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it may probably arise from the mistaken to perform. Their ignorance in this

fense of honour, or rather the many respect may, however, be excused. The fenfes in which it is used. Valeat wifeft of men cannot know more than quantum valere poffit. This is aú ob- the age in which they live. They judga jeétion which it is not in my power to ed of English manners influenced by reremove, and I throw it out to those who ligion, not foreseeing that foreign travel Can.

would soon introduce foreign manoers, The farther necessity for a service, and that a man who has made a tour specially adapted to modera manners, of Europe, should think it his duty to appears from another consideration. In import the most genteel of its vices, as all contracts, the breach of it by one a recompence for his long absence, and party either incurs a penalty, or amounts a benefaction to the prosperity of his to a diffolution. Unfortunately, the country. compilers of the contract in question, There are many other hints I might not foreseeing that a time would come, offer on this subject. I might suggest' when it should be reckoned genteel for the propriety of permitting more wives one party to break the contract, and yet than one, in order to prevent domestic very proper for the other to be bound disorder , and other improvements on by it, have made no provisions for such the fyftem of marriage ; but I have aloccurrences as are now frequent enough, ready made my letter too long. I hope, and notorious enough. These good however, that what I have thrown out men had no idea of pin-money, jointures, will have the due effect I proposed, as and separate establishments. They could well as incline those who have more not conceive that married persons, liv- leisure and greater abilities, to give the ing in the same kingdom, poffeffed of subject an attentive consideration. Let carriages and horses, and enjoying the it not be understood, that I wish to advantages of the finest turnpike-roads, abolish entirely the present service. Far should never meet, unless by accident, from it. It is admirably calculated, for and, when met, part without exchanging all who are serious, to execute the most a word, or even a look of mutual esteem. important of duties from the molt conIf they had, would they have put in scientious of motives; who will to add such words as " to have and to hold, to the happiness of their country by en. for better for worse, for richer for poor- creasing the aggregate of domestic regu

er, in sickness and in health, to love larity; who wish to be regarded rather and to cherish, till death do us part !” as good than great ; and who, by an hoCertainly not; if they had foreseen the nourable conduct, add real dignity to an changes and improvements introduced obscure station--but these are not the into the married state by modern man- persons of whom I spoke in the precedpers, they would not have expected im- ing part of my letter. I am, &c. poffibilities, nor thought of binding a

Serio Jocosus. man down to what he never intended



*MORE active occupations have, I be surprised to find how little difficulty lieve, finally diverted me from a design, there is in reducing our abstract words which I long cherished, and to which, to a fenfible or objediuc fignification : after Mt Tooke's labours, 1 fancied my. I do not say, to their primary significaself equal the deligo was such an ana. tion: for precedence may give rise to lysis of our language as feems to me to frivolous disputes here, as in other constitute the effence of grammar. Those nice cases. who have not made the trial, will be You will perhaps indulge me with Vol. LVIII.


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room to exemplify my manner of pro- To consolidate heED (care, caution) ceeding. We have a remarkable class of with head, may appear too bold an noun substantives, as they are called by adventure, even in etymology. The grammarians; though, according to the difference, however, in spelling is

of mataphysician, they are mere attributes no account, the present orthography or qualities; that is, they cannot stand being modern. I think, both words by themselves, but are supported by are spelled alike, by some old writers, substances. The words I mean are good. bede. ln use, there obtains sufici. ness, greatness, and their fellows. We have ent similarity, at the present moment. similar words, ending in head. Onbead, I do not HLED (head) that. I do not in old English, is unity (one head). lt mind that. We say, he puts a thing to will not, I pre!ume, be denied that HEART ; and, had it been stamped by head (caput) is here used in compofi. usage, heart would have passed just as tion. Now, in the other case, I fus. currently as head for one of our verbs. pest, that it is part of the head which I DO NOT HEART that. Certain lanis used; the nose, nejs, nez, French. guages have it so, or very nearly as Both words have been indifferently em- . very scholar knows. ployed to mark the points of land, that 3. The substantive' verb, am (obs. are or have been conspicuous. Will not, com) be (obr. bee) is, 'probably, fome this geographical analogy be admitted mode of motion or appearance; and, if as a strong confirmation of my opinion ? traced higher, may turn on some aniIf nefs be any part of the body, what mal, whose mode of motion is striking. part else can we imagine it to be, whe- To walk (incedo), to emerge (evado), ther we regard found or situation to echif (stand out), are, in Latin, There exists an etyniological, as truly as perpetually fynonimous with to be.

la a moral sense ; and those who have ac. Greek, to be is the self-fame word as to quired the former, will feel by how go, though split by grammarians and very natural a transition two such emi- lexicographers. nent members of the body natural, as 4. To alter is a good example of a the head and nose, came todenote abstract word retaining an objective fignification in qualities.----I conjecture, that thing or ding one dialect of a language, and not in anwill prove to mean some striking obječt other. To alter, means in German, ta in one of its fixed corporeal senfes.

2. This analysis, carried to its ut- The booksellers, I think might renmoft extent, would constitute a reform- der an essential service to education ed dictionary. Every person appre- and letters, by engaging some intellihends the mataphorical use of a term gent person to introduce, more and the better for knowing its original more, genealogies of signification into meaning, and how invariably have dic- the common English dictionaries, as tionary-makers diffevered the soul of a new editions are printed. lo complete word from its body! Thus, spite and spit the investigation of our words would (the culinary implement) are clearly take time ; but, with a proper adverthe same word. To spite a person is tisement, an imperfect, would, on one to run a spit into his mind. The very account, be preferable to a perfect dicmetaphor, I think, occurs not unfre- tionary: it would induce fome to ob quently in the poetry ascribed to king serve and think for themselves. David; and Shakspeare makes Hamlet resolve to“ speak daggers.”

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Forbes's Collections had been lost upon
Reverend Sir,

his death, but I am glad to find by your THOUGH I have not the good for- Memoirs that they are in the possession tune to be known to you personally, I of Mr Yorke. I see likewise that the am so happy as to be no stranger to your Depeches de Beaumont are in the hands writings, to which I have been indebt- of the fame Gentleman. But I have ed for much useful instruction. And no opportunity of consulting your Meas I have heard from my friends, Sir moirs at present, and I cannot remem-. David Dalrymple and Mr Davidson, ber whether the Depeches de Fenelon that your disposition to oblige was equal be still preserved or not. I fee that to your knowledge, I now presumc to Carte has made a great use of them, in write to you, and to ask your afliltance a very busy period, from 1563 to 1576. without any apology.

I know the strength of Carte's prejuI have been engaged, for some time, dices so well, that I dare say many in writing the history of Scotland from things may be found there that he could the death of James V. to the accession not see, or would not publish. May I of James Vl. to the throne of England, beg the favour of you to let me know My chief object is to adoro (as far as whether Fenelon's papers be yet extant I am capable of adorning) the history and accessible ; and to give me some geof a period, which, on account of the neral idea of what Dr Forbes's Collect greatness of the events, and their close tions contain with regard to Scotland; connection with the transactions in and whether the papers they consist of England, deserves to be better known. are different from those published by But as elegance of composition, even Haynes, Anderson, &c. I am far where a writer can attain that, is but a from desiring that you should enter into trivial merit without historical truth and any detail that would be troublesome to accuracy, and as the prejudices and you, but some short hint of the nature rage of factions, both religious and po- of these Colle&ions would be extremely litical, have rendered almost every fact, satisfying to my curiosity, and I shall

in the period which I have chosen, a esteem it a great obligation laid upon me. in matter of doubt or of controversy, I I have brought my Work almost to

hare therefore taken all the pains in my a conclusion. If you would be so good power to examine the evidence on both as to suggest any thing that you thought lides with exactness. You know how useful for me to know, or to examine copious the Materia Historica in this into, I Mall receive your directions period is.

Besides all the common with great respect and gratitude. Historians and printed collections of I am with sincere esteem papers, I have consulted several manu. Revd Sir, Yr m. ob. & m. h. Se fcripts which are to be found in this Gladsmuir WM ROBERTSON. country. I am persuaded that there are 19 Sept. 1757 ftill many manuscripts worth my seeing to be met with in England, and for that reason I propose to pass some time in

Dear Sir, London this Winter. I am impatient If I had not considered a letter of however to know what discoveries of mere compliment as an impertinent in. this kind I may expect, and what are terruption to one who is so busy as you the treasures before me, and with regard commonly are, I would long before to this I beg leave to consult you.

this have made my acknowledgments I was afraid for some time that Dr to you for the civilities which you was

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so good as to shew me while I was in My address is, one of the Ministers London. I had not only a proof of of Ed. your obliging disposition, but I reaped

TO DR BIRCH. the good effects of it.

Dear Sir, The papers to which I got access by I BEG leave once more to have reyour means, especially those from Lord course to your good nature and to your Royston, have rendered my work more love of literature, and to presume upon: perfect than it could have otherwise puttir.g you to a piece of trouble. After been. My History is now ready for considering several subjects for another publication, and I have desired Mr Mil- History, I have at last fixed upon the lar to send you a large paper copy of it reign of Charles V. which contains the in my name, which I beg you may ac- firšt establishment of the present politicept as a testimony of ray regard and cal system of Europe. I have begun of my gratitude. He will likewise to labour seriously upon my task. One: transmit to you another copy, which I of the first things requisite was to form must intreat you to present to my Lord a catalogue of books, which must be Royston, with such acknowledgments confolted. As I never had access to of his favours toward me, as are proper very copious Libraries, I do not prefor me to make. I have pripted a short tend to any extensive knowledge of Auappendix of original papers. You will thors, but I have made a list of such as observe that there are several inaccura- I thought most essential to the fubjeci, cies in the press work. Mr Millar and have put them down just in the orgrew impatient to have the book pub- der which they occurred to me, or as. lished, so that it was impoflible to send I found them mentioned in any book I. down the proofs to me. I hope, how- happened to read. I beg you would be


will be abundantly in- so good as to look it over, and as your telligible. * i published them only to erudition and knowledge of books is inconfirm my own system, about particu- finitely superior to mide, I doubt not lar facts, not to obtain the character of but you'll be able to make such addian Antiquarian. If, upon perusing the tions to my Catalogue, as may be of book, you discover any inaccuracies, great use to me. I know very

well, and either with regard to style or facts, to my forrow, how servilely Historians whether of great or of small importance, copy from one another, and how little I will esteem it a very great favour, if is to be learned from reading many you'll be so good as to communicate books; but, at the same time, when one them to me, I shall likewise be indebt- writes upon any particular period, it is

if you'll let me know what both necessary and decent for him to reception the book meets with among consult every book relating to it, upon the Literati of your acquaintance. I which he can lay his hands. I am sufhope you will be particularly pleased ficiently master of French and Italian; with the Critical Differtation at the but have no knowledge of the Spanish end, which is the production of a co- or German tongues. I fatter myself partnership between me and your friend that I shall not suffer much by this; as Mr Davidson." Both Sir D. Dalrym- the two former languages, together with ple and he offer compliments to you. If tặe Latin, will supply me with books Dean Tucker be in town this Winter, in abundance. Mr Walpole informed I beg you would offer my compliments me fome time ago, that in the Catalogue to him.

af Harleian MSS. in the British Mu. I am w. great regard Dr. Gie seum, there is a volume of papers reYr m. obdt & mít. o. fere lating to Charles V, it is No. 295. I

William ROBERTSON, do not expect much from it; but it. Edinburgh, 1 Jan. 1759.

would be extremely obligirg if you


ever, the

ed to you,

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would take the trouble of looking into Levesque, a Beredictin Monk, which it, and of informing me in general what were printed at Paris in two Vols. 12° it contains. In the Catalogue I have in 1753, contain some particulars relatenclosed, this mark X is prefixed to ing to Charles V. But this perforall the books which I can get in this mance is much icts curious than it might Country; if you yourself, or any friend have been, considering that the Author, with whom you can use freedom, have had the advaotage of a valt Collection, any of the other books in my list, and above an hundred Volumes of the Car-, will be so good as to send them to Mr dinal's original papers, at Bezancon. Millar, he will forward them to me, Among these are the papers of his Emi-, and I shall receive them with great gra- nence's father, who was Chancellor titude, and return them with much punc- and Minister to the Emperor Charles V. tuality. I beg leave to offer compli- Bishop Burnet, in the Summary of ments to all our common friends, and Affaires before the Restoration prefixed to particularly to Dean Tucker, if he be his History of his own time, mentions a in Town this season. I wish it, were life of Frederick Elector Palatine who in my power to confer any return for first reformed the Palatinate, as curiously. all the trouble you have taken in my be written by Hubert Thomas Leodius. half

This book, though a rare one, is in Edinburgh, 13 Decr. 1759. my study and shall be sent to you.

You will find in it many facts relating

to your Emperor. The Manuscript To the Rev. Dr Robertson, at Edina was luckily saved when the library of burgh.

Heydelberg was plundered and conDear Sir London, 3 Jany. 1760. veyed to the Vatican, after the taking of

Your Letter of the 13. Decr. was that city in 1622, and it was printed in particularly agreeable to me, as it ac. 1624 at Francfort in 4to. The Writer quainted me with your resolution to re- had been Secretary and Counsellor to sume

pen, and to undertake the Elector, a subject, which from it's importance Another book which I shall transmit and extent, and your manner of treating to you, is a valuable collection of State. it, will be highly acceptable to the papers, made by Mons. Rivier, and public.

printed at Blois in 1665 in two vols I have perused your list of Books to fo. They relate to the reigns of Franbe consulted on this occasion; and after cis I, Henry II, and Francis II, of transcribing it have delivered it to Mr France. The indexes will direct you Millar; and shall now make some addio' to such passages as concern the Enipertions to it.

The new Histoire d'Allemagne, by As Mons. Amelot de la Houstaie, Father Barre, Chancellor of the Univer- who was extremely conversant in mo, sity of Paris, published a few years ago dern history, bas in the 1st Tome of his in several Volumes in q°. is a work of Memoires Historiques politiques et litevery good credit, and to be perused by raires, from p. 156 to 173, treated of you; as is likewise the fecond Edition Charles V. I shall add that book to of Abrègě chronologique de l'Histoire, & my parcel. du Droit public d'Allemagne, just printed Varilla's Life of Henry II. of France at Paris, and formed upon the plan of should be looked into, tho' that Histo President Henault's Nouvel Abrègè rian has not at present much reputation. chronologique de l'Histoire de France, in for exactness and veracity. which the reigns of Francis I. and Hen- Dr Fiddes, in his life of Cardinal Ty II. will be proper to be seen by you. Wolsey, has frequent occasion to intro

The Memoires pour servir à L'histoire duce the Emperor his contemporary, du Cardinal Granvelle, by Father Roper of which Bayle in his Dictionary gives

your historic



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