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to wreck cities, spread devastation, destroy into either of these despicable forms of existlife, and go in for universal loot. This is to ence. be the triumph of Anarchy-when there is no There is little cohesion, too little, indeed, majority rule, no representation rule, no laws among the Anarchists themselves. They have to interfere with “personal and local auton. no fidelity to each other, their society is al. omy,” when “individualism” prevails and ways undermined and honeycombed with every one acts according to his own sweet treachery ; spies, indicators, dog their foot. will, or as opportunities offer. The doctrine steps, reveal their counsels. The want of has already been adopted, as we shall see, by definite organization is somewhat of a danger some of our real Anarchists among themselves. to the State. The public safety would be bet

Another apostle of anarchy who is largely ter assured if there was more of a close brotherresponsible for the propagation of truculent hood among its foes. A body-a collective ideas is Prince Krapotkine, “ Peter" Krapot- united party-can be better watched, its prokine, as he is familiarly and affectionately ceedings better known, than the schemes and known among his followers, a leader all look contemplated acts of isolated individuals. up to with respect and admiration, not, of There is a strong tendency among the more course, because he was born a prince. Krapot desperate Anarchists to work single-handed, kine has, undoubtedly, paid in his person for and this, as has been said, is the worst danger his extravagance, and can claim to have borne to anticipate. It is not always easy to tell much in his unstinting support of the cause. what a single individual may be at. Modern He is also an ideal Anarchist ; one with a kink science, modern commerce, offers readiest in his mind, born under a despotismı which and most dangerous facilities to the reckless he confounds with all other forms of govern. irreconcilable bent on murderous destruction. ment. From his birth, the position he once Very little time, the very simplest materials, held, and his readiness to face the conse- purchasable almost at any corner, and for quences of his cult, he has given great impetus small sums, will suffice to equip the social to the movement. His most important con- wreckers with effective weapons of offence. tribution to the cause of Anarchy is the hand. The case of Vaillant, the latest operator in book of anarchic morality of which he is the explosion, clearly proves all this. He planned author. Some of the guiding spirits of the his attack upon the French Chamber upon movement appear to have been both shocked the "accursed bourgeois deputies” alone. A and surprised that the tenets they inculcated common saucepan, a handful of nails, a few should have borne such malignant fruit. It pennyworths of chemicals, and his murderous, would indeed have been strange if the persist. death dealing weapon was complete. As has ent preaching of murder and revolution had since been said by an eminent chemist, a not developed the criminal instincts of the bomb the size of an orange will suffice; an worst of their followers, to many of whom the empty sardine box will make an infernal maprospect of cataclysm and chaos is the most chine. There is no difficulty, no mystery attractive part of his anarchic programme. about the manufacture of these modern exPrince Krapotkine was called in to reconcile plosives. The lesson is easily learned ; it has the discrepancy between teaching and prac. been frequently inculcated in simple lan. tice, and he has ingeniously pointed out how guage. The dangerous knowledge has been morality of a kind) might be maintained spread broadcast by pernicious teachers, while no laws were obeyed. An Anarchist whose implacable animosity against society must, of course, be prepared, he says, to treat inspires them to extend the science of destrucothers as he would wish himself to be treated; tion. Of these Herr Most's work is one of but as accepting this is submitting to a rule the most dangerously complete. It is entitled of law-the thing of all others most abhor- “Scientific Revolutionary Warfare," and is rent to anarchic ideas—“ Peter'' Krapotkine published in New York, where it was first has to offer some compromise. He does this printed in German, English translations hav. by declaring that an Anarchist may, with a ing since been made. This noxious handclear conscience, plunder or kill any one who book—which should be forth with suppressed, offends against the anarchic code, provided burned wholesale, its mere possession deemed he admits that he is equally liable to such a felony--sets forth explicitly the proper treatment if he himself so offends. We may method of using and preparing nitro.glycerine, kill vipers or tyrants, because every man of dynamite, gun-cotton, mercury fulminates, worth expects to be killed if he degenerates and bombs of all descriptions, with further

instruction in the making of " carcado com. growth, covering acres in a few days, requir. posite poison."- New Review.

ing little hold, and going over every obstacle

in its way, the roots being of thread like fineTHE DEVIL PLANT OF MISSISSIPPI. — There ness, and extending only an inch or two be. has recently appeared in this vicinity a most low the surface of the ground, but exhibiting peculiar growth known as the “ devil plant, extraordinary tenacity once they seize hold of which is so deadly as to render all insect life a spot, enwrapping pebbles, old roots, etc., and vegetation in its neighborhood lifeless. like clinging fingers.-Philadelphia Times. It is most innocent in appearance, being of a

THE NEW CLOCK AT ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL tender green, clinging close to the earth, and sprinkled with small red blossoms, cup-shaped,

was made by Smith & Son, of Derby, and is and holding in their hearts a single drop of

fitted with the double three-leg gravity escapemoisture. It is in this singular dew, which

ment designed by Lord Grimthorpe, which the sun has no power to dispel, that the

has proved to be the best choice of the kind plant's most blighting influence is said to lie.

for large clocks. The pendulum is 15 feet Bees by the hundreds have been found dead long, and weighs 7 cwt. The old bell, known in the blogsoms. Indeed, the hives of the

from the name of the maker as the Phelps neighborhood are nearly depopulated by the bell

, is again used for striking, and the old noxious flowers. A gentleman who is noted

bells for the quarters, but they have been as a botanist in these parts tasted this dew,

raised higher in the lantern. The Phelps bell and declared that it was of a sickening sweet weighs

5 tons 4 cwt. The hammer weighs 2 ness, without odor, and viscid like liquid cwt. There are now three faces to the clock, gum. It was allowed to dwell on his tongue,

a new one having been inserted to look down

Cannon Street. The full diameter of the dials which soon began to burn him so as to raise a blister, and the member swelled up and be.

is 17 feet, and the central part--that is, the came discolored and very painful. The bees

space within the figure ring-is 10 feet. The have not been the only sufferers by this figures are 2 feet 9 inches long, and the hands growth, but every insect approaching it seems

are of copper, specially shaped to resist wind and snow.

The minute hand is 9 feet 6 inches to become paralyzed, and after a beat or two of the wings above this creeping upas drops long, and the hour hand 5 feet long. The dying among its cruel leaves. Cattle which weights are carried on steel ropes, and weigh have eaten of it die in a few hours in tho great

half a ton each. The clock requires winding est agony, with a sort of exaggerated tetanus,

every day, and by an ingenious arrangement the skin drawn tense and the eyes protruding the clock itself stops the winding when about from the head. All ordinary remedies fail to

to strike.- English Mechanic. restore one in these attacks. Vegetation also INDIA'S HOARD OF GOLD. – The latest testiseems to shun the" devil plant," and whole mony to India's inveterate propensity to hoard tracts of meadow are now lying scorched and gold, remarks the Mexican Financier, is fur. dead from the insidions approach of this un. nished by the American lecturer, Dr. Rudisill, known growth. Under the microscope the who has spent many years of his life in that leaves exhibit innumerable little mouths, or country, and has made a careful study of the suckers, of such tenacity as to sting the hand inhabitants and their customs. “No Hinon which the leaf is laid, leaving a dull, red doo," says the doctor, “ever dreams of de. mark, like the wound of a scorpion. The positing his gold in a bank.” He can never people of the vicinity say this plant is the be persuaded to believe in the honesty of bank forerunner of disaster, it having made previ. directors, particularly if they are of his own ous appearances just before the outbreak of race. When the native agriculturist is paid the war, and on each occasion of the coming for his produce in gold, he either buries it or of yellow fever. An effort has been made to takes it to the jeweller to be worked into ornaburn it out, but, protected by its singular dew, ments, which are only displayed on rare occathis has failed. The dead bodies of cattlesions. A gold coin is never seen in circala. which have died of eating it on being exam. tion. Thus the gold sent to India year by ined show that the digestive organs are swollen year in settlement of her handsome trade bal. to four times their natural size, and look as if ances never again enters the world's comthey had been burnod ; the heart is congested,

It becoines as unavailable for currency and the blood of a dark, apusual tinge, with purposes as if it had never been taken from an odor like benzoin. The plant is of rapid the mines. When treasure is buried a descrip

merce.

tion of the hiding-place is committed to a may be called Buddha, or perfect comprehen. piece of parchment, which the possessor sion. In Buddhism we have Buddha as our always carries on his person. Sometimes the Saviour, the spirit incarnate of absolute selfwearer of one of these records is lost or de sacrifice and divine compassion, and the em. voured by tigers, and when this occurs his bodiment of all that is pure and good. wealth is often never found again.

Buddha was a man as we are, but he, unlike

ns, knew the truth of the universe and culti. ELECTRIC COOKING. --The advent of electric

vated the higher elements of his nature, cooking apparatus seems likely to evolve a

Buddha was one who was developed from a highly scientific species of cook, with, we may lower being. So when we attain the ultimate be sure, highly up-to-date notions about the point by gradual development there should “living wage.” “Cookery,” we are told by a

be no place that is not lightened by the light daily contemporary in a description of the of our mind, and we can save the world using electric process,“ is raised from the rule-of. thumb level to that of an exact science by the ity and wisdom in perfection is Buddha. —

our power freely. That being who has human. use of a graduated thermometer. For bread

Brooklyn Times. or puff pastry a temperature of 370° F. is required ; for pork, veal, or ordinary pastry,

WOMEN DOCTORS IN RUSSIA,- In all there are 350° ; for beef, 340° ;" and so on, All this

about seven hundred women doctors in Rus. must mean a table of constants in the kitchen, sia, and many of these occupy important posiwith possible forinulæ with different coeffi.

tions in hospitals and workhouses, in educacients for jam tarts, mince pies, and Christ- tional establishments, in factories and works mas puddings. Perhaps soms method of in.

of various kinds, and in Government institu. tegrating the specific heats, latent heats, and

tions, while others hold appointments in the density of the heterogeneous mass to be

service of municipal bodies. The remunera. cooked will be found necessary before the tem.

tion for these different posts varies from about perature can be finally determined. This

£200 downward. So far as private practice is will mean Royal Society Papers on the sub- concerned, there is one woman doctor who ject. Besides all this, the cooking appliances makes an income of £1800 per annum—a pheare depicted as being fitted with a whole bat. nomenally good record. Bat the average intery of switches, various combinations of

come of the woman medical practitioner in which, like the stops of an organ, will be private practice is something under £300 a necessary to produce various effects.

year. ward,” says our contemporary, in an account of the destructive distillation of a joint, “ four

A CURIOUS RECOVERY.-Canon MacColl of these switches are turned off, and the heat is applied from one side only.” Just think of related to him by a physician who had been a

quotes, in the Spectalor, a remarkable case the high scientific knowledge required in order pupil of Sir Charles Bell, the eminent author to be able to manipulate these cookery stops of " The Bridgewater Treatise on the Hand.” so as to produce any given thermal distribu. Sir Charles used to tell the following story to tion on the three Cartesian axes of the kitch

his class : A surgeon who went over the field en oven !- Electrician.

of Waterloo after the battle found a man lying THE COMPREHENSION OF BUDDHISM.—What with his scalp cut off by a sabre stroke. He is Buddhism ? Buddhism is the doctrine picked up the scalp, and finding the man taught by Buddha Shakyamuni. The word breathing, though unconscious, he ordered “ Buddha" is Sanscrit and the Japanese him to be placed among the wounded, clap. Satori, which means understanding. Indeed, ping at the same time the severed scalp on his it has three meanings-self comprehension, head, in order that it might be buried with to let others comprehend, and perfect compre. him, for he did not expect that the poor man hension. Self-comprehension is to awaken would recover. The following day, however, one's self and to attain to the realm of truth he found the man conscious, and his scalp ad. by one's own effort. To let others compre- hering to his head, but with the ends rehend means the work of transition—that is, versed ; for the surgeon, thinking the man to let others understand by one's own wisdom was dying, took no pains to fix the scalp prop—that is humanity. When wisdom and hu- erly. The man recovered, but had to wear manity are developed thoroughly by one he his scalp the wrong end forward.

" After

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1.

Socialism, as everybody really knows, WHAT DOES SOCIALISM MEAN ?

possesses a meaning more or less defi

nitely fixed ; and does not mean merely SOCIALISM is a word which is, by a desire to relieve social suffering, but many people, used in senses so vague a belief that social suffering is due to and so contradictory, as often to de- certain special causes, and a consequent prive it of all arguable meaning. Were desire to relieve it by special and peculthe matter one of mere verbal propriety, iar methods. It is known, further, that everybody who is touched by a knowl- these methods, whatever may be their edge of social suffering, and desires to details, would involve the destruction relieve it by organized action of any of institutions and principles which kind, would no doubt by the derivation have hitherto been considered the foun. of the word be equally justified in claim- dations of all society and civilization; ing for himself the name of Socialist. and in especial the institution, as it But it must be remembered that with now exists, of private property. So precisely the same justification we might much about Socialism the general pubcall a crow a blackbird, or a Newfound- lic knows, and so far as it goes this is land dog a water-wagtail. The practi- all perfectly true ; but the general pubcal meaning of a word is determined, lic knows little more than this, and not by its etymology, but its most defi- what it does not know it makes up for nite and distinctive use; and the word by guesses and assumptions, which are

NEW SERIES,—VOL. LIX., No. 4.,'

28

for the most part wrong. Such being importance as a practical force may be, the case, I shall endeavor in the clear are the ablest, the clearest, and most est, the briefest, and the fairest way practical exponents in this country of possible, to explain what Socialism is, what Socialism really is. The society as formulated by its most competent I allude to calls itself “The Fabian Soexponents; and having thus set before ciety"; and it must be known to the the reader its main and most essential reader of The Fortnightly Review by a elements, I shall fix his attention on political manifesto lately published in those of them which differentiate it these pages, even if it is known to him from other systems; and isolating them in no other way. Societies for propafrom the rest, I shall point out the fal- gating views are apt to seem ridiculous ; lacies which underlie them.

it may therefore be not superfluous for We must begin by observing that So- me to say that the writers of the prescialism, in a perfectly definite sense, ent volume-for it consists of essays by has meant and may mean three differ- several writers — are persons of high ent things, which are, however, by no education, and trained powers of reameans mutually exclusive-a conspir- soning ; that they are fully conversant acy, a party, and a creed. But in this with the orthodox theory of economics ; country, at all events, it does not mean that many of the orthodox doctrines a conspiracy ; nor can it as yet be even form part of their own system, and regarded as a party. It is indeed strug- have been adapted by them to new purgling to form itself into a party ; but poses in a most plausible and ingenious it is doing this by ordinary constitu- way; that many of their own views and tional means; and so far it is not pe- arguments are highly suggestive and culiar, and calls for no comment. There valuable ; and that the principal writer, is, in short, nothing peculiar about it Mr. Sidney Webb, is a lecturer on Poexcept the creed to which, if ever it litical Economy at the City of London becomes a party, it will aim at giving College. This volume, then, which is effect. Socialism, therefore, as it now called Fabian Essays in Socialism, may exists, may be defined as a body of eco- be taken as exhibiting Socialism in its nomic and social doctrines, resulting in most favorable and most reasonable ascertain conclusions as to the future pos- pect. To this volume we will now prosibilities of society-possibilities which ceed to refer. Between some of the Socialists as a party will endeavor to writers there are minor differences of make actual. It is therefore as a body opinion ; and some of them on minor of social and economic doctrines that points are not quite consistent with we must consider it, if we would under- themselves. But matters like these stand to any purpose ite character and are trifles. In dealing with a book of its prospects.

this kind our object must be to criticise First, however, let us ask this : How, not the way in which a case is stated, or how far, can these distinctive doc- but the case itself; and any chance detrines be identified ? For there are So- fect in the mere statement of it we cialists of various sects, just as there onght to remedy, rather than dwell are Christians; and about certain points upon, if we would criticise it to any they rival Christians in their disagree- advantage. What we want is to see ment. This is true ; but among the how much truth certain men have got more thoughtful Socialists-those who, hold of; not to waste time in quarrelso to speak, have the intellectual charge ling over the manner in which they of the movement—though disagreement have managed to express it. about secondary points may grow, about certain primary points there is a grow

II. ing clearness and agreement. It is to SOCIALISM AS PRESENTED TO US BY ITS these last points that I propose now to

INTELLECTUAL LEADERS. confine myself; and in order to show the reader what they are, I shall make Socialism, then, as these writers are use of a volume which has been issued, careful to tell us, is “ not a religion": with a similar purpose, by a society of it is par excellence“ a property-form"; English Socialists, who, whatever their it is the scheme of an industrial sys

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