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not been employed in labours more pro- health and strength gradually declined fitable to the world, and more equal to till the period of his death, which haphis mind.

pened in 1790, about two years after During the first years of his residence that of his coulin, and six after that of in this city, his studies seemed to be en- his mother. His last illness, which azirely suspended; and his passion for let. rose from a chronic obstruction in his ters feenied only to amuse his leisure, bowels, was lingering and painful; but and to animate his conversation. The had every confolation to footh it which infirmities of age, of which he very early he could derive from the tenderest fymbegan to feel the approaches, reminded pathy of his friends, and from the comhim at last, when it was too late, of plete resignation of his own mind. what he owed to the public, and his own A fow days before his death, finding fame. The principal materials of the his end approach rapidly, he gave orders works which he had announced, bad to destroy all his manuscripts, exceptbeen long ago collected; and little pro. ing fome detached effiys, which he enbably was wanting, but a few years of trusted to the care of his executors ; and health and retirement, to bestow on them they were accordingly committed to the that systematical arrangement in which fames. What were the particular conhe delighted ; and the ornaments of that tents of thcfi papers, is not known even flowing, and apparently artless style, to his most intimate friends; but there which he had studiously cultivated, but can be no doubt that they consisted, in wirich, after all his experience in com- part, of the lectures on thietoric, which pofition, he adjusted, with extreme dif- he read at Edinburgh in the year 1748, ficulty, to his own taste *.

and of the lectures on Natural Religion The death of his mother in 1984, and on Jurisprudence, which formed part which was followed by that of Miss of his course at Glasgow. That this Douglas in 1788, contributed, it is pro. irreparable injury to letters proceeded, in bable, to frustrate these projects. They fome degree, from an exceffive solicitude had been the objects of his affe&tion for in the author about his posthumous remore than fixty years ; and in their fo. putation, may perhaps be true ; but with ciety he had enjoyed, from his infancy, respect to fome of his manuscripts, may all that he ever knew of the endear we not suppose, that he was influenced ments of a family. He was now alone, by higher motives : It is but seldom that and helpless; and, though he bore his a philosopher, who has been occupied lofs with equanimity, and regained ap- from his youth with moral or with poliparently his tormer cheerfulness, yet his tical enquiries, succeeds completely to

his wish in ftating to others the grounds * Mr Smith observed to me, (says his bio- upon which his own opinions are foundgrapher,) not long before his death, that after ed; and hence it is, that the known all his practice in writing, he composed as flowly, and with as great difficulty, as at first. principles of an individual, who has apHe added, at the fame time, that Mr Hume proved to the public his candour, his lihad acquired so great a facility in this respect, berality, and his judgment, are entitled that the last volumes of his Hiftory were print- to a weight and an authority independed from his original copy, with a few margin- ent of the evidence which he is abie, upal corections.

It may gratify the curiosity of fome read. on any particular occasion, to produce ers to know, that when Mr Smith was em

in their support. A secret conscioufployed in composition, he generally walked ness of this circumstance, and an appreup and down his apartment, dictating to a fe hension, that by not doing justice to an cretary. All Mr Hume's works (I have been important argument, the progress of afired) were written with his own hand. A critical reader may, I think, perceive in the truth may be rather retarded than advan, different flyles of these two classical writers, ced, have probably induced many aus the effects of their different modes of Itudy. thors to with-hold from the world the


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upfinished refults of their most valuable author lived to see the publication of the labours ; and to content themselves with work. The moral and serious strain giving the general sanction of their fuf- that prevails through tñese editions, frages to truths which they regarded as when connected with the declining state peculiarly interestingto the human race *. of his health, adds a peculiar charm to

The additions to the Theory of Mo- his pathetic eloquence; and communiral Sentiments, most of which were com- cates a new interest, if pollible, to those posed under fevere disease, had fortunate- sublime truths, which, in the academily been sent to the press in the begin- cal retirement of his youth, awakened ning of the preceding winter, and the the first ardour of his genius, and on

Some time before his last illness, when which the last efforts of his niind reMr Smith had occasion to go to London, he posed. enjoined his friends, to whom he had entrust

In a letter addressed, in the year 1787, ed the disposal of his manuscripts, that in the to the Principal' of the university of event of his death, they should destroy all the Glasgow, in consequence of his being volumes of his lectures, doing with the rest elected Rector of that learned body, a of his manuscripts what they pleased. When now he had become weak, and saw the ap- pleasing memorial remains of the fatisa proaching period of his life, he spoke to his faction with which he always recollect. friends again upon the fame subject. They ed that period of his literary carcer, entreated him to make his mind easy, as he which had been more peculiarly consemight depend upon their fulfilling his desire.

crated to those important studies. “No He was then satisfied. But fome days afterwards, finding his anxiety not entirely remo- preferment (says he could have given ved, he begged one of them to destroy the me so much real fatisfaction. No man volumes immediately. This accordingly was can owe greater obligations to a society done ; and his mind was so much relicved, thát than I do to the University of Glasgow. he was able to receive his friends in the even

They educated me'; they sent me to ing with his usual complacency. They had been in use to sup with him eve.

Oxford. Soon after my return to Scotry Sunday ; and that evening there was a land, they elected me one of their own pretty numerous meeting of them : Mr Smith members ; and afterwards preferred me not finding himself able to fit up with them to another office, to which, the never to as usual, retired to bed before supper ; and

be forgotten, Dr Hutcheson, had given a as he went away, took leave of his friends by saying, “ I believe we must adjourn this superior degree of illustration. The pemeeting to some other place. He died a very none worth the publication, but a fragment few days afterwards.

of a great work, which contains a history of Mr Riddell, an intimate friend of Mr the astronomical systems that were successiveSmith's, who was present at one of the con- ly in fashion down to the time of Des Cartes; versations on the subject of the manuscripts, Whether that might not be published as a mentioned to me, in addition to Dr Hutton's fragment of an intended juvenile work, I leave pote, that Mr Smith regretted," he had done entirely to your judgement, though I begin fo little. But I meant," said he, “to have to fufpect myself that there is more refinedone more ; and there was materials in my ment than folidity in some parts of it. This papers, of which I could have made a great little work you will find in a thin folio paper deal. But that is now out of the question.' book in my back room. All the other loose

That the idea of destroying such unfinished papers which you will find in the desk, or works as might be in his poffeffion at the time within the glass folding doors of a bureau of his death, was not the effect of any sudden which stands in my bed-room, together with or hasty resolution, appears from the follow. about eighteen thin paper folio books, which ing letter to Mr Hume, written by Mr Smith you will likewise find within the same glasin 1793, at a time when he was preparing folding doors, I defire may be destroyed witha himself for a journey to London, with the out any examination. Unless I die very sudprospect of a pretty long absence from Scot- denly, I shall take care that the papers I carland.

ry with me shall be carefully sent to you. MY DEAR FRIEND, Edin. 16th April 1773. I ever am, my dear friend, most faithfully As I have left the care of all my literary your's,

ADAM SMITH. Fapers to you, I must tell you, that except To David Hume, Esq. those which I carry along with me, there are St Andrew's Square. VOL. LVIII.




riod of thirteen years which I spent as a fitted for the general commerce of the member of that society, I remember as world,

or for the business of active life. by far the most useful, and therefore, as The comprehensive speculations with by far the happiest and most honourable which he had been occupied from his period of my life ; and now, after three youth, and the variety of materials which and twenty years absence, to be remem- his own invention continually supplied to bered in so very agreeable a manner by his thoughts, rendered him habitually my old friends and protectors, gives me inattentive to familiar objects, and to a heart-felt joy which I cannot easily.common occurrences; and he frequentexpress to you."

ly exhibited instances of absence, which Of the intellectual gifts and attain- have scarcely been furpassed by the fanments, by which he was so eminently cy of Bruyere. Even in company, he distinguished ;-of the originality and was apt to be engrossed with his studies ; comprehensiveness of his views ; the ex- and appeared, at times, by the motion tent, the variety and the correctness of of his lips, as well as by his looks and his information; the inexhaustible fer- gestures, to be in the fervour of compotility of his invention ; and the orna- fition. ments which his rich and beautiful ima- To the defect now mentioned, it was gination had borrowed from classical cul- probably owing, in part, that he did not ture ;-he has left behind him lasting fall in easily with the common dialogue monuments. To his private worth the of conversation, and that he was somemost certain of all testimonies may be what apt to convey his own ideas in the found in that confidence, respect, and form of a lecture. When he did fog attachment, which followed him through however, it never proceeded from a wish all the various relations of life. The to engross the discourse, or to gratify serenity and gravity he enjoyed, under his vanity. His own inclination difpo. the pressure of his growing infirmities, fed him so strongly to enjoy in silence and the warm interest he felt to the last, the gaiety of those around him, that his in every thing connected with the wel. friends were often led to concert little fare of his friends, will be long remen. schemes in order to bring him on the bered by a small circle; with whom, as subjects most likely to interest him. Nor his strength permitted, he regularly spent do I think I shall be accused of going an evening in the week; and to whom too far, when I say, that he was scarcethe recollection of his worth ftill forms ly ever known to start a new topic hima pleasing, though melancholy bond of self, or to appear upprepared on those union.

topics that were introduced by others. The more delicate and characteristi- Indeed, his conversation was never more cal features of his mind, it is perhaps amusing than when he gave a loofe to impossible to trace. That there were his genius, upon the very few branches peculiarisies, both in his manners, and in of knowledge of which he only poffeffed his intellectual habits, was manifest to the outlines. the most fuperficial observer ; but altho' The opinions he formed of men, upto thofe who knew him, these peculiari- on a Night acquaintance, were frequentties detracted nothing from the refpect ly erroneons ; but the tendency of his which his abilities commanded ; and, nature inclined him much more to blind although to his intimate .friends, they partiality, than to ill-founded prejudice. added an inexpressible charm to his con- The enlarged views of human affairs, verfatior., while they displayed, in the on which his mind habitually dwelt, left most interesting light, the artless fimpli- him neither time nor inclination to city of his heart : yet it would require study, in detail, the uninteresting pecua very skilful pencil to present them to liarities of ordinary characters; and the public eye. He was certainly not accordingly, though intimately acquaint


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ed with the capacities of the intellect, premeditated judgments, to be too fyland the workings of the heart, and tematical, and too much in extremes. accustomed, in his theories, to mark, But, in whatever way these trifling with the most delicate hand, the nicest peculiarities in his manners may be exshades, both of genius and of the plained, there can be no doubt, that passions ; yet, in judging of individuals, they were intimately connected with it sometimes happened, that his estimates the genuine artlessness of his mind. In were, in a surprising degree, wide of this amiable quality, he often recalled the truth.

to his friends, the accounts that are The opinions, too, which, in the given of good La Fontaine ; a quality thoughtlefinefs and confidence of his which in him derived a peculiar grace social hours, he was accustomed to from the fingularity of its combination hazard on books, and on questions of with those powers of reason and of clospeculation, were not uniformly such as quence, which, in his political and momight have been expected from the fupe. ral writings, have long engaged the adriority of his understanding, and the lin- miration of Europe. gular consistency of his philosophical prin- In his external form and appearance, ciples. They were liable to be influenced there was nothing uncommon. When by accidental circumstances, and by the perfectly at ease, and when warmed hamour of the moment; and when re. with conversation, his gestures were tailed by those who only saw him occa- animated, and not ungraceful; and, in fionally, suggested false and contradice the society of those he loved, his featory ideas of his real sentiments. On tures were often brightened with a these, however, as on most other occa. smile of inexpressible benignity. In the fions, there was always much truth, as company of itrangers, his tendency to well as ingenuity, in his remarks ; and absence, and perhaps still more his if the different opinions which, at dif- conciousness of this tendency, rendered ferent times, he pronounced upon the his manner somewhat embarrassed ; same subject, had been all combined to an effect which was probably not a little gether, so as to modify and limit each heightened by those speculative ideas of other, they would probably have afford- propriety, which his reclufe habtis ed materials for a decision, equally com- tended at once to perfect in his conprehensive and just. But, in the socie- ception, and to diminish his power of ty of his friends, he had no disposition realizing. He never sat for his picture ; to form those qualified conclusions that but the medallion of Tassie conveys an we admire io his writings; and he ge- exact idea of his profile, and of the Derally contented himself with a bold general expression of his countenance and masterly sketch of the object, from The valuable library that he had the first point of view in which his tem- collected he bequeathed, together with per, or his fancy, presented it. Some- the rest of his property, to his cousin thing of the same kind might be remark- Mr David Douglas, Advocate. lo the ed, when he attempted, in the flow of education of this young gentleman, he his fpirits, to delineate those characters had employed much of his leisure ; and which, from long intimacy, he might it was only two years before his death, have been supposed to understand tho- (at a time when he could ill spare the rooghly. The picture was always live- pleasure of his fociety,) that he had ly, and expressive ; and commonly bore sent him to study law at Glasgow, under á strong and amusing resemblance of the the care of Mr Millar ;-the strongest original, when viewed under one partie proof he could give of his disinterelted cular aspect ; but feldom, perhaps, con zeal for the improvement of his friend, veyed a just and complete conception of as well as of the esteem in which he it in all its dimensions and proportions. * From this the engraving perfixed is taken. In a word, it was the fault of his un.

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held the abilities of that eminent Pro- timate and cordial friendship ; and who, feffor.

to the many other instances which they The executors of his will were Dr had given him of their affection, added Black and Dr Hutton, with whom he the mournful office of witnessing his last : had long lived in habits of the most in moments.


SECRETARY TO THE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE, FEW writers have rendered such ef- in this plan, he travelled about in search sential services to their country as the of a proper farm, and in the course of gentleman now under our consideration, his journies laid the foundations of some whose life has been devoted to the most of his Tours. He at length fixed in useful pursuits ; but whose reward has Hertfordshire, where he resided ninę not been equal to what might have been years, making a great number of expeexpected from the liberality of an opu. riments, which have fince been published. lent nation, and the advantages derived Mr Young then returned to Bradfield, fron his labours.

and his mother died soon after. By her From an account published by himself; death he came into possession of theestate in a moment of depression, in very use- he at present holds ; and his loss of so ful work, entitled, “ Annals of Agri. excellent a parent he has regretted in culture,” we learn, that he was born at very pathetic terms, such as do honour Bradfield, and defcended from a good to his feelings as a man. Family, which had resided on that spot The writings of our author were at very near two hundred years, none of first extremely successful, which induwhom, èxcept his father, had any thing ced him, as he candidly acknowledges, to depend on but his land. He was a to write and print a great deal too much younger brother. About the year 1761 and too fast; being however in a good he began his farming pursuits upon the measure led to this by numerous applilands he at present occupies. “Young, cations from various persons, requesting eager, and totally ignorant,” he says, him to give that attention to certain sub

trusting to a bailiff, who, I conceive jects, which ought to have been more now, merited no confidence, either for coolly considered. When we consider honesty or' skill, it was not surprising the manner and variety of Mr Young's that I squandered much money under works at the time he refers to, his obgolden dreams of improvements ; espe- fervation will excite but little surprize. cially as I conţracted a thirst for expe- Many of these works, howerer, are in. riment, without the knowledge of what titled to praise in some respects, and he an experiment demands, and which a himself excepts from his own censure his series of proofs alone can give. In a few Tours, which have stood, and he trusts years a declining purse, with some do. will remain, on a founder foundation. mestic disputes, from the mixture of fa- “ To them,” he says, “I may, with milies, and the prudent cautioo of onę a. vanity perhaps somewhat excusable, of the best of mothers, to whose memo- affert, that the agriculture of this kingry my heart would be dead were it not dom owes much ; and that many of the to beat with a more than grateful re- improvements now practised with the membrance, all together induced me to greatest success, may be dated from the remove from Bradfield.”

publication of those journies, so often He then hired Sampford Hall, in Ef. plundered rather than quoted, without a sex; but before he had taken possession, mark or atom of ackrowledgement.” was obliged to relinquish his agreement, In the years 1776, 1777, 1778, and from a disappointment in the loan of 1779, he went his journies to Ireland, some money he had expected. Failing and resided at one time more than a year

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