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hairs with which the two-lipped calyx turn out to have been already rifled. It that encloses the unopened flower is also serves the plant's purpose equally thickly studded. The point of these well, as it makes the bee attend strictly hairs is to prevent flying insects from to business, instead of fooling about laying their eggs on the bud, and en- among flowers which have already shed couraging their young grubs to feed on their pollen and already been fertilized. the nutritious little pollen-masses with. It is a case, in short, of mutual accommoin them. If you look close, indeed, you dation, will see that the hairs cluster thickest If you depress the keel of a gorseat the top, which is just the part where blossom with your finger, you can see such flying insects always lay their eggs for yourself how it opens elastically and on the buds of defenceless species. As puffs out a little shower of copious yelusual, we see the plot and counterplot low pollen. This trick it shares with of nature. The plant wants the pollen several other bushy pea-flowers. But for its own fertilization. The insect the common little English birdsfoot tretries to steal it as food for its young. foil, a herb of the same family, has inThe plant keeps it out by a protective vented and patented a still more adcovering
vanced device which is a distinct imTill the blossom is ready to unfold provement upon the method pursued on some warm winter day, the two lips by the brooms and furzes. In birdsof the calyx remain so tightly closed foot trefoil and the group to which it that you can separate them with diffi- belongs, the keel, instead of being culty. But when the right moment blunt as in gorse, is narrow and sharplyarrives, the bud, which has been wait- pointed. The stamens shed their poling for some sunny morning, opens len beforehand into the tip of this keel. blithely of itself and displays a flower of There are a pair of knobs, as before, the common papilionaceous or pea-blos- for the bee to alight upon ; but his som type. The mode of its fertiliza- weight, instead of bursting open the tion in the gorse-blossom, however, as flower with a pop, merely depresses it in the flower of the broom and some a little, and pumps out the pollen, which allied bushes, is both curious and in- is rather viscid than powdery, against teresting. The keel or lower portion his hairy bosom. The end of the keel of the corolla consists of two united and is purposely perforated so as to allow soldered petals, flanked by what are the pollen to ooze out under pressure of technically known as the wings. At the insect's body. This is an obvious adthe base of this keel are two little vance in structure, because it saves and rounded knobs or projections, one on utilizes the whole of the pollen, whereas either side, so shaped as exactly to fit in the case of gorse a considerable porthe front legs of the bee as he settles tion of that valuable material is wasteupon the blossom. They afford, in fully shed abroad to the four winds of point of fact, a convenient landing. heaven. In the single family of the stage, like the step of an omnibus. But pea-flowers alone, whose blossoms are the whole lower part of the flower is all constructed on very much the same loosely hinged to the standard or upper architectural model, I could tell you of portion ; and as the bee alights on it, a dozen such minor modifications, each his weight bends it suddenly down, so intended in its way to secure more perthat the whole keel bursts open elasti- fect and certain fertilization. Plants cally, and dusts him
all over with the are always inventing fresh Yankee nofertilizing pollen. When he flies away tions. again, the keel and wings do not return But why does the greater gorse choose to their original position, but hang the winter to flower in? Why indulge loosely downward. The inquiring bee, in so unusual and eccentric an idiosynon his collecting rounds, can thus see at crasy? Simply because it finds there is a glance whether any particular flower then and there an opening for it. And, has been “sprung" or not, as we tech- wherever an opening in life exists, some nically call it. This saves him much enterprising person or some enterprising time, for he doesn't have to go poking species is sure to step in and avail himhis proboscis into blossoms which may self of the vacancy. Bees come out
foraging on every sunny day through The dwarf furze resembles in most our English winter. Therefore it is points its bigger and burlier cousin. worth while for a few stray flowers to Only, it takes up the running when the straggle on through the coldest months greater gorse leaves off ; it flowers while in order to utilize this off-chance of im- the other is in fruit, and ripens its pods pregnation. Whenever a morning oc- while the other is flowering. Moreover, curs in winter fit for bees to venture it is even more strictly western in type out on, a few hardy gorse-blossoms ven- than the greater gorse ; it does not cross ture out to accommodate them. And the Rhine, which forms its scientific in early spring, before there is much frontier, and it goes further north into competition among other plants for the Scotland than its bigger and less proservices of those common carriers of pol- tected companion. Growing lower on len, the gorse-bushes are afire with gold- the ground, it feels frost less severely. en blossoms, whose bright petals and In the matter of fertilization, it shows heavy scent, hanging thick upon the no originality, but follows the lead of its air, are all intended as so many bids for big relation. Being a summer plant, the kindly attention of the insect fertil. however, it does not need to angle for izers.
the visits of bees like its wintry friend, Yet the flower, after all, is only the but takes its chance with the Scotch first stage in the production of the fruit heather and purple ling in whose comand seed. It exists for no other purpose pany it covers square miles of moorland. than to give rise to the germs of future There are only these two species of generations. As soon as the blossom is gorse in England. If any man
tells you fertilized, the ovary begins to swell out otherwise, assure him that he is a splitinto tiny oblong pods, rather short and ter. For modern biologists are divided thick, but very bean-like in structure. into the two camps of the splitters and A pod of some sort, indeed, enclosing the lumpers. The first are in favor of one or more seeds, like peas or beans, making a species out of every petty local is the universal form of fruit through- race or variety ; the second are all for out the family of the pea-flowers. In lumping unimportant minor forms into gorse, the seeds number some three or a single species.
a single species. As you may gather four, and look like miniature kidney- from these remarks, I am myself a conbeans. But inasmuch as, like all others vinced and consistent lumper. I enterof their tribe, they are rich in food-stuffs, tain conscientious objections to splitthe gorse-bush protects them against ting. The late Mr. Borrer, who was the attacks of insects by making its pod the most abandoned splitter I have ever very thick and hairy. Against brows- met with, endeavored to make sevening animals, they are sufficiently pro- teen species out of our English dog-rose, tected by spinelike branches. When and no less than forty out of our comthe pods ripen, they have a curious and mon black berry-bush. Now a dog-rose, interesting method of dispersing the I maintain, is only a dog-rose ; and the seeds. If you walk across a common late Mr. Borrer may argue the matter on a sunny summer day, you may hear till he is black in the face before he every now and then little explosive makes me believe that a common blackbangs resounding on every side of you berry-bramble is forty distinct and sepas if from invisible pop-guns. These arate brambles. I make these remarks are the reports of the bursting gorse- “ without prejudice," because certain pods. The valves are elastic, and the splitters divide the greater gorse into heat of the sun makes them roll up at two indistinguishable species, which last with a sudden burst, and scatter the they describe respectively as common seeds on every side around them. As and Irish furze ; while they break up most of the bushes flower in April, the the dwarf form into two equally indispods are generally ripe in July or Au- tinguishable kinds, which they describe gust. This mode of dispersion is not un- under the names of dwarf and Welsh like the familiar method employed by furze respectively. To me, these disthe garden balsam. It is a dodge which tinctions appear pretty much as if we both plants have hit upon indepen- were to divide the human race in Britain dently.
into two distinct species of blue-eyed NEW SERIES.-- VOL. LIX., No. 4
and black-eyed. To an eye which is than We are, in which case they are neither black nor blue, but judiciously regular unprogressive old Tories ; or gray, the two supposed species seem to else they are more radical than We are, run into one another everywhere by im- in which case they are downright socialperceptible gradations.
ists, revolutionists, and visionary UtoOn the other hand, I would desire to pians. We alone occupy down to a warn the innocent reader against tile shade of shades the precisely right meopposite error committed by Bentham, dium position. No matter how far we who considers that the dwarf furze may go in either direction, the people who be “perhaps a mere variety” of the go further than We, or fall short of Us, greater gorse. This view, in my opin- are equally in error. They are silly ion, errs too much in the contrary di- superstitious bigots on the one hand, rection of excessive lumping. I have and wicked materialists or agnostics on therefore, of course, a low opinion of it. the other. They are so very high But I mention the fact merely in order church, or so very low church, or so to point out its exact accordance with a very broad church, while we ourselves general principle of human nature. are “just right, don't you know,” not You will doubtless have observed that yielding in any way to foolish fads and it is precisely this just mean which sep- fancies. Therefore the true faith is obarates Us--not you and me in particu- viously this to be neither a ridiculous Jar, but the universal and absolute sub- splitter nor an absurd lumper, but to jective Us-from the inferior class acknowledge the plain fact that there known as Other People. Other People, are two kinds of gorse, neither more nor you must have observed, rush into such less, in these Isles of Britain. For wild excesses ; We alone preserve a level which true faith, without a shadow of head of moderation in all departments dogmatism I will go, if need be, to the of human thought or action. Other stake at Smithfield.- Cornhill MagaPeople are either more conservative zine.
A RUN FOR THE ATLANTIC RECORD,
BY JAMES MILNE.
Good, and very good it may be, to River, and Hoboken, the other side of hug salt-water in wooden walls, under the North River, where the Normannia mast and sail, winds filled with charm- lay leashed to the Hamburg-American ing uncertainties, like sweethearting. Packet Company's pier, until the hour But really, being sailoring, what can should arrive for starting. A monster compare to the throb of splendid life she looked, against the background of there is in a crack Atlantic liner scour- quays and warehouses, her big funnels ing the sea!
smoking sedately into the heavens. Ours, too, was the prettiest run im. Yet, get the Normannia out on the aginable from New York, that strident waters and how her immense size would sentinel of a kinsfolk's shore, across the disappear in a series of graceful lines September waves to Southampton, most and what a beautiful picture of buoyant kindly of the great English seaports. symmetry she would present. Between Saving a two days' much-tossed ocean, ship and pier, along three or four wide we should certainly have broken the gangways, there was an incessant moverecord, Sandy Hook to the Needles. ment of passengers bidding good-bye to As things went, we carne within a few friends, of friends taking farewell of minutes of doing it; only that is get- passengers, of porters trundling the ting ahead of the story, and the how- baggage and the mails on it-is-done and the what-life-is on board About the departure of a liner, no matan Atlantic greyhound.
ter from what corner of the globe, no A blackish drizzle was over New York matter where bound, there is always and the Hudson River, and the North something at once sad and elating.
There is the sadness of the good-byes, liner can ever hope quite to solve that the tears, the strained faces; and there tremendous problem. But, to be sure, is the sense of elation-indefinable, but there were some vacant places at the an excellent feeling-which a fine ship first officer's table-a handsome fellow always communicates to her surround- enough-and at the doctor's table ; the ings. Captain Hebich, our captain, doctor witty, winning as a doctor should the commodore of the Hamburg-Amer- be. So those little matters adjusted ican Company's fleet, truest of sailors, themselves to the satisfaction of every. welcomely picturesque in his handsome body-a chief-steward is of necessity a uniform, came on deck, cast a skyward born diplomat-and subsequently not a glance, and pulled out his watch. As seat would have been exchanged for he ascended to the bridge, the ship's any consideration. With luncheon be. band plunged into a last departing tune, gan the social life of the voyage : the bright music with a note of sadness in talks on innumerable subjects, the init, and Uncle Sam's tinal mail-cart rat- terchange of books, the courtesy of tled up with an impatient clatter. cigars or a pipe of baccy.
Now we “On time," a dainty Américaine, were well into the movement of the Atleaning over the bulwark railing, cried lantic, and new voyagers, those who so to a sister she was leaving ashore, and far had merely puddled and paddled the two waved their handkerchiefs, just within sight of land, were able to guess to prove their eyes did not need them. how it was going to suit them. Out at Promptly at half-past eight, for half a sea, be the weather as fine as spun-silk, dozen clocks could be heard striking, there is most often a motion, and it has the immense twin screws began their even been said that the great oceans have long twist through the Atlantic. Haw- each their peculiarities of motion. Anysers and gangways vanished, and, mov- bow, there is a strange exhilaration in ing gently, we were in a few minutes the swing, the long lift of the Atlantic, out in the river and dropping down capped by the buoyant rush of the ship toward New York's beautiful bay. gliding on. A lounging, lazy afternoon, River boats were screaming on every the breezes kindly, the atmosphere fresh side ; the farthest up-town giant build as a berry ; some reading, other gossipings of New York gradually lesseneding in groups, some tramping round into specks; the wooded shores of New smartly to fetch an appetite—this, and Jersey glided by. We were off Sandy such as this, until the sound of the Hook; the pulse of the screws quick- gong calling to dinner. ened ; here was the real beginning of A magnificent saloon, all a-sparkle the run to Europe. Boats from New with electric light, music falling from York to Southampton take their time the violins and the other stringed instruat Sandy Hook and the Needles ; voy- ments above, faring for gods and men ; ages, quick or slow, good or bad, are oh, a liner nowadays is simply a sumptucounted between those points.
ous hotel afloat. Inevitably the trend With the pilot's going we also shook of talk was how we should come out in off the rain-although ashore it could the matter of time to Southampton. still be seen dabbling down-and ahead Curious, we had barely lost the last the sun was brightly kissing the waters. traces of America and yet here we were Folk had lingered on deck until we were already calculating how soon the Engactually clear of New York, or, on the lish coast would loom up. Clyde built, other hand, gone below to breakfast and one of the most powerful and bestmake acquaintance with our cabins. appointed boats afloat, the Normannia By noon there was a sort of mustering had already made some very rapid voyof passengers, anxious to see what sort ages across the Atlantic. What would of family they made altogether. Deck she do this passage ? He is a poor voychairs had been secured, places found ager indeed who does not take a perin the bath-room steward's list, seats sonal interest in his craft ; and if the selected in the dining saloon. Of course record happened to be beaten, why, it the genial chief-steward could not give would be something to remember and every woman on board a place at the recount. She seemned, by all the mocaptain's table, for no steward of a big tion perceptible, to be jogging alorg
leisurely enough, easily, like a racehorse light-all these made the Augustaat a hand-gallop. And yet she was Victoria an entrancing thing against putting nineteen or twenty knots be- the black background of the Isle of hind her every hour, only so modestly, Wight. as if it were the merest child's play. And yet they say the liner has driven An after-dinner lounge round the ship, romance out of the sea ; oh dear, no. an hour or two in the smoke-room with It's a bold thing to declare that sentiits delicious lounges ; or, alternatively, ment and beauty are out of the queslate tea in the saloon and songs and tion merely because you have celerity, chatter in the drawing room.
coupled with the utmost comfort and But go forward, alĩ the better if you safety. If you want another touch of are alone, and take in the scene-a scene the poetic, get along to the Normanof singular charm. On so excellent, nia's stern, stand fairly above the screws though darksome, a night, watch the and look away into the wake far as the ship’s great bows rising and falling, a gaze can go.
gaze can go. At the bows the ship was bunch of steerage passengers sitting un- peeling the waves into showers of phosder their shelter for a talk before bed. phorus and sending them rippling along Your scan catches the officer on the her sides. Here, the screws are churnbridge, walking to and fro, and ever and ing the eternal sea, which has been beagain pointing his night glass into the fore screws and will be when screws are night; look higher, away up on the ancient history, into a splendid neckforemast, where there is a sailor in the lace of phosphorus. The whirl of the crow's nest, all eyes and ears ; take a blades is forgotten in the shimmer of a sweep along the whole length of the phosphorescent eddy; forgotten in the vessel, groups of people bere and there gleam of a thousand eddies breaking under the gleam of the powerful lights, into a great light plane toward the borithe second-class passengers on the If only a mermaid would arise in spacious decks aft, grouped round a her golden curls and flash them in the series of cabins so comfortable, so beau- phosphorus, the little heaven in the tiful, as almost to reach the luxurious. water would be complete. But there Do these things, and your first instinct are no mermaids in the Atlantic-only will be to mutter, What a wonderful an occasional whale--and if there were, thing of life this is, whipping across the flying Normannia would be leaving the sea.” Somehow, there is an in- them hopelessly behind before they tensely human element in the picture could do more than smile at her. Morewhich the great liner makes to the eye, over, when you get to your cabin, the in the iinpression she makes on the delicious tiredness which comes of the inind. The same humanness was pres sea bas so caught you that you don't ent in the appearance another of the even dream of mermaids. Yet, if you Hamburg-American express-boats made lie awake for a minute, the crow of the coming up the Solent toward Southamp- men on the look-out may reach you with ton in the gloaming of an evening some an eerie thrill. Ting ting goes the bell inonths before. This was the Augusta- at the officer's hand, on the bridge, Victoria, Captain Barends-excellent every half-hour, and " Alles ist wohl” fellow as ever walked a quarter-deck answers the German man in the nest and as she moved toward us at Hurst on the mast, and “ Alles ist wohl” Castle we could hear music, which at comes the second answering cry from sea sounds a doubly deep note of human- the dark figure right at the peak of
But it was in the wonderfully the bow. You know you are a good beautiful movement of the ship, a move. deal safer than if you were walking the ment reminding one of a graceful crowded streets of London, and you are woman skimming a ball-room floor, that so divinely sleepy that really it does not the highest touch of what might be matter if you were not. called livingness came out. The brill. “You take my word for it," a New iant electric star at the mast-head, the Englander declared after breakfast next side lanterns red and green, the bulbs of day," the Normannia is out for blood ;" light from an infinitely long broadside of byithis meaning that we had been getting portholes, the sinuous tremor in every along at a pace which would bring us to