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My address is, one of the Minifters

fo good as to fhew me while I was in
London. I had not only a proof of of Ed.
your obliging difpofition, but I reaped
the good effects of it.

TO DR BIRCH.

Dear Sir,

The papers to which I got accefs by your means, especially thofe from Lord Royston, have rendered my work more perfect than it could have otherwife been. My History is now ready for publication, and I have defired Mr Millar to fend you a large paper copy of it in my name, which I beg you may accept as a teftimony of ray regard and of my gratitude. He will likewise tranfmit to you another copy, which I muft intreat you to prefent to my Lord Royston, with fuch acknowledgments of his favours toward me, as are proper for me to make. I have printed a fhort appendix of original papers. You will obferve that there are feveral inaccura- I thought most effential to the fubject, cies in the prefs work. Mr Millar grew impatient to have the book publifhed, fo that it was impoffible to fend down the proofs to me. I hope, how ever, the papers will be abundantly in telligible. I publifhed them only to confirm my own system, about particular facts, not to obtain the character of an Antiquarian. If, upon perufing the book, you difcover any inaccuracies, either with regard to ftyle or facts, whether of great or of fmall importance, I will efteem it a very great favour, if you'll be fo good as to communicate them to me. I fhall likewife be indebted to you, if you'll let me know what reception the book meets with among the Literati of your acquaintance. I hope you will be particularly pleafed with the Critical Differtation at the end, which is the production of a copartnership between me and your friend Mr Davidfon. Both Sir D. Dalrymple and he offer compliments to you. If Dean Tucker be in town this Winter, I beg you would offer my compliments to him.

I BEG leave once more to have recourse to your good nature and to your love of literature, and to prefume upon putting you to a piece of trouble. After confidering feveral fubjects for another Hiftory, I have at last fixed upon the reign of Charles V. which contains the first establishment of the prefent politi-. cal fyftem of Europe. I have begun to labour seriously upon my tafk. Öne of the first things requifite was to form a catalogue of books, which must be confulted. As I never had access to very copious Libraries, I do not pretend to any extensive knowledge of Authors, but I have made a lift of fuch as

I am w. great regard Dr. fir
Yr m. obdt & mft. o. fert
WILLIAM ROBERTSON.

Edinburgh, 1 Jan. 1759.

and have put them down juft in the order which they occurred to me, or as I found them mentioned in any book I happened to read. I beg you would be fo good as to look it over, and as your erudition and knowledge of books is infinitely fuperior to mine, I doubt not but you'll be able to make fuch additions to my Catalogue, as may be of great ufe to me. I know very well, and to my forrow, how fervilely Hiftorians copy from one another, and how little is to be learned from reading many books; but, at the fame time, when one writes upon any particular period, it is both neceffary and decent for him to. confult every book relating to it, upon which he can lay his hands. I am fufficiently mafter of French and Italian; but have no knowledge of the Spanish or German tongues. I flatter myself that I fhall not fuffer much by this; as the two former languages, together with the Latin, will fupply me with books in abundance. Mr Walpole informed me fome time ago, that in the Catalogue of Harleian MSS. in the British Mufeum, there is a volume of papers relating to Charles V, it is No. 295. I do not expect much from it; but it would be extremely obliging if you

would

would take the trouble of looking into Levefque, a Benedictin Monk, which, were printed at Paris in two Vols. 12°) in 1753, contain fome particulars relating to Charles V. But this performance is much lefs curious than it might have been, confidering that the Author, had the advantage of a vast Collection, above an hundred Volumes of the Car-, dinal's original papers, at Bezancon. Among these are the papers of his Eminence's father, who was Chancellor, and Minister to the Emperor Charles V.

it, and of informing me in general what it contains. In the Catalogue I have enclofed, this mark X is prefixed to all the books which I can get in this Country; if you yourself, or any friend with whom you can use freedom, have any of the other books in my lift, and will be fo good as to fend them to Mr Millar, he will forward them to me, and I fhall receive them with great gratitude, and return them with much punctuality. I beg leave to offer compliments to all our common friends, and particularly to Dean Tucker, if he be in Town this feafon. I wish it were in my power to confer any return for all the trouble you bave taken in my behalf

Edinburgh, 13 Decr. 1759.

FROM DR BIRCH.

To the REV. DR ROBERTSON, at Edinburgh.

Dear Sir London, 3 Jany. 1760. YOUR Letter of the 13 Decr. was particularly agreeable to me, as it acquainted me with your refolution to refume your hiftoric pen, and to undertake a fubject, which from it's importance and extent, and your manner of treating it, will be highly acceptable to the public.

I have perused your lift of Books to be confulted on this occafion; and after tranfcribing it have delivered it to Mr Millar; and shall now make some additions to it.

The new Hiftoire d'Allemagne, by Father Barre, Chancellor of the Univerfity of Paris, published a few years ago in feveral Volumes in q°. is a work of very good credit, and to be perufed by you; as is likewife the fecond Edition of Abrege chronologique de l'Hiftoire, du Droit public d'Allemagne, juft printed at Paris, and formed upon the plan of Prefident Henault's Nouvel Abrègè chronologique de l'Hiftoire de France, in which the reigns of Francis I. and Henry II. will be proper to be feen by you.

The Memoires pour fervir à L'histoire du Cardinal Granvelle, by Father Rofper

Bishop Burnet, in the Summary of Affaires before the Refloration prefixed to his Hiftory of his own time, mentions a life of Frederick Elector Palatine who firft reformed the Palatinate, as curiously. written by Hubert Thomas Leodius. This book, though a rare one, is in my ftudy and fhall be fent to you. You will find, in it many facts relating to your Emperor. The Manufcript was luckily faved when the library of Heydelberg was plundered and conveyed to the Vatican, after the taking of that city in 1622, and it was printed in 1624 at Francfort in 4to. The Writer had been Secretary and Counsellor to the Elector.

Another book which I fhall tranfmit to you, is a valuable collection of State papers, made by Monf. Rivier, and printed at Blois in 1665 in two vols fo. They relate to the reigns of Francis I, Henry II, and Francis 11, of France. The indexes will direct you to fuch paffages as concern the Emper

or.

As Monf. Amelot de la Houffie, who was extremely converfant in modern hiftory, has in the 1st Tome of his Memoires Hiftoriques politiques et literaires, from p. 156 to 173, treated of Charles V. I fhall add that book to my parcel.

Varilla's Life of Henry II. of France fhould be looked into, tho' that Histo rian has not at prefent much reputation. for exactness and veracity.

Dr Fiddes, in his life of Cardinal Wolfey, has frequent occafion to introduce the Emperor his contemporary, of which Bayle in his Dictionary gives

us

one,

us an exprefs article, and not a fhort a long letter of the Lord of the Council for it confiits of eight of his pages. of Henry VIII. in 1546 to his ambTM, Roger Afcham, Queen Elizabeth's with the Emperor. Preceptor, when he was Secretary to Sir Richard Moryfin, amb. from K. Edward VI. to the Imperial Court, wrote to a friend of his a Report & difcourfe of the affairs & ftate of Germany and the EmCharles's Court. This was printperor ed in the reign of Queen Elizabeth; but the copies of that Edition are now However this will be foon made public, being reprinted in an Edition of all the Author's English works now in the prefs.

very rare.

The Epitres des Princes, tranflated from the Italian by Belleforeft, will probably fupply you with fome few things to your purpose.

Vol. 295 among the Harleian MSS. contains little remarkable except fome letters from Henry VIII's ambr in Spain in 1518 of which you may fee an abft: act in the printed Catalogue.

In Dr Hayne's Collection of State papers, in the Hatfield history, p. 56. is

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REVIEW OF NEW BOOKS.

Defcription of the ceremony of high mass at

St Peter's, Rome." "High mafs was, on the day of the Nativity, performed by the Pope at St Peter's, where, on this occafion, there is no admittance but in full drefs-for

TO DR BIRCH.

*

Extrad from a letter of Dr Robertson, dated College of Edinburgh, O&.8.1765. *** I have met with many interruptions in carrying on my Charles V, partly from bad health, and partly from the avocations arifing from performing the duties of office. But I am now within Sight of Land. The hiftorical

my

part of the Work is finished, and I am bufy with a preliminary book in which 1 propofe to give a view of the progrefs in the State of Society, Laws, Manners, and Arts, from the irruption of the barbarous nations to the beginning of the fixteenth century. This is a laborious undertaking; but I flatter my. felf that I fhall be able to finish it in a few Months. I have kept the books you was fo good as to fend me, and shall return them carefully as foon as my work is done.

his Holiness, though ftiling himself the
"Servant of Servants," will not play off
his holiday farces to any thing but bags
and fwords. In the different ftages of
this ceremonial, the attitudes of the
Sovereign Pontiff were as ridiculous and
varied as thofe of a pofture mafter. They
placed him in a low chair-stripped him
to his flannel waistcoat, and feemed dif-
pofed to fhew him every indignity. This,
as I imagined, for it was pantomime
throughout--was to picture to us the
humility of the Saviour. They did not,
however, fuffer him to continue long in
this ftate of degradation. He was foon
reftored to his former fplendour; and
paraded before us, as we knelt, difplay-
ing his handfome leg and flipper, with
much apparent fatisfaction. I happened
to be posted in an avenue which led to
the grand altar, and therefore had an
opportunity of obferving closely every
thing which was conveyed backwards
and forwards by the numerous priests
who attended. It was truly ludicrous

to

to fee five or fix men in furplices, car- "The church of the Jefuits also ofrying with great folemnity as many dishes fers a scene of barbarous and abfurd fuof dreffed up napkins, and meeting an perftition. Within this church, the equal number, who were, with the fame fcourge is nightly ufed; and I have it religious grimace, carrying off thofe that from a catholic, who, I dare venture to had been used. affirm, has been of the number, that

“I will not diffemble the wearinefs multitudes refort to the penance which I felt at the length of thcfe ceremonies. is here administered. The lights are exHis Holiness was, it must be acknow- tinguished, and the penitents of both ledged, an admirable actor; but the fexes offer their bare fhoulders to whatCardinals did not support their parts ever number of fripes their fins may with fo good a grace; and a degree of appear to deferve. I have more than coldness and indifferency pervaded the once refolved to acquaint myself of the generality of the fpectators-evidently fact; but, understanding that the stilletportending fome great approaching to would certainly difpatch me, were I change. Devotion is certainly much found thus obtruding upon their folemn on the decline. Subjects are handled myfteries, I have concluded to admit in general converfation, which have lit- the hiftory upon the credit of my retle alliance with credulity and fubmif- porter." fion. In short, the pillars of papal tyranny feem loofening apace; and its ultimate fubverfion is an event which cannot long be delayed. In the prefent fituation of things, the energy operating from within will be affifted by a powerful impetus from without; the majefty of Papal Rome is unquestionably and irrevocably doomed to fall, and great will be the fall of it."

Other inftances are given of Romish fuperftition:

Defcription of the public eating Houfes of

Vienna.

"In all thefe houfes the custom is, to give every man his portion separate; infomuch that though numbers dine at the fame table, they feldom dine in common. In almost all the dining-houfes here, a bill of fare, containing a vaft collection of dishes, is written out, and the prices affixed to each article. As the people of Vienna eat of variety, the calculation, at the conclufion of the repait, would ap"It is furprifing to fee by how many pear fomewhat embarraffing; this, howarts the Romish priesthood study to a- ever, is done by mechanical habit with mufe, and to profit by the credulity of great fpeed. The cuftom is for the party their followers. The feftival of St An- who has dined, to name the dishes, his tonio, not the Paduan Antony, the pa- quantity of bread and wine. The keltron of fishes, but Antony the protector ler, who attends on this occafion, follows of horfes, mules, and affes, afforded me every article you name, with the fum a frong proof of the artifices of catholic which this adds to the calculation; and impotture. This ceremony was per- the whole is performed, to whatever aformed in a public fquare. A prieft in a mount, without ink or paper. It is cufurplice ftood at the door of the church, rious to hear this ceremony, which is and with a long brush, dipped, as often muttered with great gravity, yet peras occafion required, into a pail full of formed with accuracy and dispatch. It holy water, fcattered this unction three is inconceivable how numerous thefe times upon the horfes, as they entered houfes are in Vienna, to which we have into the court. Here all the equipages in England nothing that corresponds exof the nobility, no lefs than the horfes of hire, are driven, decorated with ribbands. The priest received from the votaries of the Saint, large wax candles, money, &c. according to their choice For means; while he gave them in return, a fmall print of the Saint, and a flight prinkle of holy water. I treated the ceremony with fome degree of levity, and received a rebuke from a true fon of the church; who told me of many fatal accidents which had befallen thofe who efufed to have their horfes carried to he benediction of St Antony.

actly. There is fomething remarkably pleafant in this mode of living. An evening feldom paffes in these houfes without mufic, and the German dances have an air of vivacity and cheerfulness fuperior to all others.

"I have been often regaled by a ftrolling band at one of thefe houtes; where, deeming myself totally unknown, I was accustomed to pafs an evening hour. I ufually entered this, wrapped in my cloak, and took my feat in a corner of the room, where I might regifter what paffed without attracting notice. A prin

cipal part of my amusement arofe from the attention of female readers. The effay on Self-juftification is a fuccefsful attempt to imitate Swift in the ironical fatyre. A fhort extract will show the writer's manner.

the warm debates of fome worthy citizens, who, having difpatched the bufinefs of the day, were relaxing their minds with a little politics. I was diverted to hear these great perfonages regulating "Left amongst infinite variety, the the affairs of empires-leading the com- difficulty of immediate felection should bined armies into the heart of France, at first perplex you, let me point ou by a fhorter cut than the Duke of Brunf that matters of taste will afford you, o wick had taken-making the rebels own all others, the most ample and inceffan; their lawful king, and receive their ex- fubjects of debate. Here you have no patriated princes. I had remarked, every criterion to appeal to. Upon the fame night that I frequented this house, a lit- principle, next to matters of tafte, points tle man of uncouth figure, and unpropi- of opinion will afford the most conftant tious phyfiognomy; and had obferved exercise to your talents. Here you will him conftantly twirling a large key over have an opportunity of citing the opi his finger, whenever he entered into con- nions of all the living and dead you have verfation; and ftriking this forcibly a- ever known, befides the dear privilege gainst the table, when he wished to efta- of repeating continually : "Nay, you blish his argument, or filence his adver- never must allow that." Or, "You fary. I was aftonifhed to find fo much can't deny this, for it's the universal owit and pleasantry in his discourse. He pinion-every body fays fo! every borallied with much vivacity all nations, dy thinks fo! I wonder to hear you exand all governments-but his own. He prefs fuch an opinion! Nobody but yourthought that France and Switzerland, felf is of that way of thinking." With which boasted of the pureft conftitutions, innumerable other phrases with which a had lefs liberty than the Auftrians, flight attention to polite conversation will whofe conftitution of government he furnish you. This mode of oppofing owned was the worst. "In Switzer- authority to argument, and affertion to land," faid he, " a man cannot fpeak proof, is of fuch univerfal utility, that I his fentiments without hazard of impri- pray you to practise it. fonment, nor in France without the danger of decapitation; while in Vienna a man may indulge himself in all freedom of remark, and runs no risk, till he lends his aid to plots, cabals, and confpiracies." "There are, however, difcontents at Vienna; and, were there all that freedom of fpeech on which the orator infifted, the coffee-houfes would refound with the complaints and remonftrances of the people. On the various topics he ran over, he expreffed himself with great vehemence, took much snuff, and fmote frequently with his key. Some intelligence, which I picked up from the house, has acquainted me, that he has lately married a very pretty woman; and that every evening when he leaves her, he locks the door, and pockets the key. I will make no apology for these colourings after nature-however remote from the fplendid fcenes of life: my fortune has at prefent thrown me into thofe walks of fociety, where higher incidents

cannot occur.'

Letters for Literary Ladies. To which is added, an Effay on the noble Science of Self-Juftification. 8vo. 4s. boards. THIS pleafing volume is well worthy

"If the point in difpute especially be fome opinion relative to your character or difpofition, allow in general that "You are fure you have a great many faults," but to every specific charge, reply, "Well, I am fure I don't know, but I did not think that was one of my ** faults! nobody ever accused me of that before! Nay, I was always remarkable for the contrary; at leaft before I was acquainted with you-Sir; in my own family-afk any of my own friends; ask any of them; they muft know me best."

"But if inftead of attacking the ma terial parts of your character, your bui band fhould merely prefume to advert to your manners, to fome flight personal habit which might be made more agreeable to him; prove in the first place, that it is his fault that it is not agreeable to him.-His eyes are changed, or opened; but it may perhaps have been a matte almoft of indifference to him, till you undertook its defence-then make it of confequence by rifing in eagerness, in proportion to the infignificance of your object; if he can draw confequences, this will be an excellent leffon-if you are fo tender of blame in the verieft trifle, how unimpeachable muft you be in

mai

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