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of Athol held a court at Loggierait, In addition to the circumstances a. before the abolition of the heretable bove mentioned, it may be proper to jurisdi&tions, the Duke was dressed in a add, that when the wearing of the blue bonnet, a short coat, and trews of Highland dress was prohibited, by act plaiding, the name given to a sort of 19 George II. c. 49. after the rebellion woolen stuff of the natural colour of the in 1745, the trews were included a. wool.

| mong the other aruicles enumerated up-' Captain Robinson, who has paid para on that occasion, as a part peculiarly ticular attention to fach inquiries, is of belonging to the Highland garb, and opinion, that the trews was undoubtedly consequently, is mentioned in the act the ancient dress of people of condition, 22 George III. c. 63. by which that' or of any respectability, both in the prohibition was repealed. Highlands and Lowlands of Scotland ;; These are hints which I thought it it was more especially worn by persons' right to take this opportunity of throwon horsebáck, often without boots ; it ing together and preserving, in case the was commonly made of a kind of che point to which they relate, though a quered stuff called Tartan, though some matter of curiosity rather than of real times of stuff of one colour only. It ufe, should ever become the subject of completely supplied the place of breeches future discuffion. and stockings, covering the feet, the N. B. Some additional information legs, and the thighs. As a winter upon this subject will, I understand, be drefs, particularly in time of snow, it laid before the Public by Mr Pinkerton, was reckoned infinitely preferable to in one of the Numbers of his Portraits the kilt. When the trews were worn of the Illustrious Persons of Scotland. ! upon a journey, the plaid was carried over the left shoulder, and drawn un- . der the right arm. ACCOUNT OF THE HISTORY, RELIGION, AND MANNERS

OF THE HINDOOS *. THAT part of Asia, known to Eu- The magnificent proofs of ancient granropeans by the name of Hindooltan, deur, however, which are still to be extends from the mountains of Thibet, found, and which have been fought for on the north, to the sea on the south, with the most successful assiduity, by and from the river Indus on the west, many of our countrymen in India, give to the Burampooter on the east, com- the most irrefragable testimony of the prehending, within its limits, a variety antiquity of their empire, and feem to of provinces, many of which have been confirm the affertion of its historians, famous, from the earliest ages, for that its duration is not to be parallelthe salubrity of their climate, the rich- led by the history of any other portion ness of their productions, and the fer. of the human race.” To account for 14tility of their foillac Of this country, this extraordinary degree of permanenthe Hindcos are the Aborigines. Over. cy, we must direct our attention, not the origin of this celebrated people, to the barriers formed by nature around time has east the impenetrable mantle their territories, but to those internal of oblition. 2: Their own annals trace it causes arising from the nature of their back to a period ofo remote; fo far be- government, their laws, religion, moral

and the date of European chronology, prejudices, and established marners. has to be rejected by European pride. The ancient government, throughout From Tranflation of the Letters of a

Hindoostan, appears to have been a Hindoo Rajah, bị Eliza Hamilton, lately federative union of the various - ftates, published.

each governed by its own rajah, or

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chief, but subjected, in a sort of feudal to command ; of this tribe were the
vassalage, to the sovereignty of the su., ancient rajahs.
preme Emperor, who was head of the He next produced the Bice, or Ban-

yan, from his thighs and beily, allign-
The manner in which the rajahs of ing him the occupations of agriculture
the Hindoos exercised the rights of do- and commerce. And lastly,
minion over their people, bears so little He created from his feet the tribe of
analogy to that practised by the petty Sooder, and to him allotted the duties
sovereigns of such European states as of subjection, labour and obedience.
are placed in circumstances nearly fi- The respective, and peculiar virtues
milar, that it would be doing the of these different casts are admirably de-
greatest injustice to the amiable and scribed in the following passage of the
benevolent character of the Hindoos, Bhagvat Geeta, an episode, from their
to bring them into comparison. There, great epic poem, translated into English
the right of fovereignty bore the mild by Mr Wilkins.
aspect of parental authority. The The natural duty of the Bramin is
prince considered the people in the light peace, self-restraint, patience, rectitude,
of children, whom he was appointed wisdom, and learning. The natural
by heaven to protect and cherish; and duties of the Khettrie, are bravery,
the affection of the subject for the glory, not to flee - from the field; rec-
prince, under whose auspices he enjoy. titude, generosity, and princely conduct.
ed the blessings of freedom and tran- The natural duties of the Bice are to
quillity, was heightened, by esteem for cultivate the land, to tend the cattle,
his virtues, into the most inviolable åt- and to buy and sell. The natural duty

of the Sooder is servitude ; a man by The division of the Hindoos into following the duties appointed by his four eafts, or tribes, to each of which birth, cannot do wrong: A man being a particular station was alloted, and pe- contented with his own particular liculiar duties alligned, might doubtless tuation obtaineth perfection.” be another cause, which lent its aid to- Though all Bramins are not priests, ward the preservation of the general none but such as are of this cast can harmony. This division must have perform any offices of the priestly funcbeen made at a period too remote for tion. The members of every other investigation ; and which seems to set caft preserve for theirs the most respectconjecture at defiance. It is by the ful veneration : and a spirit of partiality Hindoo writers wrapt in the veil of toward them, seems to breathe throughallegory; they fay, tirat Brahma, the out their laws, as well as religious infint person in their triad of Deity, ha- ftitutions. ving received the power from the Su. Those who take pleasure in pointing preme, for the creation of mankind, the shafts of sarcasm against the order created the Hindoos in the following of the priesthoodi (without confidering, maonec:

that invectives against any society of From his mouth he produced the 'individuals are only satires upon

human Draming and deltined his rank to bei nature,) will readily aflign to the Brathe most eminent; allotting, for his "mins themselves, the formation of laws business, the performance of the rites of which appear favourable to their intereligion, and the instruction of mankind rests; and produce it as an additional in the path of duty.

proof of priestly, cunning and ambition ; The next tribe he created was the but a moment's reflection on the duties, Kheterie, or war tribe, and this he as well as privileges, of this cast, will produced from his arms, his duty be put an end to invidious exultation. ing to defend the people, to govern, and An abhorrence of the hedding of


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blood, is a principle which pervades are of a different belief ; nor does it the whole of the Hindoo religion, but suffer them to confiter others as less the Bramins observe it in the stricteft favoured by the Almighty than them.” degree. They cat nothing that has felves. This fpirit of unbounded tolelife in it: the food consisting entirely ration proceeded in a natural course of fruit and vegetables, and their only from the sublinie and exalted notions luxury being the milk of the cow, an of the Deity, taught by the bramins, animal for whose species they have a' and every where to be met within particular veneration. Not only every their writings, and which are only eact of hostility, but even every method qualled in that gofpel " which brought of defence, is, to them, strictly pro- lite and immortality to light." bibited. : Submitting to violence with That Being whom they diftinguish by unresisting patience and humility, they the different appellations of the Princ leave it to God, and their rajahs, to ciple of Truth! the Spirit of Wisdom! arenge whatever injuries they may sus the Supreme ! by wboni the - universe tain.

was spread abroad, whose perfections The separation of the different casts none can grasp within the limited circle I from each other is absolute and irrever- of human ideas, views, they fay, with

fible : it forms the fundamental prin. equal complacency, alt who are ftudious" ciple of their laws, and the flightest to perform his will throughout the imbreach of it never fails to incur univer- menfe far:ily of creation. They dcem. fal reprobation.

3? it derogatory to the character of this Thus, those sources of difquiet, Being, to say that he prefers one 'rew which have held most of the empires ligion to another;" to fuppofe fuch of the earth in a state of perpetual agi: preference, being the height of impiety, tation, were unknown to the peaceful as it would be fuppofing injustice toward children of Brahmabbi! The turbulence those whom he left ignorant of his will :9%! of ambition, the emulation of envy, and and they therefore conclude, that every the murmurs of difcontent, were equally religion is. peculiarly, adapted to the unknown to a people, where each indi- country and people where it is practic vidual, following the occupation, and fed The bramins, who compiled walking in the steps of his fathers, con- the Code of Gentoo Laws, translated fidered it as his primary duty to keep by Mr Halhed, explain their opinion in the fituation that he firmly believed upon this fubjiet in very explicit terms: to have been marked out for him by the " the truly intelligent,” say they, \ well hand of Providence od 15,9 know that the differences and varieties

a In the spirit of the religion of the of created things are'a's of his gloria Hiodoos ara fillimore efficient cause of ous essence, and that the contrarieties the durability of the inifture, presents it- of constitutions are types of his wonderself to our views Original in its na-- ful attributes. Her rappointed to each, ture, and absolute in its decrees, its prew tribe its own faithy and to every sect its cepts sinduce a totalsseclusion from the own religion, and views, 'in each partirelt of mankind in Eary however, fronsccular place, the mode of worship redifturbing thofe who are ofira different rspectively appointed it. Sometimes he faith, by endeavors to convert them, is employed, with the attendants upon it does not even admit of profelytes to the mosque, in il Gounting the facred its own l'houglt tenacious of their beads; sometimes he is in the i temple owin doctrines, in ca degree that is une at the adoration of idols, the intimate € xampled in the history of any other of the Muffulman, and the friend of the religion, the most fervent zeal in the Hindoo; the companion of the Chrifin molt pious Hindoespleads them neither tian, and the confidant of the Jer":7.9. to hate, zor defpife, nor pity, fuch as * See Crawford's Sketches.



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A toleration founded upon such fyfte had an opportunity of observing them. matic principles, wonld neceffarily ex- The patience evinced by this mild and clude those argumentative disputations, gentle race under the fevereft fuffering, those cruel and obstinate animosties, and the indifference with which they which, alas ! under a dispensation whofe view the approach of death, which has very essence is benevolence, have so been severally assigned to constitutional often. difturbed the peace of society: apathy, to their mode of living, and to There the acrimonious censure, the the delicate texture of their bodies, may keen retort, the vehement, invective aö perhaps be equally accounted for, from gainst those who differed in opinion, their firm and stedfalt belief in a future was totally unknown. Under the ban- state. This belief, indeed, is darkenners of their religion, the irrascible pas. ed by many errors. "They believe that sions were never ranged. “ He, my the human soul must be purified by fuf. fervant," says Krishna, speaking in the fering and that it is not till after havperson of the Deity, “ He, my servant, ing undergone this expiatory discipline is dear to me, who is free from enmity, through a serics of different bodies, that merciful, and exempt from pride and it becomes worthy of admission to eterselfishness, and who is the fame in pain nal happiness. The evils inflicted upand in pleasure, patient of wrongs, con on the seemingly inoffensive, is attributtented, and whose niind is fixed on me ed by them as a punifhment for crimes alone."

Ders committed in a pre-existent state. keI shall conclude this account of the volting from the idea of eternal punish notions of the Deity, entertained by the ment, as incompatible with the justice Hindoos, with the first stanza of the and goodness of their Creator, they be beautiful hymn to Narrayána, or the lieve that the souls of the wicked, after Spirit of God exerted in Creation, having been for a time confined in Natranslated by the elegant pen of Sir rekha (the infernal regions) are sent William Jones.

back upon the fage of life, to animate Spirit of spirits ! who through every part

the bodies of the inferior creation, till, Of fpace expanded, and of endless time, by various chastisements, and crapfmia Beyond the streech of lab'ring thought sub- grations in these probationary states, es lime,

very vicious inclination is jufficiently Bad'ít uproar into beauteous order start,

corrected to admit of their reception in Before Heaven was, thou art : Ere spheres beneath us rolld, or spheres a

to the regions of perfection and happibove,

nefs. “ Animated by the desire of ob-
Ere Earth in firmamental ether hung, taining that final boong!? says a late his-
Thou sat't alone, till through thy myftic love, torian*, " and fired by all the glorious
Things unexisting to existence sprung,

promises of their religion, the patient
And grateful descant sung,
What first impell’d thee to exert thy might? Hindoo smiles amid unutterable mifery,
Goodness unlimited. What glorious lighe

and exults in every dire variety of to. Thy powers directed? Wisdom without bound;. luntary torture.?! *!!!: julio 2012£.31: What prov'd it firit? Oh! guide my fancy Notwithstanding the sublime notions

Oh raise from cumbrous ground

of the Hindoo concerning Deity; and, : My soul, in rapture drown'd,

notwithstanding the Atrenuous affertions That fearless it mag foar on wings of fire pit of the best informed abramins, even lati For thou, who only know'st, thou only can'ft the present day, that their worship is

inspire. d! 914 244889or only directed to one divine essencey and A further view of their religious fyf. that the many inferior deities, whose tem may be neceffary, and will, per- cimages fill their teraples, card, bqtrifo haps, be sufficient to celacidate another many emblems of his different rattri i characteristic feature of the Hindoos, butes, it must be Iconfeffed, that, the a which has forcibiy ftrück all who have * Sce Maurice's Antiquities.


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religion of the vulgar has degenera- ranks, fixing their attention on the exted into the groffelt idolatry. This ternal object that is presented to them, may be accounted for by the jealous lose fight of the more remote and fpicare with which the tribe of Brahma ritual allusion, and soon transfer that prevented the intrusion of the multitude veneration to the symbol, which was at into these avenues to science and to first meant only to be excited for the truth, of which they were the peculiar thing signified. Nor is it in the religuardianst. Ignorance naturally leads gion of Hindooltan alone, that fimilar io fuperftition, and the valgar of all effects are produced by causes of a like

See Introduction to the Gearoo Laws.




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methods of discipline, at the expence
of many tears and fome blood, I puro

chased the knowledge of the Latin IN my ninth year (January 1746,) syntax : and not long since [ago] I in a lucid interval of comparative health, was possessed of the dirty volumes of my father adopted the convenient and Phædrus and Cornelius Nepos, which I customary mode of English education ; painfully construed and darkly under: and I was sent to Kingston upon stood. The lives of Cornelius Nepos, Thames, to a school of about seventy the friend of Atticus and Cicero, are boys, which was kept by Dr Woodde- composed in the style of the purest age: foó, and his affiftants. Every time I his fimplicity is elegant, his brevity cohave fince passed over Putney Common, pious : he exhibits a series of men and I have always noticed the spot where manners ; and with such illustrations, my mother, as we drove along in the as every pedant is not indeed qualified coach, sadmonished me that I was now to give, this claslic biographer may inigoing into the world, and must learn tiate a young student in the history of to think and act for myself. The ex- Greece and Rome. The use of fables prellion may appear ludicrous ; yet there or apologues has been approved in every is not, in the course of life, a more re. age, from ancient India to modern Eumarkable change than the removal of rope. They convey in familiar images a child from the luxury and freedom of the truths of morality and prudence ; a wealthy house, to the frugal diet and and the most childish understanding (I ftri& fubordination of a school ; from advert to the scruples of Rousseau,) will the tendernefs of parents, and the ob- not suppose either that beats do fpeak, fequiousness of fervants, to the rude or that men may lię. A fable repre. familiarity of bis equals, the infolent sents the genuine character of animals; tyranny of his seniors, and the rod, per- aod a skillful malter might extract from haps, of a cruel and capricious peda-. Pliny and Buffon fome pleasing lessons gogue. Such hardships may feel the of natural history, a science well adapt. mind and body against the injuries of ed to the taste and capacity of childreo. fortune ; but my timid reserve was a- The Latinity of Phædrus is not exftonisaed by the crowd and tumult of empt from an alloy of the silver age : the school; the want of strength and but his manner is concise, terfe, and activity disqualified me for the sports of septentious: the Thracian flave disthe play-field ; nor have I forgotten creetly breathes the spirit of a freeman ; how often in the year forty-fix I was and when the text is found, the style, reyiled and buffetted for the sins of is perfpicuous. But his fables, after my Tory anccatorse. By the common a long oblivion, were forst published by


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