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CA3T IRON BRIDGE. THE Bridge lately thrown over the river Wear, in the vicinity of Sunder. land, is undoubtedly superior to any thing of the kind at present in Europe.

consists of one spacious arch, 236 feet in span, and a hundred in height : the navigation is by no means impeded, as ships of considerable breadth can fail un. der it, without lowering their top-masts ; the buttresses are of stone, the bridge itself of cast iron, excepting a fmall proportion, which is wronght; the boldness and elegance of the design, equally gratifies and surprizes every judicious. and every

curious beholder ; and has been executed at the expence of about 25,cool. of which fum 19,000l. has been advanced by Mr Burden, of Castle Eden, M. P.


Me GABRIEL AUGATII, of Cheapfide, filed a patent, on the 20th of July, for making coffins in such a manner that they cannot be cut, broke, or by any means opened, thereby preventing the stealing of dead bodies. He constructs his coffins of


kind of wood. The fides without faw-curfs, He then fastens, by means of screws, nails, or rivets, in the inside, flat plates, and angle plates made of steel, iron, or other metal, by which the fides and bottom are firmly bound together. The top is faftened down by means of feveral springs, which let and falten themselves into metal boxes fixed at the top of the faides; and, also, by means of screws of a particultr construction, which pass into and through plates of iron'that are fixed to the upper edge of the sides, and to the circumference of the lid. The particular construction of the screws is in the head of them, which is formed of cppositive bevels, fome of two, and others of four bevels, and, therefore, can only be turned one way, and no instrument can take hold of them so as to turn them back again; they are, moreover, to be screwed into fockets, with their heads below the surface of the lid, and the hole filled with wood the fame as the coffin.

TO CORRESPONDENTS. The advertisement from Philo-Scuticus was too late; it shall have a place on the: Cover of next number.

Ludis' Poem is too indelicate for publication.
Verus received.


Page 661. col. 1. line 1. for tournalist read journalist

line 29. for Faustus read Forestus col. 26 line 12. for is the annual return, read is the cause of the ane.

nual return, line 19. för mild read millet line 29. for De Tol's Memoirs read De Toi's Memoirs and

expunge says Page 662: line 10. from foot for muterical read matériel

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F the numbers of learned and in- was afterwards sent to the University of

genious men who have benefited Edinburgh. While there he was tempted the present age by their studies, and ad. to try his powers in dramatic poetry, ded to the reputation of Great Bri- and wrote, in his eighteenth year, a tain by their writings, few will be found tragedy, called " The Regicide ; or, more deserving of biographical notice Jänes the First of Scotland,” founded than the subject of this narrative, whe- on the story of the affallination of that ther we consider the utility and elegance monarch, by his uncle Walter Stuart, of his literary compositions, the force Earl of Errol, in 1437. In 1739, and vivacity of his mind, or the disinter- when only 19 years of age,

he went to eftednefs and independence of his fpirit. London. On his arrival there, his Of the personal history of Smollett, tragedy, he tells us in the preface, less is known than his rank in English taken into the protection of one of those literature, might give reason to expect. little fellows, who is sometimes called It is said, and probably with some truth, great men, and, like other orphans, that the chief incidents in the early neglected accordingly." His first outpart of his life were given to the world set in the world appears to have been in his novel of « Roderick Random.” as a surgeon's mate in the navy. la Dr.Smollett was born in the old house of this capacity he served in the fileet, unDalquhurn, coutiguous to the village of der Admiral Vernon, at the fiege of Rentoun, in the parish of Cradroís, coun. Carthagena, in 1741, the particulars ty of Dumbarton in 1720. He was of which he describes in “ Roderick the grand-fon of Sir James Smollett Random” with so much life. of Bonhill, Bart. a gentleman of con. He is fupposed to have been the siderable property in that county, a Editor of “ A Compendium of Aumember of the last Scotch Parliament, thentic Voyages, digested in a Chronoand a Commissioner for framing the logical Series, 7. volso: 12 mo. 1756. Treaty of Union. The father of To. His first publication that is known bias being a younger son, received, with certainty, is, « The 'Advice according to the custom of the coun- and Reproof," two fatires, printed try, only a Imall share of Sir James' in 1746 and 1747. In the same fortune; and, dying at an early age, left year, he expressed his indignation his family, consisting of two fons and a at the severities exercised upon the daughter, in circumstances not the most Highlanders, by the royal army, after affluent. The two brothers received the battle of Calloden, in an exquisite the rudiments of their education in the ode, intituled, “ The Tears of Scotschool of Dumbarton. The elder, whose land." In 1748, he publithed his name was James, was bred a foldier, but “ Adventures of Roderick Random," died at an early.age. Tobias, the young. in 2 vols. 12mo. an historical norel, exer, was educated in the medical line, ecuted, he tells us in the preface, upon served an apprenticeship to a surgeon in the plan of Le Sage, in his “ AdverGlaigow, whose character he is fuppo- tures of Gil Blas." The success which sed to have drawn under the name of attended this novel encouraged him 10 Crab, in his “ Roderick Random.” He exercise his abilities in that species of composition; and, in 1751, he publish land," an after-piece of two acts, was ed « The Adventures of Peregrine performed at Drury Lane theatre, and Pickle,” in 4 vols. 12mo. in which he met with success ; yet not equal to its introduced the Memoirs of the cele- merit. In 1758, he gave to the world his brated Lady Vane, the materials of " Complete History of England, de. which, it is said, she herself furnished. duced from the descent of Julius Cæsar, This episode, which he received a very to the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748," handsome reward for inserting, excited in 4 vols.4to. The sale was very extensive, much attention, and contributed greatly and he said to have cleared 2000l. by to its success. About this time, having it, and the “ Continuation, &c.” which obtained the degree of Doctor of Physic, followed, in 4 vois. 8vo. 1762, and I he settled as a physician at Bath, and vol. 8vo. 1765. He was concerned, with that view, he published “ An in 1762, in a periodical paper, called Essay on the External Use of Water, “ The Britain,” in opposition to which in a Letter to Dr --, with particular Mr Wilkes published his “ North Bri. Remarks upon the present Method of tain.” using the Mineral Waters at Bath, in Assiduous application to study, ha. Somersetshire, and a Plan for rendering ving impared his health, which had them more Safe, Agreeable, and Ef been weakly from his infancy, he went cacious,” 4t0. 1752. This is the only abroad, with a view to re-establish it, professional work which is known to in June 1763, and continued in France bave proceeded from his pen. and Italy about two years.

ti was


He wrote In 1743, he published his “ Adven- an account of his “ Travels through tures of Ferdinand Count Fathom,” in France and Italy," in a series of Let2 vols. 12mo.

This novel was not so ters to some friends, which were pugenerally read, on its first appearance, blished in 1766. and has not since obtained fuch an ex. In 1769, he again entered the thorny tenfive popularity as his “ Roderick paths of political discussion, and pu. Random," and is

Peregrine Pickle.” blished his “ Adventures of an Atom," In 1755, he published a new tranf- in 2 vols. Izmo. a political romance

. lation of "The History of the Re- In 1771, he published his “ Expenowned Don Quixote, from the Spanish dition of Humphry Clinker," in 3 vols. of Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra; with 12mo, where, under the character of fome account of the Author's Life. Matthew Bramble, he inserted the ob

In 1756, he began the “ Critical servations he had made on a visit to his Review, or Annals of Literature," native country, and described the scenes which he conducted, with much a. of his infancy. He died soon after the bility, till 1763, but with a degree publication of it. of acrimony that involved him in a Smollett was a man of the most povariety of disputes. The most serious lished manners, and finest address, tain its confequences, was his dispute lents which seldom fail to recommend with Admiral Knowles, who had pu. the physician; but with these he polblished a pamphlet in defence of his fessed a pride which counteracted their conduct in the expedition to Rochfort, influence. His mind was chiefly turn.

The consequence was, that a prosecu. ed to the study of life and manners, in tion was immediately commenced against delineating of which he is, perhaps, surSmollett, and he was fined 100l. and passed by few. As a historian, he sentenced to three months imprisonment may be inferior to Hume and Roin the King's Bench prison. His fpirit- bertson in refinement of thought, and ed conduct on this occasion, however, political observation; but when the gained him much credit and applause.' subject leads to description, or to the

In 1757, his comedy of « The delineation of character, his powers apReprisal; or, the Tars of Old Eng.


pear unrivalled. To the greatest ge- tinguished abilities, and the most vigornius, he joined the most unremitting ap- ous application, could have been equal. plication. One proof of this cannot fail He married a Jamaica lady, and by her to be noticed, which is, that in less had an only daughter, who was cut off than 14 months he collected materials, in the bloom of youth. After a life composed, and prepared for the press, chequered by a variety of incidents, he his whole History of England : an ef. died at Leghorn, whether he had gone fort to which his narrow and straitened for the recovery of his health, in

1771, circumstances might have directed him, in the 51st year of his age. but to which nothing but the most dif

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different countries of Europe, and be· WAS born at St Deniez Dolor in ing 'rich, noble, and sprightly, he was 1759, appointed a deputy to the Con- every where received with attention. vention in 1773, and executed at Paris While in England, he frequently on the 5th of April 1794, in conse- visited Mr Burke, to whom he was ina quence of being implicated in a confpi- troduced by means of letters from some racy with Danton. "He was a friar in very learned and respectable men on the his youth, a hypocrite in his manhood; continent. but, like the French in general, who M. Cloots was not only the nephew die perhaps better than they live-he of a man of letters, but actually a man suffered like a hero. In allusion to his of letters himself. In 1792, he pudress, he was here termed by a familiar blished a small octavo volume, entitled, alliteration, the shabby Chabot. One “ La République Universelle, ou Adof the best judges in Europe speaks of dresse aux Tyrannicides," which was him thus : “ Chabot ne démentit point printed at Paris in the " the fourth la poltronnerie d'un prêtre, ni l'hypo- year of the redemption," and had crisie d'un capucin ?"

“ veritas atque libertas,” by way of CHAMPPORT

Voltaire, having styled himself Is one of the men of letters of the old the representative of philosophers, the School, who declared themselves, from author pretends to be “ the representathe very beginning, for the revolution. tive of the oppressed," and claims an On the dismiffion of M. d'Ormesson, “ universal apostleship for the gratuitous who had been appointed by the King, he defence of the millions of Naves, who was made one of the joint keepers of groan from one pole to the other.” In the national library, with a falary of this tract, he afferts that nations are not 1661. 1os. 4d. per annum ; and put to be delivered by the blade of a iard, himself to death,' in the old Roman but by the days of truth : “ steel can manner, soon after, to avoid the tyranny kill only the tyrant, but tyranny itself of Robespierre.

may be destroyed by knowledge." ANACKARSIS Cloors

Cloots was a great advocate for one Was born in Cleves. Although a Pruf- common language, and so well convinfian, a baron, and a man of fortune, he ced of the necessity of one universal goseems to have imbibed, while yet a boy, vernment, that he deems two suns above a talte for liberty ; and, indeed, not- one horison, or a pair of gods in hea

withstanding his singularities and extra. ven, not more absurd than two separate hvagances, he never appears to have be- nations


earth ? lied his original opinions. At an early

Anacharsis, a Prussian by birth, a 104 period of life, he travelled into all the Frenchman by adoption, and a citizen VOL. LVIII.

5 K


ree, &c."

of the world by choice, at last found gratify all parties ; for while a citizen
means to become a member of the Na- of Geneva preached up tyranny in one
tional Convention. On the great quef- part, M. de la Harpe, although born
tion respecting the death of the King, within the very clutches of French des.
he voted in the affirmative ; and with potism, adorned the literary department,
the same breath passed fentence on the which had been confided to his charge,
house of Brandenbourg, and Louis with the most animated and brilliant
XVI. “ Et je condamne pareillement à passages in favour of liberty.
mort l'infame Frederic Guillaume !" After the revolution, it was not likely

Soon after this he was implicated in that M. du Pan should find a very se-
the affair of Pere Duchesne, arrested, cure asylum in France-no; he himself
sent to prison, and as Robespierre never boasts that his papers were twice sealed
forgave, he was put to death on the up; that he was thrice assaulted; had
24th of March 1794. It is but justice three decrees ifsued against him; and
to state, that he continued faithful to during four years, never went to bed
his principles, and that he appears to with the hope of finding himself alive in
have died innocent. It is not a little the morning!
singular, that he insisted on being the Having at length effected his escape
last prisoner executed that day, in order from Paris, he retired to Brussels, and
to have an opportunity of instilling prin- in 1793. published his celebrated pam-
ciples in the mind of each, by means phlet called “ Considerations sur la
of a short harangue, which he pronoun- Nature de la Revolution de France, &
ced as the fatal guillotine was about to fur les Causes qui en prolongent la Du-
descend on his neck.

In this tract he loudly laMALLET DU Pan

ments that the separate views of the Is a native and a citizen of Geneva. combined powers had rendered the This interesting little republic, which scheme for fubjugating France ineffec. is not more extensive than some of the tual; and recommends to them, if they manors of our own nobility, has pro. are yet capable of union in the common duced an astonishing number of illus- cause of sovereigns, to substitute fraud trious men, most of whom have been in the place of force, and coax and at once the zealous defenders and en- wheedle that nation into llavery, which lightened propagators of human liberty. they were now unable to drive into

To this, as to every other rule, there bondage.
are exception's; for we know, that It is not a little remarkable, that
Necker, D'Ivernois, and Mallet du this publication made a momentary im-
Pan, although they have each by turns pression on the combined courts, and
boalted of having been born in the com- that Lord Hood at Toulon, in express
monwealth which produced Rousseau, opposition to the conduct of the com-
yet have evinced no common enmity to mander in chief before Dunkirk, foon
France, from the moment the abjured after declared that Great Britain was
monarchy. This seeming problem can, fighting for the restoration of Louis
however, be very easily folved, when XVII, and the constitution of 1789.
it is recollected, that one has been late- “ Five hundred thousand valiant soi-
ly dubbed a knight by the sword of a diers, and eighty fail of the line,” ex-
king; and that a second was the prime claims the enraged author, “ although
minister, and the last the pensioner, of aided and sustained by an intestine war,
a sovereign prince !

have not hitherto been able to conqueri Mallet du Pan was the editor of the ten leagues of territory from this fedeo" political department of the “ Mercure ration of crimes, which has entiruled itde France." This journal was pub- self the French Republic! The duralished once a week, and had a most tion of such a struggle begins to ennoble astonishing fale, as it was calculated to

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