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are fruitful. In this parish are the vef- of the ground is moorish and bad ; the tiges of no fewer than 4 circular camps. chief produce is barley and oats, and On the top of Tinto, which is 1620 improvements go on but slowly, though feet above the run of Clyde, is a huge there is lime in the parish. Lord Jufcairn of stones considered as the work tice Clerk (M'Queen) has a seat here, of the Druids, where a constant fire was which he has improved by planting, inkept. The country is, on the whole, naked. closing, &c. The road from Glasgow

Whistounand Robertoun. These to Carlisle, runs through the upper part united parishes extend about 3 miles of the parish. Tinto, (the hill of fire) along the west bank of the Clyde, and with its conic top, stands in the borders contain about 740 inhabitants. Much of this parish. (To be continued.)

TO THE EDITOR OF THE SCOTS MAGAZINE.
MR EDITOR,

which have hitherto come under my peru, OF all the books I have read, not fal, the Gentle Shepherd carries the palm, one, to the best of my recollection, has it is so artfully simple, if I may be allowspoken of Ramsay's Gentle Shepherd ex- ed the expresion, and the scenery fo cepting a single paper in the Mirror, delightfully mixed, that the poet canwhich slightly notices it.* I am the not fail of interesting the heart of the more surprised at this neglect when I reader in the characters which he so trueconsider that there have been, for a ly paints. long while past, and are still ewo-three It is to be regretted that there is not periodical Miscellanies published in this another work of the kind to compare it city, the editors of which have been with: a Mr Sherriffs, indeed, has of late ought to be and I suppose ftill are years produced a comedy, which is certainanxious for the preservation of the origi. ly intitled to all the praise due to a good nal poetry and language of the country, imitation, yet though Mr S. had a com

I am fenfible that the Scottish dia- plete model before him in Patie and lea has had its periodical declepsions; Roger, still I think he does by no means it has been and is loing itself very fast in come up with his great predecessor in the English, a circumstance common to the execution of the plan; many words weak states, when united with stronger. in “ Jamie and Bess” are peculiar to

Since, therefore, our mother tongue the north of Scotland, but we cannot, has suffered such a change, I would re- in a case of this kind, impute it as a fault commend to those who are attempting to in the author ; it is the language of ascend the Aonian Mount by the Cale- the people where the scene lies, yet the donian path, to write according to the Gentle Shepherd, by being exempt from present idiom, avoiding all words and such provincial words, is more genephrases, whether out of use, or peculiar rally pleasing. On the whole, however, to any certain district ; by, so doing their Mr Sherriffs bas great merit; though his works will be universally read and un-. comedy had been much inferior to what it derstood, which is certainly the ambi- is. I would have said with Gefner, The tion, interest

, and duty, of every com- attempt is laudable, and it would give nie pețitor for public approbation. But to much pleasure and satisfaction to see any return to the pastoral before us; of all the of my countrymen able to produce fuch poetical pieces in the Scouilh dialect a work as either. If this meets with

Our Correspondent has forgot that Dr a favourable reception from you, Mr Blair in lech are 39. has given a character of Editor, I shall foon go more closely to the Gentle Sbepberd, and paid a just tribute of work with Patie and Roger, and eppraise to its a thor. If we are not mistaken, deavour to point out some of its greatest Dr Beattie and Lord Kaimes also mention it. We shall be glad, however, to rective this beauties: Mean time I am &c. sprrespondent's remarks.

PHILO-SCOTICUS. Edinburgh, 0a. 1.796.

ADVANTAGES OF CONTENTMENT.
SIR,

desirable to procure, and fome evil I was left at a very early age to the which he could wish to remove. But care of friends, who paid me attentions, in such cases I never failed to derive such as a disposition not naturally rude consolation from the few precepts aand unaccommodating will generally bove mentioned. If I lost a friend, permeet with, and who, if they did not haps the greatest calamity that can be leve me with all the affection of parents, fali us in this world, I consoled myself at lealt performed the duties of advice that I once enjoyed his friendship ; that and counsel, with the anxiety of per- he died my friend ; that he remembered fons who would have been disappointed, me while affection could be exprefsed; had I disgraced their tutorage. Of that, at best, we were but fellow tratheir admonitions nothing became fo vellers, and that he had got the start of durably fixed in my mind, as the insuf- me on the road, and had performed his ficiency of riches to procure happiness; perilous journey but a little before me; the necessity of patience in our inter- and that I could, however long detaincourse with mankind ; and the certainty ed in my pursuit, dwell with pure faof a future state, where the inequalities tisfaction on the remembrance of his of the present would be done away. many virtues, and by striving to emulate

Fortified with these few precepts, him, preserve, in a certain degree, that which were neither burdensome to re- intercourse which would soon be renewal tain, nor difficult to summon, I entered ed, and be interrupted no more. into life with what is called a moderate He that can reconcile a misfortune fortune, and indeed such a one as to of this kind, has little to fear from those many would appear a very moderate of a less afflicting kind. But half of one, but which I have not, in the what men call misfortunes, are little course of a long series of years, had the elfe than disappointments in matters, least inclination, or but a very transient where gratification would either have wish, to increase. When I used to been impossible, or wickedes A fondlook round me and contemplate the real ness for the country, and for enjoying Itate of the great and wealthy, which I. the luxuriance of nature's bounties in had opportunities of doing when they the spring and summer, has often bewere divested of the externals, I saw trayed me into a wish that I were opuno reason to envy them; and I saw, that lent enough to enjoy one of those stately wherein they differed from me, I had mansions, and extensive parks, where the superiority. They were the ob- contentment and “rural felicity," seem jects of calumoy, and ill-will, by which to reign. But when I visited such they often suffered without the power places, and found that the owners preto repel the attack, and they were beset ferred the pleasures and the bustle of by flatterers, fycophants, and other town amusements, to those feats of tranworthless persons, who hoped to impofe quillity and delight, I began to suspect, on their credulity, or betray their va. and not without reason, that we value nity. In my fituation I escaped those things highly, only because they are not evils; for he who attracts no attention, our own. And I remember that I once may live quietly in the worst of times, completely cured myself of this breach and of countries.

of the tenth commandment, by hiring a Yet I would not have it thought that summer lodging near the splendid palace disappointments have not fallen to my and park of the Duke of -, from lot, since there is no man living who which I returned to towo long before may not, at some time, feel that there the end of the season, perfectly reconis something in his lot which might be ciled to my house in town. Jemedied, some good which it were The frequent changes, and the ima Vou. LVIII,

5

perious

perious commands of fashion, are to fail, I have another remedy ; I repremany a source of great uneasiness, which sent that it is bút rare we can find good is the more surprising, in my opinion, wine on the road, and

upon

the whole, because I look upon our subjection to perhaps it is as well, as drinking upon a fashion as voluntary, or, to use an ex. journey is reckoned unwholesome. For pression of Mr Burke, as a “ dignified the impertinence of waiters and postobedience, and proud submission.” I boys, and the extravagance of landlords, have not, however, learned to mortify I have excuses in plenty, and am not myself, in order to gratify the unrea. only in my own mind perfectly easy, fonable customs of people, who claim but have the success to make others fo. distinction only from the extravagance Consider, say I, against whom you are to which they carry their imitation of about to wreak your vengeance ; against the great

world. I cannot conceive the. those who err from ignorance, and perpleasure that arises from hazarding more haps from necessity. We have been ra. money upon the turn-up of a card than ther unlucky to-day, I must grant; the I can afford, and I have learned to give fowl that was underdone, and the lamb a peremptory denial to all invitations to that was overdone, are serious calami. card clubs ; and while I do not find ties; but think what human life would that my friends really speak or think the be without such ; think in what an insis worse of me, I have the happiness to pid manner we should drag our existence, avoid the many embarrassments, in if all cooks were omnipotent, and all which they are continualiy involving seullions perfect. Besides, though opthemselves and their families ; and which pressed with these misfortunes to-day, are so great, as to conftitute one half of we may to-morrow arrive at an inn the evils of which fashionable people where calculation will turn the spit, and complain. It is a maxim with me, mathematical precision cover the table, that he who has contracted a habit of where no joints will be tough, and no gaming, has acquired a vice which na- wine sour. If not, and we are still ture did not give him

doomed to eat and murmur, the end of Indeed, fo far from having rendered our journey approaches, and we fall myself less agreeable to my friends, by return home with a double relish for what they are pleased to term my oddi- those domestic comforts that are more ties, I know not whether I have not at our command, comforts that are not become a more neceffary and important embittered by the length of a bill, nor character with theny, than if I had in all diminished by the fecrecy of an ullage. respects confornied to their customs and In this manner, Sir, do I try to apway of thinking. I have sometimes pease those angry pasfions which fuch overheard them saying, “ Let us have trifles. excite. More serious notice Mr Placid of our party; you know he surely they do not deserve; and yet how is pleased with every thing." And, often do we see the tempers of some to be fure, if there is any situation in men ruffled, even to a degree of madwhich I experience the advantage of ness, by incidents of no higher importhaving acquired a habit of contentment, ance ? Contentment is surely no diffimore than another, it is in encountering cult acquifition, if these are the only the viciffitudes of travellin. If the rubs of life which we have to bear, and dianer is bad, I confole myself that we though they are not the only ones, yet. Thall arrive at another inn, where the I am afraid they constitute the majority fupper may be bettet; and if that does with many people, with whom selfihonut answer expectationsthint to my ness has more fuvay than the social afCompanions, that we may probably be fections. able to wash down our supper sorrows in I have dwelt the longer on this in*a glass of good wine. Even should that stance, because much of that stoicism

which I have acquired, has arisen from fure by such reflections, that I have acmy contemplating the beautiful com- quired that perfect indifference to little parison so frequently instituted between things, which removes fro:n me all imlife and a journey, and I am persuuded patience about them, and that decent that the more frequently we dwell on respect for the more serious dispensacions this comparison, the more we shall learn of Providence, which guides our eye to to appreciate the true value of those the end of our journey. I am, Sir, things, which form the subject of our

THOMAS PLACID. wishes and wants. It is in a great mea

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ON THE INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL CAUSES ON THE

MORAL FACULTY. THE subject upon which I am to dium of the senses, the pasions, the have the honour of addressing you, is an memory, or the imagination. Their inquiry into the influencs of physical influence is equally certain, whether causes upon the moral faculty. they act as remote, pre-difpofing, or oc

Our books of medicine contain many casional causes. records of the effects of physical causes 1. The effects of climate upon the upon the memory, the imagination, and moral faculty claim our first attention. the judgment.

Not only individuals, but nations, dePersons who labour under the de- rive a considerable part of their moral, rangement or want of these powers of as well as intellectual character, from the mind, are considered, very proper- the different portions they enjoy of the ly, as subjects of medicine ; and there rays of the fun. Irascibility, levity, tiare many cases upon record, thar prose midity, and indolence, tempered with that their diseases have yielded to the occasional emotions of benevolence, are healing art.

the moral qualities of the inhabitants

of It is, perhaps, only because the dis- warm climates; while selfishness, temorders of the moral faculty have not pered with fincerity and integrity, form been traced to a connection with physi- the moral character of the inhabitants cal causes, that medical writers have of cold countries. The state of the neglected to give them also a place in weather, and the seasons of the year, their systems of nosology, and that so also, have a visible effect upon moral few attempts have been hitherto made sensibility. The month of November, to lessen or remove them by physical, in Great Britain, rendered gloomy by as well as rational and moral remedies. constant fogs and rains, has been thought

Ia treating of the effects of physical to favour the perpetration of the world causes upon the moral faculty, it might fpecies of murder; while the vernal help to extend our ideas upon this fub- fun, in niiddle latitudes, has been as ject, to reduce virtues and vices to cer- generally remarked for producing gentain species, and to point out the ef- tleness and benevolence. fects of particular causes upon each par. ,. 2. The effects of diet upon

the mo. ticular species of virtue or vice ; but ral faculty are more certain, though less this would lead us into a field too ex. attended to, than the effects of climate. tenlive for the limits of the present in. “o Fulness of bread,” we are told, was quiry. I hall only hint at a few cases, one of the pre-disposing causes of the and have no doubt but the ingenuity of vices of the cities of the plain. The faits my auditors will supply my silence by so often inculcated among the Jews, applying the relt.

were intended to leffen the incentives to It is immaterial whether the physical vice ; for pride, cruelty, and sensuality, causes that are to be enumerated, act are as.mach the natural consequences of upon the moral faculty through the me.

luxury

5L 2

The country

Juxury, as apoplexies and palsies. But 4. Extreme hunger produces the the quality, as well as the quantity of molt unfriendly effects upon moral fengaliment, 'has influence upon morals ; bility. It is immaterial whether it acts hence we find the moral diseases that by inducing a relaxation of the solids, have been mentioned are most frequent. or an acrimony of the duids, or by the ly the offspring of animal food, "The combined operation of both those phy. prophet Isaiah seems to have been sen- fical causes. The Indians, in Amerisible of this, when he ascribes such fa. ca, whet their appetites for that savage Jutary effects to a temperate and vege. species of war, wbich is peculiar to table diet. “ Butter and honey Tall them, by the stimulus of hunger : hence, he çat, (says he) that he may know to we are told, they always return meagre refuse the evil and choose the good.” and emaciated from their military ex. But we have many facts which prove cursions, the efficacy of a vegetable diet upon the 5. Idleness is the parent of every vice. paslions. Dr Asbuthnot affures us that It is mentioned in the Old Testament, he cured several patients of irascible as another of the pre-disposing causes of tempers, by nothing but a prescription the vices of the cities of the plain, Laof this simple and temperate regimen.

bour of all kinds favours and facilitates 3. The effects of cerlain drinks up the practice of virtue. on the moral faculưy are not less obser- life is a happy life, chiefly because ieş vable than upon the intellectual powers laborious employments are favourable of the mind. Fermented liquors, of a to virtue, and unfriendly to vice. It good quality, and taken in a moderate is a common practice, I have been told, quantity, are favourable to the virtues for the planters in the southern states, to of candour, benevolence, and generofi- consigo a house flave, who has become tybut when they are taken in excess, vicious from idleness, to the drudgery or when they are of a bad quality, and of the field, in order to reform him. drank even in a moderate quantity, they The bridewells apd work-houses of all seldom fail of rousing every latent Spark countries prove that labour is not only of vice into action. The last of these a very levere, but the moft benevolent facts is so notorious, that, in Portugal, of all pupilhments, inasmuch as it is when a man is observed to be ill-natur- one of the most suitable meaps of re. ed or quarrelsome after drinking, it is formation. Mr Howard tells us, in common in that country to say, " that in his History of Prisons, that, in Hol. he has drank bad wine." While oc. land, it is a common saying, " Make casional fits of intoxication produce ill. men work, and you will make them hotemper in many people, habitual drunk. nest." And over the Rasp and Spio. enness (which is generally produced by house, at Groningen, this sentiment is distilled spirits junever fails to eradicate expreffed, he tells us, by a happy veracity and integrity from the human motto : mind. Perhaps this may be the reason " Vitiorum femina-otium-labore exhauwhy the Spaniards, in ancient times, riendum *,' never admitted a man's evidence in a 6. The effects of excessive feep are court of justice who had been convicted intimately connected with the effects of: of drunkenpefs. Water is, the univer. idleness upon the moral faculty :-hence Sal sedative of turbulent paffions--it not we find that moderate and even scanty only promotes a general equanimity of portions of sleep, in every part of the temper, but it composes anger. I have world, have been found to be friendly, heard several well-aitested cases of a not only to health and long life, but, in draught of cold water having suddenly many inftances, to morality. The praccomposed this violent paffion, after the usual remedies of reason had been applied cxtirpated by labour,

* Idleness; the feed of all vites, is to be no purposes

lice

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