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city, and the limitation of discounts at army, and their rapid pursuit of the enethe bank.

my, demonstrated the utility of the Mr Pitt said, as he considered himself meafure. Who would put nine or even as put upon his defence by the right tacive hundred thouiind pounds in hon. gentleman opposite, he trusted that competition with theia succeites, prothe House would suspend their opinion duced by Brit muzey. Whatever this of the transactions imputed to him, uncountry hard iranljitted it was only til they heard what he had to offer in lent, but even ii si iad been given to a justification, or at least in extenuation of much largă imount, the service has his conduct. The facts on which he amply repair us. Tsere tras nci, te meant to ground that defence were, the believed, an individual in the country practice of his predeceffors, and the pre- who did not feel a impachy in the cedents that bore an analogy to the pre- . magnanimity of the Court of Vienga; sent case. On the relevancy and validi. where was the man to be found who ty of these practices and precedents, it would not exuit in furribing the finews was for the House, and not for him to of war, which Auftria had wielded with decide. After this preface, he proceed. so much honour to herself, and interest ed to reply distinctly to the beads of the to an admiring world? The Right Hon. charge contained in the opening speech. Gentieman next explained the circumIt was, be said, an acknowledged prin- ftances that induced him to abandon the ciple, that all grants should proceed idea of a public Loan, and to adopt cxfrom the Commons, and that all sums traordinaries, which were (the publicity are under their controul ; but the public attending the former mode) the conseservice could not be performed in point quent depreciation of credit at home, of practice, if extraordinaries for unfore, and the mischievous effects of these feen services were not to be admitted. transactions being known to the enemy. From the days of King William, through with relpect to “ the violation of the a succession of reigns, and under various privileges of Parliament, and the transadministrations, the uniform practice had action being done under the auspices of been sanctioned and confirmed ; to ar- the Austrian succeffes,” for the creation raign the practice, was to traduce the of a precedent he positively denied, and conduct of every adminiftration since declared that the precedent was not atour constitution attained its matured tempted to be established under any ftate. A vote of credit, he contended, such phantoms of delusive glory, but was 'applicable to any service the exi- from a zeal for the public service and gency of affairs may require. The mo. the good of the country; a zeal which ney fo appropriated was of an affignable neither hope nor fear should induce him nature, and came within the spirit and ever tó fupprefs. Had the country, letter of the vote of credit. He was a- in a state of despondency, yielded to ware that responsibility did exist for the the pressure of calamity, the enemy exercise of a legal discretion given to the would have been infpired with confiExecutive Government, subject to the dence, and conquered our ally to whoin controul of Parliament. The House would we were linked by honour and policy. not forget the circumftances that led to By continuing our succours, the brave the distribution being necessary; and if Austriaus, who had endured adversity, he had departed from the principles laid were induced to continue their efforts, down, and exercised an intemperate dif- and eventually retrieved prosperity. Af cretion, the deviation from the eftablish- ter begging of the House to view the ed practice was not, he declared, the ef- transaction in the aggregate, and not acfect of design, but an error of judgment. cording to dates, or issues, and affirming To establish the utility and expediency that it was only following up the pledge of the distribution, he reverted to the of the House to give assistance according situation of the hostile armies in July to exigencies, he quoted a variety of last. The rapid progress of the French cases to prove, that money had been reinto the heart of Germany; and the peatedly given for the assistance of founfortunate, though heroic retreat of reign powers, in Votes of Credit and Exthe Auftrian army, marked the expedi- traordinaries. The first of importance ency. The turn was instantaneously to his point, Mr Pitt mentioned, was agiven to the tide of affairs: the aftonith- bout the beginning of the reign of King ing victories atchieved by thát gallanţ William, in the year 1701, when a motion was made and carried, for the pay- and which the House also, when informment of a certain fum advanced to ed of the circumstance, made good. foreign troops, not provided for by Par- In the year 1918, in the reign of linment. The troops alluded to were George I. there appears another remarkSwedes; and the vote paffed without able instance, approving not only of a oppofitin. In the reign of Queen Anne, general Vote of Credit, but in support when the Whig intereit was triumphant, of the money advanced through that and in the hey-day of their fpleen, puh. medium, both for the augmentation of ed their animosities too far, there were fe his Majesty's forces, and for payment of veral corroborating precedents. In the Dutch troops. In 1734, there palled years 1704 and 1705, a retolution passed, a motion, granting a Vote of Credit approving of the application of money ad- for the General State of affairs, withvanced by a Vote of Credit to Foreign out limiting Ministers to any thing parTroops, and not provided for by Parlia- ticular. In 1742, another instance ocnient. In the year 1706, there was a very curs respecting the advance of money, remarkable precedent in his favour, to not provided for by Parliament.

In which he begged the particular atten. 1746, the Minister advanced, by a Vote tion of the Houle. There were accounts of Credit, a süm to the Duke of Apresented to the House of three fums for remberg, to put foreign troops in moForeign troops--and not provided for tion. This aroused the opposition, who by Parliament The first was to the moved a censure against Mr Pelham, the Duke of Savoy--the second was by way Minister for the time being, and a man of Loan to the Emperor-and the third of the greatest respectability. It was was a fum granted by the Minister for stopped by the previous question, and the time being, to the Landgrave of Hesse the expences questioned, ordered to be --and not provided for by Parliament, made good. The vote of censure on These fums had been advanced through this subject was renewed, as described the medium of a Vote of Credit ; and a by Lord Carteret; but not only was it refolution of the House was paffed negativec, but, after the perusal of the without the smallest murmuring, approv. refolution of 1707, they highly approved ing of the measure. There was a cu- of the measure; and itated that the forious fact, perfectly analogous to the reign troops put in motion were then piclent cate-The sums to the Duke of necessary for the safety of Europe. There Savoy and the Landgrave of Heffe had are many inftances during the laft Gerbeen advanced during the recess of Par- man war, in which there is clear proof liament; and that to the Emperor in by documents produced, that different the interval between two fellions, and fums, had been disposed of in the manner a vote pailed, approving of the measure, already described, without the previous All these transactions, as may be ften sanction of Parliament. But to proceed in the History of the times, paffed in to more recent circumstances, in which filence. The business, was afterwards the usage of Parliament was more imbrought forward by Gentlemen of the mediately forcible, because within the Opposition in those days, and became recollection of all who heard him. In the subject of a serious parliamentary in the year 1787, there were sums advancquiry. But the enemies of the Minister ed by a Vote of Credit for the recovery were foiled in their attein.pts, and, in- of Holland, not provided for by Parliastead of a motion of censure, a refulu- ment. Mr Pitt now threw himfelf ention was pafled, as may be teen in the tirely on the candour and justice of the journals, in substance as follows: House, and declared that he had rather “ That the Money thus advanced by a fink under their cenfure, than have the

“ Vote of Credit had not only operated painful reflection of having sacrificed the
• the Salvation of Savoy, the necessary interests of his country.
support of the Landgrave and the Em.

Mr Bragge opposed the motion of Mr peror, but greatly contributed to the Fox. He said, That the measure of ad« Honour of England, and the Glory of vancing to the Emperor sums of money, “ Europe.”

which, by the accounts upon the table, There are more precedents in the year appeared to have been fent to him, tho' 1707 and 1712, for Exceedings ted not to be drawn into precedent but in by a Vote of Credit to the Duke of Sa. cases of special neceffity, was, under the voy, not provided for by Parliament, peculiar circumftances of the cafe, a jnt

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tifiable and proper use of the discretion for the present there could be none; vested in Minilters by the House, and ministers might have had that constituwas calculated to produce consequences, tionally granted which they chose to which have been highly beneficial to Eu seize illegally. The precedent of 1787, rope in general, and to this kingdom in when money was issued for Holland, particular.

was also during the vacation of ParliaMr Thornton stated, he had at first ment, and the necessity was then pressing; thought a bill of indemnity necessary for that ium was also accounted for as fecret the Minister; but from the precedents service money, upon the oath of the sea quoted by him, was now convinced that cretary of itate. The minister took the it was not fo.

filence of oppofition on the budget night Alderman Lufhington said, that the for an argument in his behalf, as if they Common Hall, which had been called in were bound to the law of “ Hue and the morning upon the subject now in Cry,” like persons who, having been debate, did not contain a fixth part of robbed, intended to bring actions 2. the Livery; and the sense of a Common gainst the county. Not one of all hia Hall, it was well known, was generally boasted precedents was of any value. contradicted by any other mode of taking The vote of credit was asked for future, the opinion of the city. He had declar- not for past expences; and the account ed, that he would not promise his ver- of 341,000l. paid to the Paymaster-Genedict before he had heard the defence of ral, was virtually a false one ; for this the accused ; and he now thought the money appeared as if paid to British, minister justified by the terms of the instead of foreign troops. Without look, vote of credit.

ing coarsely at the direct means of corMr Alderman Curtis expressed the ruption, what respect was to be had for fame opinion with respect to the con- that minifter, under which juries were duct of the minister.

reviled; courts of justice declared by Mr Sheridan said the real point to be the first pensioner of the crown to be decided lay in a very narrow compass, schools for treason; the military separaHad they proved the fact charged, and ted from their fellow subjects; the had they rightly stated the principle mouths of the people stopped, and at relative to it? He was surprised to hear laft, the guardianship of the public the precedents treated as rules which purse taken from the House of Commons? could only be exceptions, and, if truc If the House did not check this career, to the extent they were stated, could he should consider them as not only acnot overcome the Constitution. But complices in this crime, but partakers they were not true, even to that extent. in the effect of it. The money fent to the Emperor in Sir W. Pulteney would not long detain 1706, amounted only to 47,000l. and the House from their decision. It was that was paid to a General commanding agreed on all hands, that the right of an united army of British and Germans; granting money exitted only in Parliathe promise to give which was not made ment, while the doubt as to the right of while Parliament was fitting. The de distribution was sustained by the two mand from Savoy, on which another of exceptions to their general care-the the pretended precedents was founded, vote of credit, and the extraordinaries. was not made while Parliament was Such was the jealousy of the House as to fitting; and though Turin was then ac- money affairs, that formerly, when the tually besieged, Mr Secretary Harley Lords altered any pecuniary bill, it was had replied that it was “ hardly prac- the custom literally to kick it out of the ticable” to give 50,000!. confiitently House : we were now grown more powith the Conítitution of England; nor lite, and only threw it aside. The did the Queen send it without stipulat- House of Lords, to be sure, had no ing to deduct it from a subsidy already places to give away; but why wouli ftipulated by Parliament; so that, in we endure that from ministers which we fact, no money was granted by Parlia. would not from the Upper House? He ment. The money applied in 1742 was really believed, that the Chancellor of during the vacation of Parliament; and the Exchequer was not aware, the other upon that occasion, a division took place night, of the precedents which he had in the House of 145 to 259. Extreme quoted for his defence, but which turnDecesity was the plea for that measure; od out to be nothing at all. Not one of

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them did, or could give away the con- age would command respect from the troul of Parliament. He thought the latest pofterity. . This woman, he said, present administration, in general, a good had no sooner escaped from the mercione, and therefore, that in which it was lefs prisons of the tyrant Roberspierre, most dangerous to introduce new prác. whence she had witnessed her mother, tices, for these were always brought in filter, and other relatives led to the scafe in good times to be used in bad ones. fold, than she determined to fly to dun. Suppose a future minister wanted geons fill more merciless, to participate 500,000!. to bribe the House, he might in the sufferings of her husband, and to say he had sent it to a Foreign Prince. adminifter those comforts which his fio The Money Bills and the Mutiny Bill, tuation might require. Previous to her the power of the purse and sword, were arrival, she had the good fortune to ob. the two pillars of the Constitution; and tain an audience of the Emperor, who the minister had weakened one of them manifefted the strongest marks of symin a manner which called for some strong pathy, and commiseration.

He was mark of disapprobation from the House. pleased to grant that part of her request Mr Fox replied.

which related to access to the prison, At three o'clock a division took place. and consequent confinement, but with For the motion 81

respect to the liberation of her husband, Against it 285.

the Emperor used this remarkable exM. LA FAYETTE.

presion—“ This is a complicated busi16. General Fitzpatrick rose to call the nefs, my hands are bound !These were attention of the House to the melan- grounds for warranting the affertion choly situation of M. de la Fayette, that M. La Fayette and his companions which has long excited the commisera. were not prisoners of the Emperor. On tion of every friend to humanity and her arrival at the gates of Olmutz, the freedom. The motion he intended to Governor of the fortress told her, that fubmit, he faid. could not be considered her husband was subjected to all the rias foreign to the jurisdiction of the Bri- gours of the dungeon, and assured her, tish Parliament. It was now three that if she entered she must submit to years since he had proposed an Address fimilar treatment. This did not fake praying his Majesty to use his endea her fortitude. She entered and found vours to obtain fome alleviation of the her husband ghaftly and emaciated, is sufferings of this gallant Officer and his rags and tatters, labouring under a pulthree friends, then languishing in a for- monary, bereft of every thing that could tress belonging to the King of Pruffia, alleviate the horrors of imprisonment, and at present in the dungeons of his and nearly deprived of air and the light Imperial Majesty, another ally of Great of Heaven. This virtuous woman, this Britain. The General remarked upon Aria, who could have interested the the difcuffion that took place on this feelings of a Nero or a Claudius, could subject, aud entered into an able review not obtain of her brutal keepers the ferof the conduct of M. de la Fayette. He vice of a female attendant. Whatever impugned the arrest which happened fortitude of mind she might poffefs, the upon neutral ground (the Bishopric of delicacy of a female frame, unable any Liege), and declared, that M. de la Fay- longer to withitand the incessant watch. ette was neither considered as a prisoner ings, was obliged to yield to pressure of of war nor a prisoner of state. It would fatigue. She requested permission to go not,' he hoped, be contended, that La to Vienna for medical selief; after an in. Fayeite was the prisoner of an inde- terval of three long vionths the Goverpendent State, and that this country nor communicated the Emperor's plea. could not interfere. Should that argu- sure, that if she came without the walls ment be adduced, he was prepared to of the prison, me was to return no more. prove, on the authority of Mad. de la Mark, said the General, the refinement Fayette tierself, that her huband and his and ingenuity of the cruelty! “ You companions were not the prisoners of have facriáced your health for the fothe Emperor of Germany. The Gene- ciety of your hasband, now you shall ral next appealed to the feelings of the sacrifice his fociety for your health !" House, and represented the object of his To this she declared in reply, that the motion to be the husband of a woman, too well knew her duty to her family to whose cxalted virtues and heroic cour- accept the alternative, and he was de

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66

termined to share the captivity with her and they were certainly of a nature not to
husband, in all its details! The Gene. be judicially proved ; but the recital of
ral described, in a most affecting manner, barbarities at Olmutz was certainly
the situation and treatment of the cap- founded on that which ought to be re.
tives, and remarked, that the war was ceived as admiffible evidence. The let-
profesiedly entered into for the preserva- ters of Mad. la Fayette, and the answer
tion of religion. After commenting from the Cabinet of Vienna, were mat-
with much feeling' on these topics, he ters of public notoriety. But the Mi-
read cxtracts from a correípondence nister had stated, as the ground of our
with this lady, from her dungeon, and non-interference, that it would go to ela
called upon the House to convince the tablish a general principle of interfer.
world, that the Emperor's hands were ence in all cases. When it answered
not bound up from the exercise of hu- purpose, general principles were to give
manity and justice by this country.- way. Whenever the liberty of the fub.
He then concluded by moving an hum- ject was to be invaded, general princi-
ble Address to his Majesty, stating, that ples were regarded as fo many non-enti
the detention of M. de La Fayette and ties; but when an effort was to be made
his three friends was injurious to his for the liberty of a meritorious indivi-
Majesty and the cause of his allies--and dual, then a general principle was a
praying that his Majesty would inter. ground too nice to be touched upon in
cedt for their deliverance in such a way the smallest degrec: He had further ob-
as he, in his wisdom, should judge proper. served, that there was no precedent in

Mr Sheridan, in seconding the Motion, point. A precedent sufficiently close declined enlarging upon the subject, leit was furnished, in his opinion, by the he thould do away the impresion made interference of France in the case of upon the feelings and understandings of Captain Afgill. But the hands of the the House, by the gallant General who Emperor were bound up.” This could had ju:t fat down.

not be by his own laws. If it was done Mr Pitt said, unless it could be prov- by any of his Allies, the voting of the ed that the Councils of this country had present address was the only mode of a concern in the continuance of the suf- saving this country from a shameful thare ferings of M. La Fayette, and a controul in the tranfa&ion. The King of Prussia over the Councils of an independent na- had transferred the jailorship of those tion, no communication on the subject unbappy persons to Austria." This cirought ever to pass, neither could we in- cumstance alone was sufficient to shew terfere, on any compact or principle, in that it was no domeftic concern of the the domestic affairs of other countries. Emperor, and that they were, in fact, He, however, finally declared that he the prisoners of the Allies. M. de la had no share in the detention of La Fay- Fayette was no subject of the Emperor. ette and his followers, and that he would He was not a prisoner at war according chuse it to be made known to the Auf- to the law of nations, though this be untrian Cabinet, that the Government of derstood was a point meant to be disputGreat Britain did not participate in the ed. He had been offered his liberty on defire of their imprisonment.

the condition of fighting againft his coun. Mr Wilberforce proposed an amend- try. This he refused, and for this refument, which he hoped would conciliate sal his memory would be embalmed, all opinions, which was, merely to pray when that of his crowned and throned his Majesty to interpofe his kind offices oppressors would be perished and forfor the deliverance of M. de la Fayette. gotten. If the Count de Provence (Louis

General Fitzpatrick approved of the XVIII.) had been imprisoned in the amendment.

place of Fayette, could the Allies, not Mr Fox said, that he was forry to find claiming his release, have maintained an appeal, such as had been made by with any consistency their war in favour his Hon. Friend (General Fitzpatrick) of royalty ? The difference in this cafe to the best feelings of human nature, was only in the degree. Mr Fox said, "answered only by a display of fophiftry the Address, in his opinion, was seemly and chicane. The minifter had admit- and dignified. The reafons in oppolited the enormity of the case, but he did 'tion to it were absurd, and the feelings not dare to act on his opinion. He had of the House must be blunted if it were intimated his doubts of the fact as stated, not adopted. VOL: LVIII.

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