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well's to his secretary Thurloe, rela- All that impedes thee from the golden round,
tive to a petition pesented to his high- Which fate and metaphysical aid doth seem

To have thee crown', withal."
ness, by the wife of William Beacham,
mariner, which was printed about thir-

Again, in the same play, where the ty years ago" I have not the parti- eight kings appear :

" Thy crown does fear mine eye-balls : cular thining bauble or feather in my

And thy air, cap for crowds to gaze at, or kneel to, Thou other gold-bound brow, is like the first*.” but I have power and resolution for foes

If it should be said that in his earlier to tremble at;” or (which is still more probable) by these fatirical verses of cumstance, the answer is, that at that

days he was unacquainted with this cirSwift :

period of his life, intead of fuppofing “ A prince the moment he is crown'd, Inherits every virtue round,

the diadem to have been a piece of gildAs emblems of the fovereign power,

ed metal, he was much more likely to Like other baubles of che Tower."

have fancied it still more rich and resCromwell, or some of his flagitious plendent than it really is, and to have colleagues, if I remember right, speak- emblazoned it, in his youthful imaginaing of Charles the First, said that he tion, with all the precious stones of the considered him only as the high con

east. Itable of the nation. If, in the present

I have but one or two observations passage, we had in the more measured more to make on this love epistle. It language of our modern republicans- has not been proved that our poet wrote “ Neither the gilded bauble that envi- any of his admirable plays while he was rons the head of the chief magistrate,” yet at school, or recently after he had &c. all would have been uniform and left it; though with due diligence fome complete.

discovery of this kind may be furnished The counterfeit ornament with which from the inexhaustible store-house of cuthe fabricator of this paper has environ- riosities already in part exposed to the ed the head of Majesty, is perfectly in public view. However, when he wrote unison with all the rest of thefe fáctic to his dearesste Anna that “ the feelinge tious manuscripts. It is, however, that dydde neareste approache untoe itte worthy of remark, that our poet was

was thatte which commerh nygheste unbetter acquainted with the diadem, than toe God, meeke and gentle charytye," to call it a gilded bauble ; in every place it is evident that the tentiment of his where he mentions a crown (that I can own Portia was passing through his recollect) describing it, traly as made youthful mind : of gold. Thus in his King Richard The quality of mercy is not strain'd; 11,

It droppeth, as the gentle rain from heaven “ Now is the golden crown like a deep well.” "Tis mightiest in the mightiest ; it becomes

Upon the place beneath :-
Again, in King Henry IV. Part 2. The throned monarch better than his crown;
" Why does the crown lic there upon his pil. His sceptre snews the force of temporal power,

The attribute to awe and majeity,
Being so troublesome a bed-fellow! Wherein doth fit the dread and fear of kings;
O polish'd perturbation, golden care, &c. Bat mercy is above this scepter'd sway,

It is enthroned in the heirts of kings,
Again, on the fame occasion, after

It is an attribute to God himself;
his son had taken the crown away, the And earthly power doth then thew likij! God's
king exclaims,

When mercy seasons justicet." “ How quickly nature falls into revolt,

At the opening of the session in 1614, When gold becomes her object!"

King James told the parliament that his in21*** So also, in Macbeth :

tegrily was like the whiteness of his robe, 16. Hie thee hither, *'

and his purity like the rest of gold in his That I may pour my fpirits in thine ear;

Parl. Hitt, vol. 5. p. 273.,
And challife with chè valour of my tongue

+ It may be worth remarking, that in

my edition the writer might have found at the

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It is observable that our author here ing terms : “ I cheryshe thee in my speaks with fomewhat more respect of hearte, forre thou arte ass a talle Cedare the sceptre of kings, than the writer of stretchynge forthe its branches ande fucthe epistle before us has done of the courynge smaller plants fromme nyp“ precious diadem,” with which their pynge Winneterre orr the boysteroase brows are environed ; and in one of wyndes.” his early historical plays his veneration As Shakespeare is known to have for majesty is still more apparent. The been a curious observer of nature, we unhappy Richard the Second afferts, might fuppose that this description was that

fuggested by what he had himself feen: Not all the water in the rough rude fea but as it has been shewn that there were Can wash the balm from an anointed king; The breath of wordly men can not depose

no cedars in England till after the Ref. The deputy elected by the Lord.”

torationt, where could this image have And in the same play we find the In the Bible, without doubt, we shall

been presented to our Stratford youth? Bishop of Carlisle expresling the same be told. In Holy Writ we find that Sentiments :

the Cedar of Lebanon was o exalted “ What subject can give sentence on his king ? And who fíts here, that is not Richard's fub. in height above all the trees of the ject?

field;" that it had “ fair branches, and Thieyes are not judg’d, but they are by to a shadowing shroud : the waters made hear,

him great, the deep fet him up on high Altheugh apparent guilt be seen in them:

with her rivers running round about his And shall the figure of God's Majesty, His captain, teward, deputy, elect,

plants [his own plants] all the fowls of Anointed, crowned, planted many years,

heaven made their nelts in his boughs, Be judg'd by fubject and inferior breath, and under his shadow dwell all generaAnd he himfelf not present ? O, forbid it, tions ."-But where did our author God!"

discover that the wide-fpreading branThus, also, the King in Hamlet :

ches of this goodly trec protect the " Let him go, Gertrude ; do not fear our smaller plants under it from the nippiog person;

blalts of winter? In some natural his. There's such divinity doth hedge about a king, That treason can but peep to what it would, tory, I suppose, that will shortly be Ads little of his will."

brought forward ; but till it appears, it With the truth or rectitude of these may be fafely afferted that the very resentiments we have at present nothing verse of this is the truth, and that an to do: they are produced solely to faew umbrageous multitude of leaves,” isthe prevalent opinions of our author's Head of fuccouring, destroys all veye. age, and that, I conceive, they do moft tation under it. effe ctually.

+ Mr Evelyn is on good ground supporou Our youthful lover's last compliment to have first brought the Cedar tree into Eng. to his mistress is couched in the follow- gland, about the year 1662. See a curious

memoir on this subject, by the late Sir jol bottom of the page, where this encomium on Cullum, in the Gent. Magazine for 1779, mercy occurs,

“ Aud kings approach tbe nearest unto God, Ezek. chap. 31. By giving life and safety unto men.

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page 138.

ON THE POETRY OF SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. THAT the literature of Spain and gleat should have prevailed in those earPortugal' is not attended to at present, licr periods, when translations were ' so when the stores of German imagination common, so useful, and so honourable. are open to us, is not to be wondered The best Italian poets were naturalized at; but it is strange, that ihe fame ne- io England, during the reigns of Eli.


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zabeth and James ; at that time, Spain Spain and Portugal had reached the was in the meridian of its glory, and it' meridian of their glory, while the arts might -have been imagined, that the were yet in their infancy. Individual fame of Lope de Vega would have genius will be found then to have floureached this islınd. I believe, how- vilhed most when the community shall ever, that, except Fanshaw's version of have been most flourishing ; Athens was the Lusiad, no poetical translation, from then molt glorious when Sophocles and either the Spanish or Portuguese ap- Euripides succeeded the aged Æschylus; peared in England, till the editor of and Ovid, Horace, and Virgil wrote

The Reliques of Ancient Poetry,at the time when Augustus fent forth his whose taste and genius' equal his eru- decree, That all the world should be dition, excited some curiosity in the pub- taxed. Uniform experience will attest lic mind by the beautiful ballad, “ Rio the truth of the observation; why this verde, Rio verde.Mr Mickie's Lulad, sympathy should exist, I know not; but and Mr Hayley's account of the Ar- poetical genius is certainly a barometer aucana soon followed. The former of that rises or falls according to the state which has, perhaps, exceeded the ori- of the political atmosphere. Boscan, ginal ; and the latter occafioned regret and Garcilasso de la Vega, and Diego in every reader, that the sketch hras ne. de Mendoza, fought and conquered for ver been filled up. Here (I believe) their country, under Charles the Fifth; our acquaintance with Spanish and Por. and their fpirits partook of the elevation tuguese poetry has stopped. We have, they had allisted her to obtain ; and they indeed, often heard of Lope de Vega, were followed in Portugal by Francisco and Mr Hayley has mentioned the U. de Sa de Miranda, Antonio Ferreira, lyses of Gabriel Perieira de Castro, and and Pedro de Andrade Caminha. the Malaca Conquistada of Francisco de It may, perhaps, raise a smile to afa Sa de Menezes, as poems which the sert that the poetry of Spain was puriPortuguese themselves esteem only in- fied and corrected, by introducing an ferior to the Lufiad of their great Ca- Italian taste into the country. At this inoens; we have heard their names in- period, however, such a revolution in deed, but with their merit, the English literature was effected by such means. reader is utterly unacquainted.

Marino foon corrupted the taste of Italy, It is my intention, to give some ac- and Spain foon followed the fascinating count of the best Spanish and Portuguese faults. Always fond of the extravagant, poets, to analyze the plans of their most and mistaking hyperbolism for grandeur, eiteemed works, and translate such fpe- quaintness for wit, and the obscure for cimens as, while they are brief enough the sublime, the Spaniards readily fell

your Magazine, may give some in with the fashion of the day; and the idea of the genius, taste, and manner satire of Cervantes proved powerless of the authors*.

here. The decline of the empire quickThe prose writers of these countries ly succeeded, and Lope de Vega lived (except the great Cervantes) are, for ob- to witness the defeat of that Arnada, vious reasons, less valuable than their which, with more extravagance and less poets. Learning las never flourished genius than he usually displayed, he had enough in either of the kingdoms, to commanded - 10 go forth and burn the form the taste of the inhabitants ; and world." genius and imagination will not atone for Spain has never recorered herself ihe want of talte anid erudition in a profe since the ruinous reign of Philip the Sea writer. It would be improper to pass cond. Not content with oppressing the them over in silence; but a brief notice Spaniards by the Inquisition, he made will be sufficient.

them thcinstrument of opprellion abroad; These fhall be given when they appear liberty of Holland was established, the

there indeed he failed; but though the in the Month. Mag. Vol. LVIII.

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glory of Spain was destroged. We may in his Mappe de Portugal, enumerates be allowed to regret, that liberty and only 62 epic and lyric writers, and 15 flavery fhould be so ill disposed, that a comic ones. But it is probable, that people, the most deserving of freedom, the greater part of the bards, whose should be degraded upder the vileft de- names swell the Spanish list, are spotism, while the most worthless race membered no where else, when in the in Europe are free : the Spanish charac- Portuguese account, common sense niay ter is capable of all improvement; but to for once have checked the vanity lo degrade the Dutch, would be impossible. characteristic of the nation.

Affiliated with Spain, by the gentle Mr Dillon's Letters on the Original ties of a Russian-like adoption, Portugal and Progress of Poetry in Spain, will partook of its decline. She shook off give the reader a good general view of her chains indeed, but “ the iron had the subject. It did not enter into this entered her soul ;” and that nation which gentleman's plan to enlarge on the works once excited the wonder, and deserved of any particular author, or to give fpethe admiration of the world, became cimens to the English readers ; the few contemptible to the rest of Europe, and specimens that have been printed, are terrible only to its subjects. He who en untranslated, and selected chiefly to tertains liberal sentiments, if he be ob- show their different metres. His work liged to submit his productions to the has been the companion of my Spanih scrutiny of the Inquisition, will write studies : I have derived pleasure and inwith timidity; and it may safely be af- struction from it, and have only to reserted, that he who writes timidly, can- gret, that by not extending this work, not write well. To look for the bold he has left a less able pen to attempt sublimity of genius where men are thus the supplement. depressed, were as rational as to chain The subject of Portuguese poetry has a race horse, and expect him to win the barely been touched upon by Mr Dillon;

he has only deduced it from the GaliThus has the tyranny of superstition cian, and mentioned a very few of their co-operated with the decline of the coun. authors; this field may therefore be try, to check the progress of literature looked upon as new. in Spain and Portugal, Yet, during I can promise the reader some inforwhat may be called their Augultan age, mation on these subjects; of this he may such was accomplished. The applause be assured, that I lhall not affume the of Cervantes should exite some attention appearance of information when I posseís to the productions of the two Leonardos; it not : in treating of those authors who he who admires the Lufiad of Camoens, are familiar to me, my own opinion may wish to form fome acquaintance may properly be expressed; with re. with his epistles and sonnets ; and he fpect to those of whom I know little, I who has read the Visions of Quevedo, shall consequently say little from myself

: will readily believe, that much genius the man who can enjoy credit for acmust exist in the six quarto volumes of quisitions wlich he does not possess, the works of this excellent author. must be dreadfully distempered with va

Spain has been wonderfully prolific in nity, poets. In the Parnaso Espanol, is given The Spaniards call their nine most faa list of such only as are mentioned by rourite authors, The nine Spanish muses: their more celebrated authors; and this they are Garcilago de la Vega, Don amounts to the astonishing number of Esteban de Villegas, Quevedo, Count 571, which the Editor says, is not a Bernardino de Rebolledo, Luperico third part of the poets with whom the Leonardo de Argensola, and his bropublic are acquainted. The numbers in ther Bartolome, Father Luis de LePortugal are strangely disproportionate ; on, Lope de Vega, and Don Francis. for Father Joaon Baptista de Castro, in


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co de Borja y Aragan, Prince of Ef- converses with Homer and with Offian: quilache: many of equal merit are ex- it is to such readers chiefly that I adcluded from the list, and, perhaps, dress myself; and if, when they are insome of superior : with these, however, troduced to Borgan, Garcilaso de VáI shall begin my task.

ga, Quevedo, and the two Leonards, The poet is indeed a citizen of the they do not add them to the number. world; in every country, and in every of their friends, I shall at least have age, he meets with some congenial spi- enlarged the circle of their acquaintrit; to him time is annihilated, and he ance.

Month. Mag.

ON THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE. MR HUME denies that physical en the dormant ingenuity of man, and causes, by which he means “ those conquer that obstinate reluctance to exqualities of the air and climate, which ertion which tyrannizes over the barbaare supposed to work insensibly on the rian in every sultry climate of the giobe, temper, by altering the tone and habit and which may fairly be considered as of the body, and giving a particular a distinguishing characteristic between complexion, which, though reflection the favage and the citizen. and reason may sometimes overcome it, The error into which it appears to will yet prevail among the generality of me, that Mr Hume has fallen, is this: mankind, and have an influence on their that all his illustrations, comprehensive manners*:"-he denies that such causes and ingenious as they are, are drawn influence the genius and nature of man. from civilized society. If we would I do not mean to dispute with him, that know the influence of climate, we must moral causes, such as the nature of go- not fix our observation on the different vernment, the revolutions which may genius which distinguished the dull occur in public affairs, plenty or penury, phlegmatic Theban from the acute and that these causes have not a most per- lively citizen of Athens, and then deny ceptible and importent effect on the na- this influence, because with such optional character of a people ; but I am "posite disposition and character, they inclined to believe, notwithstanding the lived within a day's journey of each plausibility of Mr Hume's arguments, other ; nor mult we deny it, because the that man owes much of his temper, “to courage, and love of liberty which formthe genius of food, air, and climate ;" ed the character of an ancient Roman, and that perhaps these moral causes, may be contrasted with the timid and are, in reality, but effe&ts, which flow flavish disposition which degrades the from the physical ones.

modern ; we must not deny it, because It is agreed on all hands-by Mr a mixture of manners and temperament Hume himselft, that climate has an in- is sometimes observable in nations, fluence over every other animal except such as England, of but small extent of

Now there is a state of society, territory, and, consequently, of but little if society it may be called, where man comparative difference in climate ; or can boast but little superiority above the because an uniformity of character, a beasts which roam around him; it is in sort of monotonous disposition, occafionthis state that climate, if it operates at ally' runs through the vast dominions of all, operates in full force. In a period a spreading empire, such as China, sub gf çivility and refinement, the restless ject to considerable atmospheric variation. eñergies of miod counteract, in a very Observations on such countries as these, considerable degree, the influence of such only prove that other causes, besides that subordinate agents : ? thousand artificial of climate, help to form the character, wants roufe the native indolence, awakand not that climate has no share in * Essay on National Charader. † Ibid. the formation. Let us cross the At

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