to carry a small farms have from twenty to ten a-
proper quantity to the next market; or cres; and the rent per acre from 125.
Thould he refuse

fell to the

who to 75.


may be in every parish cannot attend the market, coro in small instances of the exorbitant rise of rent: quantities, I would inftantly assume the an evil most frequently originating in power of the landlord, and expel him the luxury of the landlord. Our rents. from


estate : : a just punishment for are moderate, because our gentry would the tenant, who, through rapacity, de blash to add one dish to their table at clines to comply with my desires, ex- the expence of the tenant. Mr Wedge, cited with no other view than 10 pro- in his survey of Cheshire, speaks humote the good of the public.

manely and sensibly on the affected The necessity of great farms is ad- niaxim of " high rents being a spur to mitted : but let it be remembered, that industry." This (for I must help Mr their support rests upon the labourers, Wedge with a fimile) refembles the who are equally requisite to the great practice of the prudent planter, who farmer as beams are to a building. Let wishes to quicken the industry of the not the rapacity of the miscalied great negroes by the invigorating application man direct all his force to the fupport of the cart whip to their velvet skins.


IT is not my intention to dispute, appearance of the garb worn by that
either the genuineness, or the warlike gallant corps, the 42d regiment, ard

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which by many is supposed to be the Dr Henry, who has delineated the only tru: Highland dress. Every fol- ancient history of this country with so cier, most naturally entertain a predi- much diligence and discernment, is delection for the dreis of a body of med cidedly of opinion, that trowsers were fo distinguished for military prowess. a part of the ancient dress, not only of At the same time, there is every reason the Celtic nations in general, but of to believe that the treaus, as worn by the Scottish Highlanders in particular. the Rothsay and Caithness Fencibles, “ For a conliderable time,” says this is not only an ancient, part of the dress respectable historian t, “ the ancient of the Scottish Higblanders, but rivals Britons, and other Celtic nations, had the belted plaid in antiquity, as well as no other garments but their plaids, or in utility and elegance.

mantles, which, being neither very long In tracing the antiquity of this dress, nor very broad, left their legs, arms, it is necessary in the first place to ascer-, and some other parts of their bodies tain, whether it was worn by the ancient naked. As this defect in their dress Celtic nations, from whom the Scottish could not but be fenfibly felt, it was by Highlanders are acknowledged to be degrees fupplied. It is indeed uncer. descended. As my leilare, at present, tain, whether the tunick or doublet, for does not admit of engaging in such re- covering more closely the trunk of the searches, I Thall take the liberty of body, or breeches and hose for coverquoting "modern, rather than ancient ing the thighs and legs, were first inauthors, but at the same time such as vented and used by these nations ; tho' have investigated that subject. The on the limbs being quite naked, while the pinion of the celebrated Gibbon *, and trunk was tolerably covered by the the authorities he quotes, are, on this plaid, it is probable, that these last were head, extremely important. He states, most ancient, as they were most necefthat Tetricus, who had been declared sary. Bu:, however this may be, it is Emperor in Gaul, when led in triumph abundantly evident, from the testimoby Aurelian, was clothed in Gallic nies of many ancient hors, (which trowsers ; and he remarks in a note, have been carefully collected by the that the use of braccha, breeches or two modern writers quoted below 5,} trowsers, was still conlidered in Italy that the ancient Gaulā, Britons, and as a Gallic and barbarian fashion. The other Celtic nations, wore a garmect Romans, however, had made great ad. which covered both their thighs and vances towards it, To tacircle the legs, and very much resembled our legs and thighs with fascia, or bands, breeches and stockings united. This was understood, in the time of Pompey garment was called, in the Celtic tongue, and Horace, to be a proof of ill health the common language of all these naand effeminacy. In the age of Trajan tions, braxe, or bracce, probably bethe custom was confined to t

the rich and cause it was made of the same party, luxurious. It gradually was adopted coloured cloth with their plaids, as by the meapest of the people, in proof breac. in that language signifies apy thing of which he refers to a curious note that is party-coloured. These braxe or in Casaubon ad Suetona in August. c. clofs trowlers, which were both grace82.

agunt : ful and convenient, and discovered the In fact the trees or trowsers seem to fine Mape and turn of their limbs to Hare been a characteriltical part of the great advantage, were used by the ge. apcient dress of the Gauls or.Celts, and nuine posterity of the Caledonian Brithe bare knees to have been a Roman, rather than a Celtic fashion.

4 History of Great Britain, vol. 2. p. 341.

Belloutier Hist. Celt. 1. 2. c. 6. b. Gibbon's History, vak 2. p. 47. octavo P. 397. &c. Clav. Germ. Antiq. 1. 1. c. 16. edition 1792.

p. 115, &c.


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tons, in the Highlands of Scotland till In a work, though written inany very lately, and are 'hardly yet laid a. years ago, yet only lately printed, ecfide in some remote corners of that titled, “ The Hiltory of the Troubles country.”

and Memorable Transactions in Scota The evidence of ancient songs may land from the year 1624 to 1645, from also be adduced in support of the trews, the original MŚ. of John Spalding, then more especially the well known verses Commissary Clerk of Aberdeen *, it in “ Ták’ your auld Cloak about ye ;'* would appear

that the trees were o very from which it would appear, that in the commonly worn at that period: reign of one of the Roberts, probably In the first volume of that work, (p. Robert Bruce, it was an usual part of 39,) we are told, that the Laird Bal' the dress of the Scots a

nadalloch, escaping from a twenty days In days when our King Robert

with his coat and imprisonment, goes,

rang, His trews they coit but ha'f a crown,

trews all rent and worn, to the place of He said they were a groat our dear, ""? Innes; and it would appear; (from pa And ca'd the Taylor thief and loun.” 37,) that it was the usual garb he wore,

There is a book printed at Paris, for he had been fitting at lupper in it in anno 1613, intitaled, “ Les Estats, his own houfe. Empires, et Principautez du Monde," In the second volume

196.) the which thus describes the dress of the Marquis of Huntly, the most powerful ancient Scots : “ Leur bas de chause Chieftain in the North, is described as ne pasfoient pas le genoüil, et le haut crolling the Spev, dreifed in a coat and (de chaufe) estoit de lin, ou de cha. trews, with a black bonnet on his head, nure.”

In English, “ Their stockings In the same volume (p. 232.) we! (or more properly speaking their hose) are told, that the celebrated Marquis never passed the knee, and their trowsers of Montrose, coming from England. to were of fax or hemp.” And the en- commence that successful career whichi" gravings of the Scottish dress, in the has rendered his name fo famous, came Recueil de la diversité des habis qui font fecretly to Scotland, clad in coat and de present en ufage, &c. published at trews. Paris in 12mo. anno 1562, (mentioned Traditional evidence is certainly in in the last edition of Pinkerton's Scot- favour of the point I wilh to establish. tish Poems, in three 'volumes octavo, A very intelligent officer of the Breas printed anno 1792,) prove, that the dalbane Fencibles, Capt. Robinson, ioFrench, who koew Scotland so inti. fornis me, that in Athol the trewós did mately, always confidered trowfers a not fall into difufe till about the beginpart of the Scottish dress. In those ning of the present, or end of the last engravings, the Lowlander is clothed century, and that it was not totally difin loose, and the Highlander in clofe continued till within the lalt thirty years,

He remembers being told, by a very There is an engraving of James I. of old gentleman of that country, that'he Scotland, in the poffeffion of George recollects the Marquis of Athol mur Chalmers, Esq; of the Board of Trade, tering all his numerous vassals and"tein which that inonarch is dressed in the nants at Dunkeld, a great part of whom, close třews; and as the picture from and the Marquis himself, were dressed whence that engraving was taken most in' trews. He alfo remembers being have been executed in Scotland, there told by an old gentleman prefent upon being a view of Dumbarton Caltle in the occasion, that when the firit Duke it, there is thence every reason to ima.

* In two volumes, octavo, printed at Abra gine, that it was the dress of that fo- erdeen for J. Evaris, Paternoster row; Angus vereign during his residence in his own and Son, Aberdeen; and William Creech, kingdoni.

Edinburgh, anno 1702. 2


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