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the river have invited many gentlemen factory for dying cotton a Turkey red to build seats upon them. The House colour, in which they have completely of Bothwell, the residence of Lord fucceeded. Among other things wor. Douglas, is a handsome edifice, situat- thy of notice, may be mentioned the ed at a small distance from Bothwell aqueduct bridge of the river Kelvin : it Calle of ancient fame ; and Woodhall, is carried over a valley 400 feet long, the seat of Campbell of Shawfield, are and 65 deep : it consists of 4 large well worth the notice of the traveller. arches : the height from the bed of the

RUTHERGLEN is one of the finest pa- river to the top of the bridge is 83 feet, rifhes in this distri&, though small, it forming one of the most ftupendous extends on the south bank of the Clyde, works of the kind perhaps in the world. 3 miles in length, and about 1 in The canal admits veffeis of 19 feet breadth, containing 1860 inhabitants. beam, and 68 feet keel. The great caThe foil is in general a rich loam, and nal uniting the Friths of Forth and the whole is inclosed ard cultivated. Clyde, and the Monkland canal, are The average rent is about 40s. per acre. pleasing monuments of the prosperity Rutherglen is a Royal Borough, situat- and enterprize of the inhabitants of this ed 2 miles from Glasgow; the fairs corner of the island. held in it are the most famous of any in Glasgow is a handsome, populous, Scotland for the sale of draught horses. and well built city. It is situated on The minerals here are coal, and iron- the banks of the river Clyde, over which ftone. The gentlemens' seats are Shaw- there are now three elegant bridges field, Farme, and Rosebank.

built. The tide flows up nearly 4 miles BARONY OF GLASGow. This, with the above the city. The number of ioba.' city, previous to 1595, made one parish. bitants is 61,945. The annual births It extends all around Glasgow, except is 1250 ; burials 1561. As the city on the south side, from 2 to 5 miles in is daily on the increase, these must rary breadth, and contains near 4000 inha- yearly. The limits fèt to this article bitants. It is adorned by many gentie- of our miscellany do not admit of an enmens' seats, and is in the course of re- larged description of this city. We mult ceiving great improvements. . Glasgow refer to the accounts of it which have is surrounded with coal, the annual pro- been published by Mr D. Ure and Mr duce of which is estimated at 30,000). Gibson, and to Dr Lettice's Tour, Many of the manufactures connected part of which will be found in our 56th with Glasgow are situated here : There vol. p. 391, 454. We may briefly noare about 3cco looms employed. The ma- tice, that the cotton manufactory, which sufacture of the dye-Ituff called cudbear now is the principal one, in 1791, emis carried on here under the firm of Geo. ployed 15,000 looms, each loon giving M'Intosh & Co. who have brought it employment to 9 perfons on an average, to great perfection. This remarkable making in all 135,000 persons. The dye-stuff is made from the excrefcence average produce of each loom is ico!. which grows on rocks and stones, a spe- annualiy, making 1,500,cool. Sterling. cies of the leichen, or rock-moss. It It was here that the first incle loom was was used for this purpose in the High- established in the year 1732, and the lands upwards of a hundred years back. first delft ware made in Scotland was This company now bring their moss manufactured here in 1748. from Sweden and Norway: their an- GORBALS of Glasgow. This paris nual expence for human urine for this was disjoined from that of Goran, and manufacture is not less than 800l. Ster- crected into a separate parish in the year ling: they use above 2000 gallons dai. 1771. It contains above 5000 inhabily. Mr MIntosh, with some other tants; it is much on the increase, aod, gentlemen, has also established a manu- owing to the new bridge throwo over



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the Clyde, may be considered as a part About four-fifths of the parish is arable, of the city of Glasgow.

the rest is moor and mors. Great at. Govan. This parish is 5 miles tention is paid to the making of sweet long and 3 broad, containing about milk cheele, which gocs under the name 4,400 inhabitarts. The real ient is a- of Dunlop, and is considered the best bout 6oool. per annum.

The soil is in Scotland. The minerals are lime mostly a light loam, which, though not and iron stone, in great plenty, and naturally fertile, is, from the improved coals of the best quality. The families ftate of agriculture, very productive. It of Calderwood and Torrance have furlies mostly on the banks of the Clyde, nilhed, repeatedly, itatesmen and warand is all inclosed. Coal has been riors of distinguished abilities. wrought here for many years, and there two Hunters, Dr Willian and Joha, is plenty of free-stone and brick clay. of London, well known in the literary

Many manufactures are carried on in world, were born at Long Calderwood In this parish, and to a considerable extent, in this parish. particularly bleaching.

GLASFORD. This parish is feven CAMBUSNET HAN. This parith is a. miles long, and at an average two broad, bout 12 miles in length, and 2's in and contains 388 inhabitants. The fur| breadth, containing 1562 inhabitants. face is varicus; the fuil in some places

It lies 9 miles from Lanark, on the is a light loam, in others a ítrong clay, road to Glasgow. The surface rises but in many parts it is a barren moss. gently from the river Clyde ; the foil on It is remarkable, that in the light and the bariks of the river is, in general, a most productive ground there is a valt deep clay, gradually tending to moss proportion of stones, which, when taand land in the higher grounds. The ken ofi, instead of meliorating, imporent of the arable ground is from 20s. verish the foil. In this parish, a great to 30s. per acre, yielding, in whole, a- proportion of the veal fold in the Edinbout 3300l. Sterling. In general the burgh market is reared. the ground is well inclosed; the various MONKLAND. There are two parishes plantations and orchards give it a rich of this name, Old or west, and New or and cultivated appearance. There is east Monkland. The former is ten abundance of excellent coal, and plenty miles long and three and a half broad, of free None, and iron stone.

containing 400: inhabitants. The latCADDER. This parish is extensive ter, or Ext' Monkiand, is of equal and populous. In length from E. to W. length, and where broadet abo:lt 7 miles, ii measures 13 miles, and from 3 to 4 and contains about 3,500 inbabitants. in breadth ; the number of inhaliants Almost the whole of this extensive tract

The surface is in general is fertile and well cultivated ; the parish fat, and the soil various, great part is of Old Mookland indeed has the aplight and sandy; the total rent is about pearance of an immense garden. The 6000!. per annum. The great canal minerals are coal in great abundance, passes through the parish, also the road forming an article of commerci, ironfrom Glasgow to Edinbargh. Whin. ftone, and plenty of free stone. Though stone, fand-stone, and line-stone, are in lim-fione lias been found, there is none great abundance, but no coal wrought, wrought in cither of these parishes. On though there is plenty in the neighbour- the clate of Monkland there is a large ing grounds.

artificial care, o greai antiquity, dug East KILBRIDE. This parih is, qut»of the folid rock. from north to 'fouth 10 miles, the a. CARMUNNOCK. This parish contains verage breadth

3. It consists of the 2500 acres, of which 1500 are arable, united parishes of Torrance ard Kil- renting, on an average, at 15% per acre. bride, and contains 2359 inhabitants. It contains about 570 inhabitants, and

is 1767.

of war.

extends from west to east 4 miles, and chief employments of the inhabitants. from north to fouth 3. The ground is , The extenfive coallieries, too, occupy a pretty much elevated ; the soil is partly number of hands. It may be remarked, light and fandy, and partly of a strong 'that the coal, as well as the freestone, clay, and the greater part is inclosed. on both sides of the Clyde, dip or inThe banks of the river Cart are beauti- cline to the river. There is here, too, fully wooded, and the scenery pi&tur. a quarry of marble which takes a very esque and romantic. Many tumuli are good polish. This parish is noted for to be met with here ; those that have the numerous conversions that happened been dug into, always contain human during the miniitry of the Rev. Mr bones, arms, and frequently instruments M Culloch about the year 1742.

In the estate of Castlemilk, Shorts. This large parith is fitumay be seen the remains of a Roman ated in the north-east corner of Lanark. causeway. There is plenty of freeltone, fhire. In length it measures 10 miles, , and in one district whinitone abounds, and 7 in breadth. The surface is bro. , appearing, in some places, in the form ken and hilly. The Hirst hill bas been of masly basaltic columns.

considered the highest cultivated land in CAMBUSLANG is about 3 miles square, Scotland, but this is a miltake arising situated on the banks of Clyde beiween from that ground being the highelt be. Hamilton and Glasgow; it contains a- tween the Frith of Forth and Clyde, bout 1288 inhabitants. This parish is both which are seen from this hill. beautifully diversified with hill and dale. The foil is poor, renting from 55. to Dichmont, the highest ground, is 700 135. per acre, the whole yielding 45cul. . feet above the level of the sea, and com- Sterling. Coal and ironttone are plenmands one of the finest prospects almost ty here. Corvin Hamilton, Esq; of to be met with any where. The soil Murdielton, the most celcbrated history i on ihan er is loamy and fertile, on the painter now alive, is a native of this higher grounds it gradually turns to a parish. (To be continued.) clay, generally upon a tilly bottom. A Table of the Foffiis found in this Weaving and spinning of cotton are the district, will be given in the Appendix,

TO THE EDITOR OF THE SCOTS MAGAZINE. Sir, YOUR ir serting the inclosed curious bill of the King's skinner, anno 1625, in your authentic repoStory, will oblige many, and in particular

ANTIQUARIUS. For the Right Honorable my Lord Marqus Hambieto° the last of Januarie 1625. Ite, for furringe of his Honore’s Creation Robe of Crimfine Vellity, and Scots.

furred wth Armines, and powdered according to the Order; and for

Armines to reforme the saine Robe and the Worke
Ite, for laying in a fure of whyte Foxes into a Crimfine Silke Chamber

Coate the Worke
Ite, for Silke
Ite, for providing of a P leme t Robe for yor Honor
Ite, for keeping and airinge of your Robes, and fures, for the Space of
Ite, for Laying in a fure of Whyte foxes into a Scarlett Coat, the Work-

man shipe Ite, for Silke

Some is

L. 48 2 Rqv in pt

L. 20

HAMILTON. Quoted on the back thuş, “ Thomas Langhorn; the Kings. Skinders Bill.” # We had no charaders which resemble the original figures.

* L. 300


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ON THE ORIGIN AND USE OF NAVAL SIGNALS. WHEN we read at our fire-lide the with a dispatch that is not attainable in account of an engagement, or other in- the operations of a land army. The teresting operation of an army, our at- scene of action is unincumbered, so that tention is generally so much engaged the eye of the admiral can behold the by the results, that we give but little at- whole without interruption. The movetention to the movements which led to ments which it is possible to execute are them, and produced them ; and we fel. few, and they are precise. A few words dom form to ourselves any distinct no. are sufficient to order them, and thera tion of the conduct of the day. But a the mere fighting the ships must always profeflional man, or one accultomed to be left to their respective commanders. reflection, and who is not satisfied with This fimplicity in the duty to be

pere the mere indulgence of eager curiosity, formed has enabled us to frame a lanfollows every regiment in its movements, guage fully adequate to the business in endeavours to see their connection, and hand, by which à correspondence can the influence which they have had on be kept up as far as the eye can see. the fate of the day, and even to form This is the language of signals, a lanto himself a general notion of the whole guage by writing, addressed to the eye, scene of action at its different interest- and which he that runneth may read. ing periods : He looks with the eye As, in common writing, certain arbiof the general, and sees his orders suc- trary marks are agreed on to express ceed or fail.

certain sounds used in fpeech, or rather, But when we think, for a moment, as in hieroglyphics, certain arbitrary on the situation of the commander of a marks are agreed on to express certain fleet, confined on board one ship, and thoughts, or the subjects of these thoughts; this ship, as much, or more closely, en- so here certain exhibitions are made, gaged than any other of the feet; and which are agreed on to express.certain when we reflect that here are no mef- movements to be executed by the comsengers ready to carry his orders to ships mander to whom they are addressed, of the squadron at the distance of miles and all are enjoined to keep their eyes from him, and to deliver them with pre- fixed on the ship of the conductor of cision and distinctness'; and that even if the fleet, that they may learn his will. this were possible by sending fmall ships It is scarcely possible for any number or boats, the vicissitudes of wind and of ships to act in concert, without some weather

may render the communication such mode of communication between so tedious, that the favourable moment the admiral and the commanders of primay be irretrievably lost before the or- vate ships. We have no direct inforder can be conveyed—when we think, mation of this circumstance in the naval 1 say, of all these circumstances, our tactics of the ancient nations, the Greeks thoughts are bewildered, and we are and Romans ; yet the neceflity of the ready to imagine that a sea-battle is no- thing is so apparent, that we cannot fup-, thing but the unconnected struggle of pose it to have been onitted by the individual ships ; and that when the ad- most ingenious and the most cultivated miral has once “ cried havoc, and let people who have appeared on the great Nip the dogs of war," he has done all theatre of the world : and we are pere that his situation empowers him to do, fuaded that Themistocles, Conon, and and must leave the fate of the day to other renowned fea commanders of A. the bravery and skill of his captains and thens, had signals by which they die failors.

rected the movements of their fleets. Yet it is in this situation, apparently We read, that when Ægeus sent his the most unfavourable, tat the orders fon Theseus to Crete, it was agreed on, of the commander can be conveyed, that if the thip should bring the young VOL. LVIII.

5 X


prince back in safety, a white flag should veral fhips of the navy, not to be openive displayed. But' those on board, in ed till they should arrive in a certain latheir joy on revisiting their country af- titude. It was on this occafion (says: ter their perilous voyage, forgot to hoist our bistorian Guthrie), “ that we meet the concerted signal. The anxious fa- with the first regular set of signals and ther was every day expecting the ship orders to the commanders of the Engwhich should bring back his darling fon, lith fleet." But, till the movements of and had gone to the shore to look out a fleet have attained some sort of unifor her. He faw her, but without the formity, regulated and connected by fignal agreed on : On which the old fome principies of propriety, and agreed inan ihrew himself into the sea. We on by persons in the habit of directing find, too, in the history of the Punic a number of thips, we may with conwars by Polybius, frequent allusions to fidence affirm, that signals would be nosuch a mode of communication ; and thing but a parcel of arbitrary marks, Ammianus Marcellinus speaks of the appropriated to particular pieces of naSpeculatores and vexillarii, who were on val fervice, such as attacking the eneboard the ships in the Adriatic. The my, landing the foldiers, &c. and that coins both of Greece and Ronre exhi- they would be considered merely as rebit both fags and streamers. In short, ferring to the final result, but by no we canno: doubt of the ancients having means pointing out the mode of execupractifed this hieroglyphical language. tion, or directing the movements which It is somewhat surprising that Lord were necessary for performing it. Dudley, in his “ Arcano del Mare,” It was James 11. when Duke of in which he makes an oftentatious dif- York, who first considered this practice play of his knowledge of every thing as capable of being reduced into a fyf. connected with the sea service, makes tem, and who saw the importance of no express mention of this very essential such a composition. He, as well as piece of knowledge, although he must, the King his brother, had always showby his long residence in Italy, have ed a great predilection for the sea ferknown the marine discipline of the Ve. vice ; and, when appointed Admiral of netians and Genoefe, the greatest ma- Englan, he turned his whole attention ritime powers then in Europe. to its improvement.

He had studied In the naval occurrences of modern the art of war under Turenne, not as Europe, mention is frequently made of a pastime, but as a science, and was a signals. Indeed, as we have already favourite pupil of that most accomplishobserved, it seems impossible for a num- ed general. Turenne one day pointed ber of ships to act in any kind of con- bini out, saying, “ Behold one who :vi!! cert, without fome method of commu- be one of the first princes and greatelt nication. Numberless fituations must generals of Europe." When Admiral occur, when it would be impossible to of England, he endeavoured to introconvey orders or information by messen- duce into the maritime service all those gers froni one ship to another; and principles of concert and arrangemeni, coast and aların signals had long been which made a number of individual rei practised by every nation. The idea giments and Squadrons con pose a great was therefore familiar. We find, in army. When he commanded in the particular, that Que=n Elizabeth, on Dutch war, he found a fleet to be little occasion of tive expedition to Cadiz, or better than a collection of ships, on board dered her secretaries to draw up in. of each of which the commander and fructions, which were to be communi- his ship's company did their best to an.

cated to the admiral, the general, and noy the enemy, but with very little dethe five counsellors of wat, and by them pendence on each other, or on the or.

to be copied and transmitted to the fe. ders of the admiral; and in the differ

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