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- took shipping as fast as they could, and of their upper garment twoʻbroad strips 3 fled away for Jerusalem, not so much as of whice linen or parchment. In this

one of them being detained by the ma- reign, Stephen Langton, archbifhop of giftrates, or any further inquiry made Canterbury, and Hugo de Velles, bifhop by the king, into such a fanctified piece of Lincoln (in hopes to drive them aof viliany. Internal trade must at that way by want of sustenance) published time have been chiefly conducted by the injunctions throughout their refpective Jews, lioce they were assembled in such dioceses, that no Christian should prenumbers at an inland fair. They bad fume to have communication with, or probably too bestowed, ere this, upon fell them any provifon, under pain of excommerce, the important improvement communication. And the same seems of inventing bills of exchange, as men- to have been done by the bishop of Nor. tion seems to be made of them, by the wich. Persons unacquainted with the name of Starra (from the Hebrew nature of falfe zeal (continues Tovy, p. Shetar) in certain Latin documents of 83.) when backed by authority, will this æra. The Jews were still admitted scarcely believe that the Jews had been to the liberal professions, as the cruel in any great danger of starving, though edict of Richard I. for registering their the king had not interposed in this matproperty, orders that their “ contracts ter. Yet Rapin tells us, that when the thould be made in the presence of two Gerhardine heretics made their appear. asigned lawyers who were Jews, two ance in the time of Henry 11. and or. who were Christians, and two public ders were given not to relieve them; notaries.” This king appointed Juf- the prohibition was fo punctually ob. ticers of the Jews, whofe office it was served, that all thofe wretches miser. to collect and pay into the exchequer ably perished with hunger. the taxes afseffed

upon

that unfortunate Be it remembered, however, that the sect. Benedict de Talemunt and Jofeph prior of Dunstable, much about this „Aaron were the two first of thefe Jus- time granted to several Jews free liberticers.

ty to refide within his lordship, and to The intolerant policy of Richard I. enjoy all the privileges of it, in confioccafioned the emigration of all the deration of the annual payment of two wealthier Jews, and a consequent de filver spoons. falcation of the revenue ; which was so During the funshine of the King's sensibly felt, that John, in 1199, ufed favour (in 1330) the Jews erected a several arts to bring them back into very stately fynagogue in London, which - his kingdom ; not only confirming their furpassed in magnificence the Christian

ancient, but offering new privileges, and churches. But the people petitioned particularly that of naming a high-priest the king to take it from them and have by the title of Presbyter Judæorum. it confecrated; which accordingly he Many Jews upon this returned, and complied with. In the 18th year of his -were afterwards more cruelly plundered reign, upon a petition of the inhabitants than ever.

Our Great Charter fanc- of Newcastle, he granted them the untions an injustice to the Jews, by enac- hospitable privilege that no Jew should sting that, “ If any persons have bor- ever relide among them. This prince Towed money of the Jews, more or was not free from the confiscatory polidursby and die before they have paid the cy fo common in the dark ages, but fredebt, the debt shall not grow whilst the quently pillaged the Jews ; his necefi. heir is under age,” &c.lt

ties, however, would have continued to Henry III. liberated such Jews as tolerate them, had not the Pope fent were in prison, ordered them to be pro- over the Caursini, Christians and Lottatected againft the insults of Jerusalem bards, who were gradually to superfede pilgrims, and to wear upon the fore-part the ancient practitioners of usury, by

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conducting it in a manner not disapprov- Hebrew books were bought by the fa-
ed by the church. To such a pitch of mous Roger Bacon, who, by a short
hatred was the prejudice which had noce written in one of them, declared
been gradually instilled into the people they were of great service to him in his
against the Jews, arrived during this studies. This expulsion was so com-
reign, that in 1262, when the king, re- plete, that no further traces of English
fusing to stand to the agreement lately Jews occur until long after the Reforma-
made with the Barons at Oxford, with. tion.
drew into the Tower, and threatened It was reserved for the generous po-
the Londoners for taking part with his licy of Oliver Cromwell to attempt re-
enemies ; the Barons suddenly entered storing to Great Britain the industry and
London with great forces, and to keep wealth of the Jews. During ages of
the citizens more strongly in their inte- unrelenting persecutions, they had, how-
rest) gratified them with the slaughter of ever, lost many of the virtues of their
Seven hundred Jews at once, whose houses early character. Oppression had im-
they first plundered, and then burnt their printed an air of meaness, and of fervile
new synagogue to the ground. It was timidity, upon their demeanour. The
however, rebuilt ; but, in 1270, taken undistinguishing contempt of men, who
from them, upon complaint of the Fri- ought to treat them as equals, had lef-
ars Penitents, that they were not able sened the importance, and, therefore
to make the body of Christ in quiet, for the frequency of respectable character
the great howlings the Jews made there among them. This inferior degree of
during their worship.

delicacy in point of reputation, occafi-
In the third year of Edward I. a law oned their being employed in ufurious,
passed the Commons concerning Juda- and other illegal transactions: and these
ism, which seemed to promise a quali. practices kept alive the prejudices of the
fied security; notwithstanding which, in magistrate. Scarcely allowed a home,
the year 1290, and the 18th of his they contracted the habit of all itinerant
reign, the king seized upon all their real pedlars, who never expecting to see the
estates, and the whole community was fame customer twice, having nothing to
for ever banished the kingdom. Yet no apprehend from making an exhorbitant
sooner (adds the historian) was the in- gain upon each single transaction.
ventory made, and every thing sold to Schools, fynagogues, and other insti.
the best bidder, than the whole produce tutions of public instruction, were fo
was unaccountably squandered away, unwillingly allotted them, and their ap-
without one penny being ever set aside pearance in Christian schools so shanie
for those pious uses, which the king had fully refifted, that they were sunk into
talked of. From fifteen to fixteen thou. a degree of ignorance, which increased
fand Jews were thus ruined, and then to themselves and others the difficulty
expelled. During the preceding cen- of bettering their condition.
tury, they must constantly have been in The firit intercourse between Crom-
a state of rapid and progresive diminu- well and the Jews was managed by
tion: neither is it probable, that the means 'of onie Henry Marten, upon
more respectable portion of them should whose intimations, a deputation from
have put so much confidence in edicts the Jews at Amsterdam waited on
eft recall, thus frequently and perfidi- the English ambaffadors there, whom
oully rergkedy as to have been found they entertained with concerts of inu-
fettled in England. Yet even these left fic in their fynagogue, and by means
behind them several valuable libraries, of whom they obtained permission from
que particularly at Stamford, and ano- the instrument-parliament*, to send a pu-
sher, at Oxford, which last being pur-

* The leaders of the Independents held a khased among the Sebolars, most of the convention, at St Albans, on the 16th of DOVOL. LVIIL

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blic envoy with proposals. After some the kings, against fo innocent a people, deliberation, they fixed upon Manaffeh would happily be repealed." He al. Ben Israel, a divine and doctor of physic, so presented, priated, and dispersed, as he stiled himself t; in reality, a prin. a declaration to the commonwealth, ter and a bookseller ; and of whom and a treatife containing several arguHuet tells us, that he was a chief ments for toleration, addreffed to the ruler of the fyragogue, and married to justice of the principled, to the prudence a wife who was related to the family of of the reflecting, and to the prejudices the Abrabanels, which pretends to be of the multitude. On the 4th of De. of the tribe of Judah, and of the house cember 1665, Cromwell summoned a of David, by which wife having several convention, meeting, or priry council, children, he would sometimes boast of consisting of two lawyers, feven citizens, having raised up feed unto David. He and fourteen noted preachers, to consult was a man of great modesty and mode- upon this request of the Jews. Among ration, a perfect master of the letter of the latter, Mr Godwin and Mi Peters fcripture, and very little addicted to (whose works were burned along with the mystical fuperftition of the Cabbala. those of Milton at the Restoration, and He was much acquainted with the Mr Nye (of celebrated beard) particularly younger Voffius,

with Blondel, and exerted themselves in favour of putting with Bochart. The professor Gaspar the Jews upon the like footing with other Barlous addressed to him the following feets. So many

symptoms of prejudice and

intollerance escaped from others, that, Si fapimus diversa, Deo vivamus amici,

after a conference of four days, CromDoctaque mens pretio conftet ubique fuo. well began to think the measure would Hæc fidei vox fumma mea eft; hoc crede not be introduced to the people from Menasse;

the pulpits, in a manner to assist its poSi ego Chriftiades, fic eris Ahramides.

pularity; and therefore dismissed the This Manasseh, on his arrival in Eng, meeting, saying, they had rendered the land, prefented an address to the Lord

matter more doubtful to him than it was Protector, recognizing his authority, before. On the ift of April he took and foliciting his protection :

“ For leave of Manaffeh, by a polite, but evaour people (fays he) did in their own live answer. Whilst this affair was pendmiods prefage, that the kingly govern- ing, the Rabbee Jacob Ben Azahel proment being now changed into that of a feffed to entertain fufpicions that Cromcommonwealth, the ancient hatred to- well was the expected Mesfah, an opiwards them, would also be changed io- nion propagated, no doubt, for the purto good-will: that those rigorous laws, pose of attracting a vast concout fé of if there be any yet extant, made under the lower classes of Jews into England, Nov. 1649, at which Fairfax presided, and in case the political equality, for which tħey drew up a play of constitution, conson- Manasseh petitioned, could have been ant with their republican notions, which they obtained. Some few must, from this published under the title of “The Agreea period, have fettled in London by conment of the People. afterwards realized. The nation having been nivance, fince, in 1663, their register called upon to choose a legislature, conform- of births contained twelve names: and ably to its provisions, by that proclamation during the whole reign of Charles II. of Cromwells, known by the name of the who introduced the fale of paters of ** Inftrument of Government," the firft par- denization, their numbers increased. liament which met under this proclamation, is called the “ Instrument Parliament." The . The notorious pamphlet in favour of fabconventivn, vulgarly called Barebones Parlia- batizing, declared-by the votes of the house, ment, appears to have been a fecond meeting in March 1649, to be erroneous, fcandaloas, of those who affembled at St Alban's. and profane, does not appear to have had the

* Manasseh's pamphlet on this occafion, slightest connection with the views of, Mids has been preserved in the Phænix : a long nasseh and his employers #alogue of his writings is annexed to it.

In 1684, James II, (who lost the cheer,” they were naturally very glad affections of the bigotted people, as to see the number of candidates lessenmuch by his disposition to tolerate both ed for the advantages they were tıcm. Catholics and Disfenters, as by his poli- selves striving to obtain. After the Retical intolerance to the adherents of volution, this order was superseded, to Monmouth) remitted the alien duty up- the great joy of the Christian merchants. on all goods exported in favour of the In the first year of Queen Anne, a Jews. This was universally resented detestable statute was paflid, to encou. by the English merchants, who were rage the conversion of young Jews, by apprehensive that the same duties would emancipating such converts from all dealso be remitted upon all imported goods, pendence upon

their

parents. And, in Petitions from the Hamburgh company, the fixth year of George II. Reafons from the East-land company, from fifty- were offered to the Lord Mayor and seven of the leading merchants in the Court of Aldermen, for applying to par. sity, from the west, and from the north, liament for the suppression of Jew.browere offered to the king againft this e- kers. No public proceeding, however, quitable regulation. These illiberal be: ensued : equity for once overpowered ings were glad, under any pretext, to felfishness: it seemed the dawn of rising defraud some of their neighbours of the liberality; but, like the twilight of a privilege to trade upon the same terms winter's morn within the arctic circle, with themselves : remembering the was to be fucceeded by no effeétual fun. homely proverb, “ the fewer the better thine, (To be continued.)

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STATE OF SOCIETY AND IMPROVEMENT IN RUSSIA.

FROM LETTERS FROM SCANDINAVIA. I ought to except the present Em- the peasants are held checks the spirit press from any share in the censure of improvement in that numerous body which I think due to the sovereigns .of men. A man who can gain nothing of Rullia, for having neglected the mass by becoming wiser than his fellows, of the people, in their endeavours to will hardly be tempted to take much civilize their empire. She has bestow trouble in acquiring fuperfluous accomed her chief attention on the lower or- plishments, or in bestowing them on his ders of her subjects. The instruction children. A Russian peasant has noof the higher classes had already been thing that can stimulate him to the purfufficiently provided for : But it re. fuit of koowledge. He sees himself mained for her to procure the means of fixed to a particular spot, from which inprovement for those who had neither he can have no hope of removing; and money nor leisure to attend the femina- surrounded with beings ignorant and ries which had formerly been instituted, brutish like himself. His industry, if Accordingly she has established a num- he has any, is strictly and permanently ber of schools, in various parts of her appropriated : So many days in the dominions, at which the children of the week, and so many hours in the day, lower classes are instructed in the ele. he knows he must labour for his master! mentary parts of kpowledge suited to and, be his own necessities what they their station,

may, he is sensible that this portion of Many circumstances, however, make his time must not be encroached upon, it probable that, with all the support if he postels horses or cows, or inftrugovernment can bestow, the progrefs of meats of his occupation, a large por. knowledge will not speedily become ex. tion of what he can earn by them goes tensive in Russia. - The state of the to the use of his master. If he has a country is highly unfavourable to its ge- wife and children, these also are but Geral diffusion, The Slavery in which partially his own: his master may com

mand their services whenever, and in the hand of their master, who ought to
whatever manner, he pleases. He is have no will but what he dictates, no
hardly permitted to stir from his hut industry but what he inspires, no emu-
without his master's leave, nor can he lation but what he excites.I will not
earn a fingle morfel of bread without indeed fay, that this is the universal
his permission. If his childreo are to character of the Ruslian peasantry (for
be taught any trade, it is the master the peasants of a few noblemen, as well
who orders what that trade shall be, as those of the crown, are fortunately
and who is to be the teacher: if they an exception): but I may fay, with
are to go to school, the master sends truth, that this character is very gene-
and removes them at his pleasure ; and ral, through this miserable race of
if they wish to marry, they must do it beings.
agreeably to his commands. In a word, The great body of the peasantry being
a k uffian peafant depends on his master thus completely fhut out from the paths
for every thing. He cannot, it is true, of knowledge, not only is the general
be sent out of the world without the progress of improvement retarded, but
forms of law; but, by the negative the chance of the appearance of indiri

. which every master poffefses against dual talents is also extremely narrowed. the marriage of his people, he may be in every country, the number of men prevented from coming into it; and of genius who arife to refine the public when once he has got in, his life may taste, and improve the national characbe made as burdensome as tyranny and ter, will be in proportion to the number

. caprice can defire.

of those who have the means of know. It is to be expected that a power ledge in their power ; together with the thus shamefully unlimited will be often prospect of extending their reputation, as shamefully abused. Accordingly, the and improving their fortune by their acdominion of the pobles over their Naves quirements. In Russia this number is. is least pernicious when it is least active, extremely small. Hence Russia has

-when it leaves the peasant to vegetate produced very few me of distinguished in hopeless indolence. If it is exerted abilities in any line. Her molt celeto inspire him with industry, it considers brated academicians have all been fobim merely as a machine which does reigners. She has produced historians, more work according as it is impelled and poets, and painters.; but their works with a greater force: or as a beast of will not bear a comparison with the first burden, which is forced to exert its of the same kind, which most other pa. ftrength by the spur and the whip. The tions in Europe can boast. improvement of the minds of the pea It would seem that, in the progress fants is a project which has not yet of science, the acquiring of a just conentered into the plan of the Rusían ception of the proper object of literature Jandholders ; it is a project that would is not one of the first attainments of the be generally considered by them as chi- learned. Great literary labour, and merical, if not pernicious. The vil- that too faltained by considerable talents

, lainous policy of despotism has com. has been wasted, by some individuals in monly laboured to degrade those whom this country, on fubje&ts of fingular i it would govern; and to guard, with utility. the most jealous circumspection, every A Ruffian bifhop has spent a great approach through which light may break part of his life in translating the Æneid in on those whom it doums to bondage into Greek verfe. Had he translated and darkness. In consequence of this it into Russian verse, his country would odious system, the peasants are trained have been indebted to him: but lille to congider themselves as beings of an praise, furely, is due to the efforts which inferior nature ; as mere instruments in aim only at erecting a monument to

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