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It bears, not on the calamity abstract- there would, in my opinion, be no room edly considered, but on a moral quality, for hesitation, provided a man felt only: which it discerns in the unhappy person for if you reason, the case is entirely who is the object of it. It derives in- altered; the talents, the victories, the crease from the view of innocence, and renown of the Grecian general, would sometimes still more from that of repen- presently absorb the calamities of an obtance. Man alone, of all animals, is scure child. Reason willrecall you 10 susceptible of it; and this, not by a fe- the political interest, to the I human. cret retrospect to himself, as some ene- The sentiment of innocence is a ray mies of the human race have pretended: of the divinity. It invests the unfortufor, were that the case, on stating a nate person with a celestial radiance, comparison between a child and an old which falls on the human heart, and man, both of them unfortunate, we recoils, kindling it into generosity, that ought to be more affected by the misery other fame of divine original. It alone of the old man, considering that we renders us sensible to the distress of virare removing from the wretchedness of tue, by representing it to us incapable childhood, and drawing nearer to those of doing harm; for otherwise, we of old age : the contrary, however, might be induced to consider it as fuftakes place, in virtue of the moral fen- ficient to itself. In this case it would timent which I have alleged.

excite rather admiration than piry. When an old man is virtuous, the Of the Love of Country. moral sentiment of his distress is excited This sentiment is, still farther, the in us with redoubled force; this is an source of love of country ; because it evident proof, that pity in man is by brings to our recollection the gentle and DO means an animal affection. The pure affections of our earlier years.

IC light of a Belisarius is, accordingly, a increases with extenfion, and expands most affecting object. If you heighten with the progrefs of time, as a seatiit by the introduction of a child, hold. ment of a celestial and immortal nature. ing out his little hand to receive the They have, in Swisserland, an ncient alms beitowed on that illustrious blind musical air, and extremely simple, calied beggar, the impression of pity is still the rans des vaches. This air produces more powerful. But let me put a fen- an effect fo powerful, that it was found timental case : Suppose you had fallen neceffary to probibit the playing of it, in with Belisarius soliciting charity, on in Holland and in France, before the i the one hand, and on the other, an or- Swiss soldiers, because it set them all phan child, blind and wretched, and a-deserting, one after another. I imaa that you had but one crown, without gine that the rans des vaches must imithe possibility of dividing it, to which tate the lowing and bleating of the catof the two would you have given it? tle, the repercussion of the echos, and

If on reflection you find, that the e- other local associations, which made the minent services rendered by Belisarius blood boil in the veins of those poor fol. to his ungrateful country, have inclined diers, by recalling to their memory the the balance of sentiment too decidedly valleys, the lakes, the mountains of in his favour, suppose the child over their country t, and at the same time, whelmed with the woes of Belisarius, nity not less barbarous, from the hands of and at the same time pofleffing some of his parents. He suffered caftration from his his virtues, such as having his eyes put own father, who was by profession a surgeon : out by his parents, and, nevertheless, he, nevertheless, supported that unnatural continuing to beg alms for their relief* ; parent" in his old age. I believe both father

and son are still in life. The rector of a country village, in the # I have been told that Poutaveri, the Invicinity of Paris, not far from Dravet, un- dian of 'Taiti, who was some years ago derwent, in his infancy, a piece of inhuma. brought to l'aris, on seeing, in the royal

garden

the companions of their early life, their edly, thus powerfully attaches those first loves, the recollection of their in. poor people to the place of their birth. dulgent grandfathers, and the like. It was this which inspired the Greeks

The love of country seems to strength and Romans with so much courage in en in proportion as it is innocent and the defence of their country. The fenunhappy. For this reason savages are timent of innocence strengthens the love fonder of their country than polished of it; because it brings back all the afnations are; and those who inhabit re- fections of early life, pure, sacred, and gions rough and wild, such as moun- incorruptible. Virgil was well actaineers, than those who live in fertile quainted with the effect of this fenticountries and fine climates. Never ment, when he puts into the mouth of could the court of Ruslia prevail upon Nisus, who was dissuading Euryalus a single Samoïède to leave the shores from undertaking a nocturnal expedition, of the Frozen Ocean, and settle at Pe. fraught with danger, those affecting tersburg Some Greenlanders were words : brought, in the course of the last centu. Te fuperefse velim : tua vitâ dignior ætas. ry, to the court of Copenhagen, where If thou survive me, I shall die content : they were entertained with a profusion Thy tender age deserves the longer life. of kindness, but soon fretted themselves to death. Several of them were drown

But

among nations with whom infan. ed, in attempting to return to their cy is rendered miserable, and is corcountry in an open boat. They beheld rupted by irksome, ferocious, and unall the magnificence of the court of natural education, there is no more love Denmark with extreme indifference ;

of country than there is of innocence. but there was one, in particular, whom

This is one of the causes which sends they observed to weep every time he so many Europeans a-rambling over the saw a woman with a child in her arms;

world, and which accounts for our hayhence they conjectured, that this unfor. ing fo few modern monuments in Eutunate man was a father. The gentle- rope ; because the next generation never ness of domestic education, undoubt. fails to destroy the monuments of that

which preceded it. This is the reason garden, the paper mulberry tree, the bark of that our books, our fashions, our cura which is, in that island, mapufáctured into toms, our ceremonies, and our lancloth, the tear started to his eye, and clasp guages, become obsolete so soon, and ing it in his arms, he exclaimed ; ah! tree are entirely different this age from what of my country! I could wish it were put to the trial, whether, on presenting to a foreign

they were in the last; whereas all these bird, say a paroquet, a fruit of its countty, particulars continue the same among the which it had not seen for a considerable time, sedentary nations of Asia, for a long it would expre's some extraordinary emotion. series of ages together ; because chilThough physical sensations attach us strong- dren brought up in Asia, in the habitaly to country, moral sentiments alone can tion of their parents, and treated with give them a vehement intensity: Time, much gentleness, remain attached to which blunts the former, gives only a keener edge to the latter. For this reafon it is, the establishments of their ancestors, that veneration for a monument is always in out of gratitude to their memory, and proportion to its antiquity, or to its distance; to the places of their birth, from the this explains that expresion of Tacitus: recollection of their happiness and innoMajor è loginquo reverentia : distance increases

(To be continued.)

reverence.

cence.

OBSERVATIONS ON THE UTILITY OF DEFINING SYNONY

MOUS TERMS;

CONCLUDED FROM PAGE 39. IN order to obviate this seeming ob- difference of opinion, respecting the jection, it must be remembered, that a same act, in any two countries, may,

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very naturally, produce a difference in the claim, and was the foundation on the interpretation of those words that which it was built. are expressive of this act in each, Un. The same notions respecting vows defined terms have, in this way, become prevailed among the Greeks, as well as a fruitful source of controversy in mat- the Romans. In the prayer of the ters both civil and religious; and even priest who had been affronted by Agathe science of grammar has suffered by memnon, the Grecian bard makes him those inaccuracies of expreslion, which state his claim, to be heard in the most it professes to remedy in all other sub- express terms. jects. The religious sentiments of the

-ει ποτε του χαριεντ' επι νηον ερεψα, Romans were by no

refined.

dn ποτε του κατα πιoνα μηρι' εκηα. Vows were presented as bribes to their

Ταυρων

nd τοδε deities, into whose ear they whispered

peos xgnazov sandwg

Flagitare differs from poftulare, and petitions, which they were ashamed to acknowledge in the face of the world. agrees with poscere. in fuppofing the “ Turpiffima vota diis insufurrant ; fi justness of the privilege affumed by the

petitioner, of judging as to his own quis admoverit aurem, conticescent, et

claim. Its power, however, is more quod scire hominem nolunt deo rant.” The prayer of fuch worshippers, the idea of being the judge of the vali

extensive than that of poscere, because to then, was a matter of traffic, not an dity of his right, it superadds that of act of devotion. That disinterested be

effecting his purpose by such means as Revolence, in reliance upon which more

he reckons fit for doing so. In those pious fupplicants present their requests, was done of the attributes of the Ro- means, at the fame time, there may be

a considerable variety. The petitioner man deity. The humiliation of the devotee was, in his own eyes, an article may either distress the person requested

with inceffant importunity, or he may of merit; and he left the altar, on

threaten which he had laid his offering, feeling he feels himself entitled to enforce is

if the claim which

vengeance, the obligation imposed on that being to

not fulfilled.

That flagitare has more whom it was presented. Many passages in the Latin classics power than rogare and poftulare, appears

from the two following sentences : confirm the truth of the observations

« Metuo ne te forte Alagitent ; ego au.. now made.

tem mandavi ut rogarent.-“ Tametsi non tu prece pofcis emaci, caufa poftulat, tamen quia poftulat, non Quæ nisi feductis nequeas committere divis.

flagitat, ego præteribo." “ Antiquam limen Capitolii tangant,

In the oration of Cicero for Plancius, alius donum promittit, fi propinquum he calls upon Lærerensis to specify his divitem extulerit, alius, fi thefaurum charge, and to mention any one tribe effoderit. Ipse senatus, recti bonique that his friend bad corrupted in his compræcep:or, mille pando auri Capitolio petition for the ædileship. “ Etiam atpromittit. Omnibus diis hominibusque que etiam insto atque urgeo, insector, formolior videtur massa auri, quam posco atque adeo flagito crimen.” There quicquid Apelles Phidiasve, Græculi is evidently a climax in the five verbs delirantes, fecerunt,”.

-“ Prisco insti- that compose this sentence, and the tuto rebus divinis operą datur. Cum gradation is very happily fupported. By aliquid commendandum eft, prece ; cum

means of pofcere, the orator makes a: folvendum, gratulatione ; cum ex pofcen- requisition in behalf of his client, of the dum, voto." The vow then among

the

justice of which he had a right to judge ; Romans was a bribe, the acceptance and by the public manner in which this of which was deemed obligatory upon requisition was made, he virtually the party who took it. As means lead threatens him with the penalties of law, ing to an end, it necellarily preceded if it was not complied with ; which last

Vol. LVIII.

tare.

conception is involved in the verb flagi- the danger of not complying with his

request. Those which announce the Ausonius Popma defines this verb sentiments of the soldiers by means of very properly, " Vehementer et plerum- poscere, are expressive of no unbecomque cum strepitu et convicio poscere." ing menace towards their commander,

The gentlest power of fagiture, which but make the fulfilment of their right is that in which the petitioner proposes to be led on to battle by him, the con- . to effect his purpose only by teazing, dition of their obedience. Many, again, : appears in such examples as the two fol- whose request is made by postulare, suga i lowing : “ Implorare et flagitare auxi- gest a reasonable claim, in which there lium consulis.'

is not even the shadow of contumacy. : -nec potentem amicum

They are willing to obey the orders of Largiora flagito,

their commander with all prudent disSatis contentus inicis Sabinis.

patch, and even in his absence, and There are other instances again, in they require a reinforcement, not as a which flagitare implies, that the peti- right, but as a means of doing justice tioner threatens the person requested, to their own courage, and to the cause and excites fear, in order to effect his which they had espoused. The delicapurpose.

cy exhibited by the historian in this desEjicite ex animo curam atque alienum æs, cription, will please the more the longNe quis formidet flagitutorem fuuni.

er it is contemplated. He not only de“ Petreius atque Afranius quum fti- lights his reader by an elegant and maspendium ab legionibus pene seditione terly discrimination of the various senfacta flagitarentur, cujus illi diem non-timents then prevalent in the mind of dum veniffe dicerent, Cæsar ut cognol. Otho and his followers, but furnishes ceret veniffe dicerent poftulatum ef." him also with some curious grammatiThe request made by the soldiers, in cal facts, which few other writers had rder to obtain their pay before it was ingenuity to perceive. due, was very different from that made Docere, erudire, instituere, imbuere, to Cæsar in order to have the matter set- agree in denoting a change produced tled.

"pon the mind by communication from There is a passage in Tacitus, in others, but differ in respect, either to which the three last of the five verbs the state of that mind to which the considered are so placed, that the mean communication is made, or to the means ing of each is very elegantly and de. employed in making it. Docere, which, cisively brought forth. The historian is according to Varro, comes from do, describing the sentiments both of Otho signifies to give information to those who and of the army at Bedriacum, which need it, without reference to their prehe had left just before the engagement vious knowledge, and is a correlative that was to decide the conquest between term in respect to discere. Thus, Sehim and Vitellius, “ Ibi de prælio du- neca says, “ Homines dum defcent, difbitatum ; Othone per literas flagitante cunt.—" Itaque non facile est invenire ut maturarent ; militibus ut imperator qui, quod sciat ipse, alteri non tradat. pugnæ adeffet poscentibus ; plerique com lta non solum ad difcendum propensi supias trans Padum agentes acciri poftula- mus, verum etiam ad docendum.' bant.By forming this anti-Climax, docere is applicable to all who receive Tacitus gives information to the gram- instruction, whether ignorant, or in marian which is worthy of his atten- certain degree previously instructed, aption. The terms of the Emperor's pears from the following passages : meffage, in which flagitare is used, are Quid nunc te Asine literas doceam ? expressive of his authority, and intimate non opus est verbis sed fultibus.”

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Hoc quoque te manet, ut pueros elementa quod litum est in generis humani focie.

cate, tum ad modestiam magnitudinemOccupet extremis in vicis balba fenectus.

que animi erudivit." In this lait ex In the passages now quoted, docere ample, the progreis of man, as the pufuppofes the mind as receiving the infor- pil of philofophy, is beautitully painted mation to be completely ignorant ; but by erudire in its purelt sente. in the three that follow, they appear to

no inconsistency in docere be in a state directly contrary.

“ Et and erudire appearing in one sentence, 8 dicebo’ fus (ut aiunt) oratorem eum, and being applied to the different dequem quum Caculus

ouper audisset, fe- grees of proficiency made by thole acDum alios aiebat effe oportere.” qairing knowledge. “ Ncque folum viPlura recognofces, pauca docendus eris. vi atque præsentes studiosos discendi Quid est enim aut tam arrogans, quam

erudiunt arque docent, fed hoc idem de religione, de rebus divinis, ceremo

etiam poft mortem monumentis literaniis facris

, pontificum collegium docere rum affequuntur.” Sallust says of Sylconari ?"

la, that he was

v literas Græcis atque Docere is almost the only one of the Latinis juxta atque do&tiffime eruditus." verbs mentioned, that is employed to Upon the principles laid down, this denote information given as to an event, compounded expression will bear to be as well as the acquilition of a new con

analysed. The participle, it should ception. “ Cum interea ne literas qui- seem, denotes, that he had been regudem ullas accepi, quæ me docerent quid larly instructed in Greek and Roman ageres."

literature, and the adverb, that the Erudire, from e and rudis, differs stock of his knowledge was such, that from docere

, in referring always to the few, if any, were able to add to it. the rude state of the person instructed,

One instance occurs in Cicero, in. and to the gradual progress by which which erudire signifies to inform as to he becomes learned." No such express an event, which docere does often. fion as “ sus erudio oratorem," can ex.

“ Obviæ mihi velim fint literæ tuæ, quæ it, because, when docere is thus used, me erudiant de omni re publica, ne hospes it vilifies the ability of the teacher, and plane veniam.” This uncommon use of

heightens the information of the scho- erudire seems to justify the definition olar. When the Romans u'ed the phrase given of it. Cicero modestly confesses

Jus Minervam, the construction was to that ignorance of the affairs of the state, be completed by docere, not by erudire. in consequence of his absence, which They only admitted in idea the possibi. is perfectly consistent with the pure use lity of adding one or a few facts to of crudire, and which, when duly re

the stock of knowledge, poffeffed by the presented, his correspondent was able : goddess of learning. The instances that follow shew clear.

Inftituere differs from the preceding ho

ly, that erudire constantly implies the verbs in denoting the first step of a proabsence of information upon the part of gress in teaching, and the communicathe person to be instructed.

tion of the elements of whatever is the

ground of instruction. The simple verb -qui mollibus annis In patrias artes erudiendus erat.

Jalucre, in a figurative sense, denotes

the determination to act, while the “ Inde puerum liberûm loco cæptum compound denotes the commencement haberi , erudirique artibus quibus inge of the action that had been resolved

upon, nia ad magoæ fortunæ cultum excitan. It is only, however, as applied to teachtur.”—“ Philofophia omnium mater ing, that this verb can be held synonyartiam nihil aliud eft quam donum in- mous with the rest of the set. “ Socrates ventum deorum. Hæc nos primum ad jam senex inftitui lyra non erubescebat." illorum cultum, deinde ad jus hominum The verb here evidently refers to the

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