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not been employed in labours more pro- health and strength gradually declined fitable to the world, and more equal to till the period of his death, which haphis mind.
pened in 1790, about two years after During the first
years of his residence that of his cousin, and fix after that of in this city, his studies seemed to be en- his mother. His last illness, which azirely suspended; and his passion for let. rose from a chronic obstruction in his ters seenied only to amuse his leisure, bowels, was lingering and painful; but and to animate his conversation. The had every confolation to footh it which infirmities of age, of which he very early he could derive from the tenderest symbegan to feel the approaches, reminded pathy of his friends, and from the comhim at last, when it was too late, of plete resignation of his own mind. what he owed to the public, and his own A few days before his death, finding fame. The principal materials of the his end approach rapidly, he gave orders works which he had announced, had to destroy all his manuscripts, exceptbeen long ago collected ; and litile pro ing some detached effiys, which he enbably was wanting, but a few years of trusted to the care of his executors; and health and retirement, to beltow on them they were accordingly committed to the that systematical arrangement in which fiamies. What were the particular conhe delighted ; and the ornaments of that tents of this papers, is not known even flowing, and apparently artless style, to his mort intimate friends; but there which he had studiously cultivated, but can be no doubt that they conlisted, in which, after all his experience in com- part, of the lectures on thetoric, which pofition, he adjusted, with extreme dif- he read at Edinburgh in the year 1748, ficulty, to bis own taste *.
and of the lectures on Natural Religion The death of his mother in 1984, and on Jurisprudence, which formed part which was followed by that of Miss of his course at Glasgow. That this Douglas in 1788, contributed, it is pro- irreparable injury to letters proceeded, in bable, to frustrate these projects. They some degree, from an excessive solicitude had been the objęcts of luis affection for in the author about his posthumous remore than fixty years ; and in their fo. putation, may perhaps be true ; but with ciety he had enjoyed, from his infancy, respect to some of his manuscripts, may all that he ever knew of the endear we not suppose, that he was influenced ments of a family. He was now alone, by higher motives : It is but seldom that and helpless; and, though he bore his a philosopher, who has been occupied loss with equanimity, and regained ap- from his youth with moral or with poliparently his former cheerfulness, yet his tical enquiries, succeeds completely to
his wish in ftating to others the grounds * Mr Smith observed to me, (says his bio
upon which his own opinions are foundgrapher,) not long before his death, that after ed; and hence it is, that the known all his practice in writing, he composed as Howly, and with as great difficulty, as at first. principles of an individual, who has apHe added, at the fame time, that Mr Hume proved to the public his candour, his lihad acquired so great a facility in this respect, berality, and his judgment, are entitled that the last volumes of his Hiftory were print- to a weight and an authority independed from his original copy, with a few margin- ent of the evidence which he is abie, upal corections.
'It may gratify the"curiofity of some read. on any particular occasion, to produce ers to know, that when Mr Smith was em in their support. A secret consciousployed in composition, he generally walked ness of this circumstance, and an appreup and down his apartment, dictating to a fe hension, that by not doing justice to an cretary, All Mr Hame's works (I have been important argument, the progress of all'ared) were written with his own hand. A critical reader may, I think, perceive in the truth may be rather retarded than advan, different styles of these two callical writers, ced, have probably induced many authe effects of their different modes of ftudy. thors to with-hold from the world the
znfinished results of their most valuable author lived to see the publication of the labours ; and to content themselves with work. The moral and serious strain paring the general fanction of their fuf- that prevails through these editions,
to truths which they regarded as when connected with the declining state e larly interestingto the human race*. of his health, 'adds a peculiar charm to The auditions to the Theory of Mo- his pathetic eloquence; and communinuments, most of which were com cates a new interest, if possible, to those sender severe disease, had fortunate- sublime truths, which, in the academic waren fent to the press in the begin- cal retirenient of his youth, awakened -3 of the preceding winter, and the the first ardour of his genius, and on • Some time before his last illness, when which the last efforts of his niind reM: Smith had occasion to go to London, he posed. ir ned his friends, to whom he had entrust. In a letter addressed in the
year 1787, of the disposal of his manuscripts, that in the to the Principal of the university of efect of his death, they should destroy all the Glasgow, in confequence of his being tumes of his ledures, doing with the rest elected Rector of that learned body, a of his manuscripts what they pleased. When sw be had become weak, and saw the pleasing memorial remains of the fatispouching period of his life, he spoke to his faction with which he always recollect. friends again upon the fame fubje&. They ed that period of his literary career, cutezted him to make his mind easy, as he which had been more peculiarly consemeghat depend upon their fulfilling his desire. crated to those important studies. No He was theo lati-fied. But some days afterwards, finding his anxiety not entirely remo
preferment (says he) could have given ved, he begged one of them to destroy the me so much real fatisfaction. No man volumes immediately. This accordingly was can owe greater obligations to a fociety done ; and his mind was so much relicved, that than I do to the University of Glasgow. he was able to receive his friends in the even. They educated me'; they sent me to ng with his usual complacency. They had been in use to fup with him eve.
Oxford. Soon after my return to Scotsp sunday; and that evening there was a land, they elected me one of their own pretty numerous
meeting of them : Mr Smith members ; and afterwards preferred me in finding himself able to sit up with them to another office, to which, the never to as usual, retired to bed before fupper ; and be forgotten, Dr Hutcheson, had given a - Laying, “ I believe we must adjourn this fuperior degree of illustration. The pemeeting to some other place. He died a very none worth the publication, but a fragment iw cars afterwards.
of a great work, which contains a history of Mr Riddell, an intimate friend of Mr the astronomical systems that were successive. Smith's, who was present at one of the con- ly in fashion down to the time of Des Cartesi terisions on the subject of the manuscripts, Whether that might not be published as a
buned to me, in addition to Dr Hutton's fragment of an intended juvenile work, I leave Eve that Mr Smith regretted," he had done entirely to your judgement, though I begin 1 Bee. But I meant," said he, “to have to suspect myself that there is more refinetoe mors; and there was materials in my ment than folidity in some parts of iť. This papers, of which I could have made a great little work you will find in a thin folio paper Cal. But that is now out of the question.' book in my back room. All the other loose
That the idea of destroying such unfinished papers which you will find in the desk, or wives as might be in his poffeffion at the time within the glass folding doors of a bureau fins death, was not the effect of any sudden which stands in my bed-room, together with
hly refo!ution, appears from the follow. about eighteen thin paper folio bopks, which par letter to Mr Hume, written by Mr Smith you will likewise find within the same glas-1993, at a time when he was preparing folding doors, I desire may be destroyed with
for a journey to London, with the out any examination. Unless I die very sudfocused of a pretty long absence from Scot- denly, I shall take care that the papers I car
ry with me shall be carefully sent to you. MY DEAR FRIEND, Edin. 16th April 1773. I ever am, my dear friend, most faithfully As I have left the care of all my literary your's,
ADAM SMITH. iapers to you, I must tell you, that except To David Hume, Esq. Líc which I carry along with me, there are St Andrew's Square. VOL. LVIII.
riod of thirteen years which I spent as a fitted for the general commerce of the member of that fociety, I remember as world, or for the business of active life. by far the most useful, and therefore, as The comprehensive speculations with by far the happiest and most honourable which he had been occupied from his period of
after three youth, and the variety of materials which and twenty years absence, to be remem- his own invention continually supplied to bered in so very agreeable a manner by his thoughts, rendered him habitually my old friends and protectors, gives me inattentive to familiar objects, and to a heart-felt joy which I cannot easily. common occurrences; and he frequentexpress to you.”
ly exhibited instances of absence, which Of the intellectual gifts and attain. have scarcely been furpassed by the fanments, by which he was so eminently cy of Bruyere. Even in company, he distinguished ;-of the originality and was apt to be engrossed with his studies; comprehensiveness of his views ; the ex. and appeared, at times, by the motion tent, the variety and the correctness of of his lips, as well as by his looks and his information ; the inexhaustible fer- gestures, to be in the fervour of compotility of his invention ; and the orna- fition. ments which his rich and beautiful ima. To the defect now mentioned, it was gination had borrowed from classical cul- probably owing, in part, that he did not ture ;-he has left behind him lasting fall in easily with the common dialogue monuments. To his private worth the of conversation, and that he was somemost certain of all testimonies may be what apt to convey his own ideas in the found in that confidence, respect, and form of a lecture. When he did fo, attachment, which followed him through however, it never proceeded from a wish all the various relations of life. The to engross the discourse, or to gratify serenity and gravity he enjoyed, under his vanity. His own inclination dispothe pressure of his growing infirmities, fed him so strongly to enjoy in silence and the warm interest he felt to the last, the gaiety of those around him, that his in every thing connected with the wel. friends were often led to concert little fare of his friends, will be long remen. schemes in order to bring him on the bered by a small circle, with whom, as subjects most likely to interest him. Nor his strength permitted, he regularly spent do I think I shall be accused of going an evening in the week; and to whom too far, when I say, that he was scarcethe recollection of his worth still forms ly ever known to start a new topic hima pleasing, though melancholy bond of self, or to appear unprepared on those union.
topics that were introduced by others. The more delicate and characteristi. Indeed, his conversation was never more cal features of his mind, it is perhaps amusing than when he gave a loose to impoflible to trace. That there were his genius, upon
few branches peculiarisies, both in his manners, and in of knowledge of which he only poffeffed his intellectual habits, was manifest to the outlines. the most fuperficial observer ; but altho' The opinions he formed of men, upto thofe who knew him, these peculiari- on a flight acquaintance, were frequenta ties detracted nothing from the refpect ly erroneons ; but the tendency of his which his abilities commanded ; and, nature inclined him much more to blind although to his intimate .friends, they partiality, than to ill-founded prejudice. added an inexpressible charm to his con- The enlarged views of human affairs, versation, while they displayed, in the on which his mind habitually dwelt, left most interesting light, the artless simpli. him neither time nor inclination to city of his heart : yet it would require study, in detail, the uninteresting pecua very skilful pencil to present them to liarities of ordinary characters; and the public eye. He was certainly not accordingly, though intimately acquaint
ed with the capacities of the intellect, premeditated judgments, to be too fysad the workings of the heart, and tematical, and too much in extremes. accustomed, in his theories, to mark, But, in whatever way these trifling with the most delicate hand, the nicest peculiarities in his manners may be ex, izes, both of genius and of the plained, there can be no doubt, that os; yet, in judging of individuals, they were intimately connected with : setimes happened, that his eltimates the genuine artlessness of his mind. In 70, in a surprising degree, wide of this amiable quality, he often recalled truth.
to his friends, the accounts that are The opinions, too, which, in the given of good La Fontaine ; a quality begbeleliness and confidence of his which in him derived a peculiar grace social hours, he was accustomed to from the fingularity of its combination hazard on books, and on questions of with those powers of reason and of clo. fpeculation, were not uniformly fuch as quence, which, in his political and momight have been expected from the fupe- ral writings, have long engaged the adnority of his understanding, and the fin- miration of Europe. galerconfiftency of his philofophical prin In his external form and appearance, copes. They were liable to be influenced there was nothing uncommon. When by accidental circumstances, and by the perfectly at ease, and when warmed hamour of the moment; and when re. with conversation, his gestures were z led by those who only saw him occa- animated, and not ungraceful; and, in fionally, suggested false and contradic. the society of those he loved, his featory ideas of his real sentiments. On tures were often brightened with a these, however, as on most other occa- smile of inexpressible benignity. In the hors, there was always much truth, as company of strangers, his tendency to well as ingenuity, in his remarks ; and absence, and perhaps still more his if the different opinions which, at dif- conciousness of this tendency, rendered ferest times, he pronounced upon the his manner somewhat embarrassed ;feme subject, had been all combined to an effect which was probably not a little gether, fo as to modify and limit each heightened by those speculative ideas of wher, they would probably have afford- propriety, which bis reclufe habtis ed materials for a decision, equally com- tended at once to perfect in his conprehensive and just. But, in the socie- ception, and to diminish his power of ty of his friends, he had no disposition realizing. He never sat for his picture ; to form those qualified conclusions that but the medallion of Tallie conveys an ve admire io his writings; and he ge- exact idea of his profile, and of the Derally contented himself with a bold general expression of his countenance and masterly sketch of the object, from
The valuable library that he had the first point of view in which his tem- collected he bequeathed, together with per, or his fancy, presented it. Some- the rest of his property, to his cousin thing of the same kind might be remark. Mr David Douglas, Advocate. In the ed, when he attempted, in the flow of education of this young gentleman, he bus fpirits, to delineate those characters had employed much of his leisure ; and which, from long intimacy, he might it was only two years before his death, are been supposed to understand tho- (at a time when he could ill spare the sooghly. The picture was always live- pleasure of his fociety,) that he had ", and expressive; and commonly bore sent him to study law at Glasgow, under é trong and amasing resemblance of the the care of Mr Millar ;-the strongest original, when viewed under one parti, proof he could give of his dißinterelted Cuar aspect ; but seldom, perhaps, con. zeal for the improvement of his friend, seyed a jult and complete conception of as well as of the esteem in which he it in all its dimensions and proportions. * From this the engraving perfixed is taken. In a word, it was the fault of his un.
held the abilities of that eminent Pro- timate and cordial friendship ; and who, feflor.
to the many other instances which they The executors of his will were Dr had given him of their affection, added Black and Dr Hutton, with whom he the mournful office of witpefling his laft had long lived in habits of the most in. moments.
SOME ACCOUNT OF ARTHUR YOUNG, ESQ.
SECRETARY TO THE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. FEW writers have rendered such es- in this plan, he travelled about in search sential services to their country as the of a proper farm, and in the course of gentleman now under our consideration, his journies laid the foundations of some whose life has been devoted to the most of his Tours. He at length fixed in useful pursuits ; but whose reward has Hertfordshire, where he refided nine not been equal to what might have been years, making a great number of expeexpected from the liberality of an opu. riments, which have since been published. lent nation, and the advantages derived Mr Young then returned to Bradfield, fron his labours.
and his mother died soon after. By her From an account published by himself, death he came into poffeffion of the estate in a mome of depression, in a very use- he at present holds ; and his loss of so ful work, entitled, “ Annals of Agri- excellent a parent he has regretted in culture," we learn, that he was born at very pathetic terms, such as do honour Bradfield, and defcended from a good to his feelings as a man. family, which had resided on that spot The writings of our author were at very near two hundred years, none of first extremely successful, which induwhom, èxcept his father, had any thing ced him, as he candidly acknowledges, to depend on but his land. He was a to write and print a great deal too much younger brother. About the year 1761 and too fast; being however in a good he began his farming pursuits upon the measure led to this by numerous applilands he at present occupies. “Young, cations from various persons, requesting cager, and totally ignorant,” he says, him to give that attention to certain sub
trusting to a bailiff, who, I conceivę jects, which ought to have been more now, merited no confidence, either for coolly considered. When we consider honesty or' skill, it was not surprising the manner and variety of Mr Young's that I squandered much money under works at the time he refers to, his obgolden dreams of improvements; espe- fervation will excite but little surprize. cially as I conţracted a thirst for expe- Many of these works, howerer, are in. riment, without the knowledge of what titled to praise in some respects, and he an experiment demands, and which a himself excepts from his own censure his series of proofs alone can give. In a few Tours, which have stood, and he trusts years a declining purse, with some do- will remain, on a founder foundation. mestic disputes, from the mixture of fa. “ To them,” he says, “I may, with milies, and the prudenț cautioo of onę a, vanity perhaps somewhat excusable, of the best of mothers, to whose memo- assert, that the agriculture of this kingry my heart would be dead were it not dom owes much ; and that many of the to beat with a more than grateful re- improvements now practised with the membrance, all together induced me to greatest success, may be dated from the remove from Bradfield.”
publication of those journies, so often He then hired Sampford Hall, in Ef- plundered rather than quoted, without a fex; but before he had taken poffeflion, mark or atom of ackrowledgement." was obliged to relinquish his agreement, In the years 1776, 1777, 1778, and From a disappointment in the loan of 1779, he went his journies to Ireland, fome money he had expected. Failing and resided at one time more than a year