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lantic, and view the original uncivilized possessed, and to distribute them among inhabitants of the. Western World. The the English settlers, proved that, howsharp invigorating air of the Northern ever reduced in numbers, the courage of regions had rendered the natives of them the natives was daring and unconquerhardy, ingenious, and free : and it was able. By a, resolute exertion of val. only under the torrid zone, or in coun- our,” says Mr Belshamt, tempered thies nearly approaching to it, that they as it appears, with no small degree of had lost their liberty, were indolent, and discretion, did this handful of people ulstupid. In the West India islands, Hif- timately establish their privileges and paniola, Cuba, Jamaica, &c. the dignity virtual independency, against the attack of this Caziques was hereditary, and the of a mighty power, which menaced their power of them almost unlimited : the total ruin and extermination ; and the inhabitants of the cold climates in South Treaty between the Caribs of St VinAmerica, and those eastward of the cont’s and the King of Great Britain, Mislilippi, in North America, equally is a nionument of historical curiosity, disdained the domination of a tyrant. So singularly valuable, as a striking confirfensible was Dr Robertson of the influ- mation of the utility and importance of ence which climate exerts on the con- the magnanimous maxim, “In no cirstitution and temper of untutored man, cumstances to despair of the common

that he has actually made a divifion be- wealth." "tween the nature of the Americans in Dr Robertson conjectures, from the

the torrid, and those in the temperate distinction in character between the zones; in the latter, he has compre- Caribs and the inhabitants of the larger hended those who inhabit from the river islands, and from an obfcure tradition St Lawrence to the gulph of Mexico, among themselves, that the former are together with the Chilians and natives quite a separate race ; that they were of Patagonia, at the extremity of the descended from some continental consouthern continent; in the former are querors (probably from Florida, as there included the dull islanders, and the in. is an affinity between the language and habitants of those provinces which ex- hardy manners of those two countries) ; tend from the Isthmus of Darien, along that the original islanders were extermi. the coast of the Andes, to the fouthern nated, and that their lands and women confines of Brasil. The natives of the were taken poffeffion of by the victoria temperate zones, he says, are the only ous invaders 1. people in the new world who are in- Indeed, it can hardly be disputed, debted for their freedom to their valour; that the warmer regions have naturally they are more robuft, more active, more a tendency to enfeeble the frame of courageous ; and' in them the human body S, and with an enfeebled trane fpecies appears to be manifestly more, of body, the spirit is languid, and every perfe&. "That there are exceptions, is' effort of the mind proportionably werk. indisputable, but it is probable they ori

# Memoirs of the Reign of George III, ginate from some local causes. Such an Vol. 1, p. 356, &c.' exception is particularly observable 2- # See note 69. to Vol. 2. of Robertson's inong the inhabitants of some of the America, Caribbean isles ; the vigorous and effec

$ Climate has a conGderable effe on the tual resistance of a thousand Caribs in rapidly arrive at naturity, and with cqual

duration of life. In sultry regions, peopic the island of St Vincent, in a very late rapidity decay. Buffon observes, that in eieperiod of English history*, the British vated countries there are more old people than troops sent at the desire of the planters, in low ones ; the mountains of Scotland, who wanted to wrest from their hands Wales, Auvergne, Switzerland, abound with the fertile districts of which they were rarely furnished by the inhabitants of Hol

instances of such extremic longevity, as are Within the reign of his present Majesty. land. Flanders, Germany, or Poland.

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This consideration led me to suspect four feet and a half in height, and ethat the moral causes, such as govern- very mark of mental imbecility, which a ment, religion, &c. which Mr Hume vacant eye and the dullest physiognomy considers as alone influencing the na- can betray, is printed on his countetional character, were themselves but nance. Some, indeed, have a voice, effe&s flowing from the physical ones but the deaf and dunsb are extremely of air and climate. Where these are numerous ; they die very young, and of a nature to induce on the favage during their existence, one appetite only fuch excessive lassitude, such beastly in- rages among them with uncommon fudolence, that he will lie day after day ry, that for the propagation of their stretched under the shade of his lofty species ; there have been several

genetrees, like a log of wood, is it to be rations of them," and what proves to expected that he will trouble himself a degree almost of mathematical certito curtail the authority of his cazique, tude," says Sir Richard Clayton, in the or oppose the ambition of any one more memoir before alluded to,

66 that there alive and active than himself? If he is is some physical reason for the dreadful so unconquerably stupid, fo grossly care- fingularity, is the fingle circumstance Jess, about futurity, that in the morning that a family coming from a distance to he will tell the hammock he has just reside within the district, bas, in a few slept in, forgetting he shall want it a- years, occasion to lament, on its ingain at night, is it to be wondered at crease, that idiocy it was before a that he should not anticipate the conse- stranger to." The Cretins also, on quences of an encroaching usurpation ; removing from the Pays de Vallais, in or that the forceries and incantations of a few generations, lose the melancholy his priest (for even among savages there distinction of their race.

Government are priests and governors to support is now taking every precaution to preeach other) ihould be regarded with vent the diffusion of Cretinage, which most religious and unsearching credu- seclusion from society, and the prohibility ? This state of mind, then, may tion of sexual intercourse can effect; firely be confidered as physically ari. and an hospital is appropriated to the sing from the state and temperature of care and maintenance of them at Sion. the climate, and may rather be esteem. For a more particular account of these ed the cause of a moral effect, than the people, I refer my readers to Sir Richeffect of any moral cause.

ard Clayton's paper on the subject, and But it is unnecessary to wander over shall content myself with observing in the vast regions of America, for in- the words of the ingenious baronet, res stances illuftrative of the influence of pecting their climare, that “ they reclimate on the nature and character of fide in a sort of valt basin, full of excelman in an uncivilized Itate. A most live exhalations from the Rhone, and curious and interesting account has late. the marshes on its lides; and the rely been published by Sir Richard Clay- flections of the fun from the surrounding ton *, of a set of beings who inhabit a mountains, which are almost vertical, spot of ground (comprising about thir.. form an atmofphere very singular for its ty miles in length, and about cight in humidity and its heat." breadth) of the Pays de Vallais, in the Whatever collateral causes may consouth-west.of Switzerland. The Cre- tribute to produce Cretinage, climate tins, by which name they are denomi- must surely be considered as a principal nated, seem to be an intermediate fort one. To ascertain what, or whether any of animals between the Quran Qutang such collateral causes really existed, reand the Man ; their stature is about quires much more information on the

In the Memoirs of the Manchester Trang- origin, nature, history, and perhaps anaactions, Vol. j.

tomy of these people, than has yet been

com

communicated to the public. If cli- not a little extraordinary, that the Cre. mate alone produces this melancholy de. tins should have so long existed, and gradation of the human species, I ac- been so little known. knowledge it to have much more pene- The arguments of Mr Hume against trating and powerful effects than I had the influence of physical causes, I have formed an idea of; and the circum. already faid, appear to me rather playstance mentioned by Sir Richard, that sible than valid ; they only prove, that in two or three generations, Cretinage such physical causes may be counteracted may either be removed by emigration by others, which, in civilized society, from the Pays de Vallais, or produced are more powerful than themselves. lf in the same period of time, by emigra- Cretinage be irresistible to the inhabi. tion to it, seems to indicate, that such tants, whether native or foreign, of the is really the case. Experiments high- lower Vallais, that climate stamps a chaly interesting and important might fure- racter on man, will hardly be again difly be made on this subject : and it is puted.

T. S. N. ON MATRIMONIAL DIFFERENCES*. « Question all who shall hereafter come to you with matriinovial complaints, concerning their behaviour in the time of courtihip, and inform them that they are neither to wonder nor repine, when a contract begun with fraud, has ended in disappointment.”

JOHNSON AS it is pretty generally acknowledg. tion in attempting so valt an addition to ed, that the holy state of matrimony is human happiness ; but, indeed, I am not always attended with that happiness far from flattering myself that I shall which the parties who enter into it, be able to succeed. I have only fome have taught themselves to expect, and few hints to throw out, rather of the as we find people in general rather ea- negative than the poliive kind, and gerly disposed towards it, notwithstand shall rather state what I think is not ing the many cases of disappointment a- right, than propose a complete remedy. mong their neighbours, and especialiy Observation will probably aflift me in as of late some instances of matrimonial the former, but I much question whether disagreements have appeared in parties 1 possess inventive powers equal to the of high rank and distinction, it strikes laiter. However, I shall, without farme that the man who could invent a ther preface, communicate what has ocremedy for those disorders, would cca. curred to me on the subject ; and the fer a more lasting benefit on mankind worst I have to fear, is the being claf. than ever was conferred upon them. It sed with those numberless fpeculators, may at first sight, indeed, appear an im- whose object feeins to be to show the possibility. The subject is of a very fertility of their invention at the expense complicated nature, involving many very of their experience. My schemes, in. important confiderations, and necessarily deed, will not be found quite fo extenconnected with many stubborn preju- five as theirs, and I hope I shall appear dices. So that he who attempts a re- fomewhat less confident in the success formation will probably share the fate of them. of all other reformers, although he has I shall, therefore, principally confine so many more difficulties, to encounter, myself to the causes of matrimonial miand his object is of universal concern fery. These are generally stated to be, and benefit to his fellow creatures. the parties coming together from im

After thus expressing my sense of the proper motiveș ; from mocises of inarduous task, I am aware that I sign terelt, or of temporary passion ; from the condemnation of my own presurnp. the compulsion of friends on whom * The obfervations in this essay, apply they depend; from youth and thoughtto the neighbouring kingdom. lessness; and from age and second child.

hood.

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hood. Now, it appears very plain - will allow that there is scarcely an ar-
that all these parties cannot entertain ticle in the service that does not convey
that sense of the contract which is en. a satire on such matches.
tertained by persons who unite from You will perhaps say, that these things
motives of affection, and with a mutual are true, and that they afford fufficient
desire to make each other happy. Hence ground for making lome alteration in the
my firlt objection, and indeed my prin- service. I once thought fo myself, and
cipal one, is aimed at the contract itself I tried the alteration ; but it would not
as not being suited to the different par- do. I omitted, and I added, and tried
ties who are to sign it. At the time it in all various ways, but at laft was o-
the form of matrimonial service was. bliged to be of opinion, that in the pre-
composed, we may suppose that there sent state of the fashionable world, we
prevailed a greater degree of equality want a form of service for the various
in the dispositions of persons about to ranks of fociety.
marry than we find now, and one form The present is far too good ; it pro.
· might very well serve for all. But the ceeds upon motives of religion, but that
introduction of genteel manners into all you know, is rather out of fashion
ranks of life, and those manners grafted and I am persuaded no person of dif-
upon vulgarity and ignorance, have oc- tinction would thank you for fupposing
cafioned so great

variety of tastes and him influenced by it in his conduct to. dispositions, that it would be really un- wards his wife. The phrases used in reasonable not to think that the present it are also too loose and general. Love, form of service has become nearly obso. honour, and obey! There are not three lete, or only fit for the few who have words in the language, which admit-of been so economical as to hand down the greater latitude.

First, as to love ; virtues as well as the estates of their most men of fashion think they love ancestors to posterity.

their wives dearly, if they neither beat Can we, for example, expect that a them, por turn them of doors ; and man who has married a woman for no that love is perfectly consistent with other obje&t than her money, will regard frequent absence from home, occasional his promise to love her, and comfort gallantries with other ladies, and the her, honour and keep her in fickness and distant respect of occasional acquainhealth,” when we know that the great- tances. As to honour, their notions est favour she can do him, next to giving of that are very latitudinarian ; I shall her money into his hands, is to give not enter particularly into them, but him an opportunity of burying her ? they are very frequently exemplified in When we see a young woman forced the civil and criminal courts. With into the arms of an old dotard, for regard to obedience, which is principally no other purpose than to obtain a title expected from the fair sex, I am lorry or a handsome jointure (by the bye to say, that it is a word of very lax this word should be written disjointure, and general interpretation, and is clogas it is one of the preliminaries to a fi- ged with so many conditions and acts nal separation) are we to expect that of mental reservation, as to be rarely she will love, cherith, and obey such a recognized in the sense in which it ap. husband? I might state many other pears to have been used by the compilers cases for which our service is obviously of our liturgy. One lady of fashion proill adapted. But the other day we read fesses to obey her husband in every in the papers of a couple married, the thing consistent with her own inclinaman was eighty, and the woman seven- tion : That is har sense of obedience. ty-six years of age. I believe them as Another thinks herself absolved froin fully inclined to fulfil their vows as one all obedience, because her husband is a balf of our fashionable pairs, yet you fool. A third conditions with him,

that

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that if he will obey in some points, she thought unreasonable. As for the will in others.

couples who came together they know Then the great mischief is, that not why, a clause might be introduced wł en a disagreement takes place, and confining them only durante bene placilo, the contending parties chuse to interpret that is, as long as they please, which I the treaty in different ways, there is no humbly apprehend would give satisfacthird party to which the dispute can be tion to a great many persons who are referred. No interference is admitted; apt to fall in love at first sight, to be or whenever attempted, it is not to the struck with a pretty face, or who marsy advantage of the disputants, but always for a temporary convenience. to the loss and injury of the mediator, I have not presumed to draw up any who of two friends, is sure to make at sketch of these new services, but confine least one enemy. The parties, in fact, myself, as I merely engaged, to some 2&t precisely like two high-spirited na hints upon the subje&, which others tions. They go to war, and expend all may improve upon. I should, theretheir force and ammunition, before they fore, farther suggest, that all such marwill listen to terms of accommodation, riages be removed from the church, and which, after all, amount only 10 a truce, performed in the drawing-room, the the parties ever after retaining a watch- tavern, or any other suitable place. I ful jealousy, and a dignified contempt propose this ; because I have fometimes for each other.

observed, that persons who never go to I have read somewhere lately, of a church but when they are married, are * nation where the matrimonial contract so struck with the novel appearance of Balts only for three years. They are, the place, the folemn appearance of the I remenber, reckoned a nation of fac parson, and the facetious grin of the

niy

fashionable readers will I clerk, as to be quite confounded, and hope agree with me, that in this respect incapable of knowing what they are athey have acquired a very considerable bout. I propose it likewise in respect portion of civilization, and are very to tender consciences, for really when well qualified to " preserve the accuf- a man is disposed to take an oath which tomed relations” of the matrimonial he has no inclination to keep, I had ftate. The term of three years may, much rather he did it any where than indeed, be supposed rather too long, but at the altar. The glib enunciation of it is lill shorter than the lives of most the custom-house, or the justice room, men, and comes nearer, than any da- where the only words you hear are, tion has yet attempted, to the period, “ So help you God! twelve pence:" when, according to the manners of peo- would much better suit the fashionable ple of fashion, the matrimonial treaty votaries of Hymen. Great respect virtually expires. In compiling, there. ought to be paid to tender consciences, fore, forms of service for the beau monde, and that the duties of the married state the first and great object would be to should be enforced by what may be termlimit the time io the probable duration ed an art of uniformity, has no doubt of the affections of the parties. In the given great uneasiness to many scrupu. case of an old Lord marrying a young lous people of rank, who may naturally woman for a nurse, there would be no expect that some distinction should be harm in extending it “ till death do us made between them and the yulgar. part,” but in most other cases, as that They might even, I think, (but I proof a fortune-hunter marrying a dowager, pose every thing with submission) be alor a child, it would be sufficient if time lowed to marry upon their honour, which were given for the regular transfer of would be equally binding with the form the land and the three per cents. This, to which they are now obliged to subI think, could not, in all conscience, be mit. If there be any objection to this,

vages; but

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