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sbines brilliantly, but it is not too hot; for the may well be among the most impressive conweather is still “cold" (in the Calcutta sense). ceptions ever executed in architecture. There is a gentle breeze blowing, and the two The sun shines gloriously overhead, the sky stout horses whirl us along at a pleasant rate is a pale cloudless blue, and the foliage around between the tall trees through Alipore, where us shows every shade and tint from brown to Belvidere, the Lieutenant-Governor's house, scarlet, from the palest to the deepest green. gleams white in the sunlight, over the bridge, We saunter along the grass under the trees and past the British Indian Docks and the beside the avenue, and find a quiet spot with King of Oudh's palace, to the ghål by the river. a pool of clear water haunted by swans before Here we take a native boat, and, sitting under us. The ground is carpeted with soft grass, the shade of its covered stern, are ferried and shaded with trees. On one side, three across to the Botanical Gardens. The river hundred yards away, is a bank of shrubs with gleams broad in the sunlight. Before us are the most gorgeous variety of coloring from the green trees of the Gardens, behind the half mauve and lilac to crimson red. On the other ruinous buildings of the palace of the King of three, cool restful green leaves. On such a Oudh. They look grim and forbidding, those Christmas morning it good to be alive. Let sorrowful remains of a grandeur that is so us think of it as we shiver over our fires in utterly past. These were the houses where the England. We spread our rugs and coats on King kept his wives, his wild beasts, and his the ground and lie down and smoke lazily. huge broods of trained pigeons who were wont Presently the Khidmutgars arrive with ham. to circle to and fro over the broad river, follow- pers. We do not move, for in India we have ing the signals of his flag. The wives are all not that irrational and idiotic notion that a pensioned off by the Indian Government, and picnic is no picnic unless you wait upon yourdispersed to seek fresh homes ; the wild beasts selves, lay your own lunch, and burn your are dispersed also, and the pigeons manæuvre own fingers over your kettle. The lunch is no longer in answer to the wavings of the admirable, from the solids to the fruit, from King's flag. The King himself sleeps with his the drinks to the ice. Nothing has been for. fathers, and no one hitherto has had the gotten, for once a Khidmutgar has been taught assurance to write his epitaph as one endowed a thing, he may be relied upon to do it again with all the virtues and the graces of a mon- with absolute exactitude on a similar occa. arch. Peace be with him! We land at the sion till the crack of Doom, unless he is idi. Gardens, having narrowly escaped shipwreck otic. several times, or so it seemed, from the many A picnic is a complete rest, with nothing to laden boats passing to and fro at this point; do save to lie still and enjoy. No one even talks and, such are the advantages of a nervous unless the spirit moves him. For the most temperament, the passage has proved quite part we sit quiet, drinking in the beauty of exciting. But once on shore a deep peace the scene. The servants pass silently to and falls upon us. We climb a few steps up from fro, handing dishes, which are accepted or rethe river, and there, immediately before us, jected as silently. It is waste of energy to stretches a wide avenue of palms. No one who speak. The cool breeze fans us gently; there has not seen a palm avenue can realize the are no mosquitoes ; all is peace. Last of all grandeur of this sight. The stems rise clear come the coffee and the cigars. Those es. of branches perhaps fifty feet, and then the timable men who remembered the ice did not fronds spread out, so that the effect is that of forget the coffee, and we smoke peacefully a cathedral aisle flanked by gray pillars and and talk desnltorily of England and of India, topped with green shade. Between the trunks of a fatuous ochlocracy at home, and a scarcely are planted shrubs with leaves of gorgeous less fatuous bureaucracy in India. But there red, rising to a height of perhaps seven feet, is no argument, no heated discussion, only and between them and the green above is sonie quiet, careless expressions of opinion which forty feet of clear air between gray-white while away the time and trouble no man. stems, tall and tapering, till the whole looks Presently we get up, and stroll slowly toward like some majestic colonnade. No wonder the the orchid houses-not glaring steaming glass Egyptians, when they built the Hall of Pillars erections, with a temperature somewhere beat Karnak, drew their inspiration from ave- tween a Turkish bath and the infernal regions, nues of palms, and since the original is so as in England, but cool green structures of majestic, the pillared halls of their temple wire netting, supported on iron girders. The

netting overhead is thinly thatched with wisps best and highest self, and to make the most of of grass, and overgrown with leafy creepers, all my capacities ? If the community were which make the interior cool and inviting. only alive to its own highest interests, it Within all kinds of green things flourish, while would hail with heartiest welcome the advent at intervals strange gaudy orchids show them- of girls such as these, und all true lovers of selves in flower. Through this dim and quiet humanity would reach out a hand to help them twilight, looking like some leafy tunnel, we break through the trammels of prejudice or saunter leisurely. Then across a patch of conventionality that have hitherto held them grass and along sudny paths by the water to in check. Hundreds of avenues are opening the big house, cooler and greener still, where for the girls of to-day in which they can get the huge palms rear their heads to the dome the development and find the work they need. fifty feet above our heads. When the cool of It ought, therefore, to be a matter of principle the evening approaches, we return to the for every girl who has reached maturity to river, and are ferried back to the carriage. As consider what is her own especial gift or capawe drive back the shadows gather, the sun bility ; and, having discovered it, she ought to sinks in the west, and a red glow spreads and be as conscientious in trying to carry it out as deepens over the horizon. In the distance she would be conscientious in carrying out the white houses and the spires and towers of any of the domestic duties which hitherto may Calcutta loom faintly in the gathering mist and have seemed to her to have been the only twilight. The horses are fresh after their rest, career allowed her. The revolt of the daughand bowl us along at a great rate through the ter is not, if I understand it, a revolt against cool air. On our right is the racecourse, being any merely surface conventionalities, that are got ready for the Viceroy's Cup on the next after all of not much account one way or anday ; on the left the white tents ou the Maidan other, but it is a revolt against a bondage that stand white and ghostlike. It is Christinas enslaves her whole life. In the past she has night, and we have spent our feast-day as it belonged to other people, now she demands should be spent in the Golden East.-Salur. to belong to herself. In the past other people day Revier.

have decided her duties for her, now she asks

that she may decide them for herself. She A DAUGHTER'S VIEW OF THE REVOLT.-Let asks simply and only for freedom to make every girl then claim her right to individual out of her own life the highest that can be development, not merely for her own welfare made, and to develop her own individuality and enjoyment or for that of her family, but as seems to her the wisest and the best. She chiefly that she may become a more perfect in- claims only the ordinary human rights of a strument to perform her allotted part in the human being, and humbly begs that no one world's work. It must be a matter of princi. will hinder her. — Miss Alys W. Pearsall Smith, ple, not a matter of self-indulgence She in the Nineteenth Century. must be able to say not merely, "I want to do this or that,” but “I believe I ought to do it." A NEW competitor of the silkworm has been It is as fatal to a woman to live her life merely found on the Dalmatian coast, according to a for her own enjoyment as it is for her to sac. report of the French Consulate in Trieste. rifice her own life to other people's enjoyment. This is the Bombyx Lasiocampa otus. The She must sacrifice herself, not to people, but moth of this is similar to that of the silkworm, for principles. She must ask herself frankly but the cocoon is much larger, and the silk and honestly, “ Have I any worthy purpose in finer and snow white. The worm feeds on the my life? Am I doing the best with such pow. leaves of the evergreen Quercus llex. Experi. ers as God has given me, or am I allowing ments are being made with the intent of raisthem to be unused and wasted ? Am I grow- ing tbis newly discovered worm for commering stronger and better with each year, or am cial purposes. It goes without saying that the I narrowing and deteriorating? Shall I be usual “revolution in the silk trade of the able rightly to fulfil my duties to the world world and dethronement of the silkworm,” in which I live if I allow myself to be frittered which have threatened the poor innocent spin. away in little nothings, and fail to strengthen ner for over a thousand years, will be the natand develop all my powers ? Is it not my ural consequence of the alleged discovery.duty, even for the sake of others, to realize my Manufacturers' Gazette.

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continue to produce the same number SOCIALISTS ON THE EVOLUTION OF So- cially organized to take all they pro

of millions under a Government speCIALISM.

duced away from them, as they produce I POINTED out in my previous paper row under a Government which conthe one fundamental doctrine in which firms them in the possession of threeSocialism differs from Individualism. fifths of it. The Fabian essayists, one I showed that this, reduced to its sim. and all of them admit—though they plest form, was one single, bald, definite fail to realize clearly what this admisdoctrine with regard to the process of sion implies—that the growing amount production in the modern world, which of wealth produced in the modern world all Socialists implicitly affirm, and depends not on the labor contributed which everybody else implicitly sets aside by the average laborers, but on the abilas a piece of raving. The doctrine I ity of those "scarce brains," to quote refer to is neither more nor less than Mr. Shaw's words," which are not the this - That the men who, year by year, law of nature's capricious gifts” —that create by their exceptional ability, by is to say, on the ability of the excepfar the larger part, and the only grow- tionally gifted few by whom the exering part, of our national income, would tions of the laboring many are organ

New SERIES. – Vol. LIX., No. 5.

37

ized ; and production, under Socialism, much to the thing the State does," says as conceived of by Mr. Sidney Webb, the writer, “ as to the end for which differs fundamentally from production the State does it, that we must look beunder Individualism only in the fact fore we can decide whether it is a Sothat the men with the “ scarce brains' cialist State or not. Socialism is the -the active private employers of the common holding of the means of propresent day-will be converted into an duction and exchange, and the holding army of Government taskmakers, and of them for the equal benefit of all”— will be plundered by the Government i.e. in such a way that the man who of almost everything they produce. produces most shall have as little as The laborer will still be a wage-earner, possible more than the man who prowho will have to work or starve ; there duces least; and no one, says the writwill still be industrial discipline as rigid er, is a true Socialist“ who hesitates to as any that now exists. The sole distinc- clamor his loudest against any proposal tive advantage held out to the laborers whose adoption would prolong the life is that, by robbing the men with "the of private capital (which means par exscarce brains” of what they produce as cellence interest on private capital] for fast as they produce it, the Government a single hour.' will provide itself with a fund to in And now, having thus summed up crease the present wage of labor-a fund for the reader the gist of my previous which, as I showed from the figures paper, and having shown him again supplied by the Fabian essayists them- what in its essence the Socialistic sysselves—would give each citizen an extra tem is, I propose to examine those thesixpence a day. But I am not going ories of history and evolution by which to dwell here on the inadequacy of this the Socialistic economists aim at conresult, nor on what most people will vincing us that Socialism is the condiconsider the obvious character of the tion toward which all civilized society fact, that if the men with “ the scarce is working-—a condition which is inevibrains" are to be robbed of what they tably and rapidly being evolved out of produce there is very little chance that the economic conditions that have prethey will go on producing it. The ceded it. I pointed out in my former point on which I am now concerned to paper that the Socialistic economists insist is, That it is the doctrine of So- had rendered an invaluable service to cialism that they will go on producing economic science by introducing into it it—that a man, for instance, will be as the historical and comparative method, anxious to make £100,000 if he is only instead of doing as their orthodox predallowed to keep £800 of it, and not even ecessors had done, and treating the soto employ that as he likes, as he would ciety existing round them as the only be were he allowed to keep £80,000, society requiring or deserving analysis, and spend or invest it according to his and as representing the sole form which own judgment. And not only is this industrial civilization could assume. peculiar doctrine the doctrine of the What I shall now have to point out is Socialists, but it is—as will appear more that the service they have rendered by clearly in the following pages--the only insisting on the necessity of applying fundamental doctrine in which they are the historical method, has been only peculiar. It is the only fundamental equalled by the failure which has atdoctrine taught by them which is not tended their own application of it; and either actually in some way taught also I shall deal with their historical critiby Individualists, or is else capable of cisms under two heads—first, those that being appropriated by them and used refer to the present and that near past to strengthen Individualism. The Fa- during which the capitalistic system, bian essayists, though they are con as we now know it, has developed itstantly losing sight of this fact in their self; and secondly, those that refer to arguments, are yet constantly proclaim- the four or five preceding centuries, during it; and to show the reader that I ing which the beginnings of this modhave not inisrepresented the matter, I ern system were slowly evolved out of will quote the following words from the medieval. The reader will see that the concluding essay :-“ It is not so there have been two distinct proposi

tions submitted to us. First, that out use of private capital are implied—that of Capitalism is being evolved Social- private capital used, or accumulated by ism ; secondly, that out of medieval private persons, is in each of these cases Individualism was evolved Capitalism. an essential factor, and in most of them The historical order, as I have placed a principal factor. them, is inverted; but it is the order Let us begin with the Income Tax. in which it will be most convenient to Mr. Bernard Shaw declares that this is consider them.

Socialism pure and simple---Socialism

already in our midst. “It is the transII.

fer,” he says, “ of rent and interest to THE ALLEGED CONTEMPORARY Evo- the State by instalments.” If this tax LUTION OF SOCIALISM AN APPEAR- intolerable spoliative anomaly." But

is not Socialism, it is, he declares, “an ANCE ONLY, NOT A REALITY.

Socialism it is, he continues, absolute, The theory of the Fabian essayists as although not complete ; and all we have to modern and contemporary tenden- to do is to increase this tax gradually, cies, forms, from their point of view, and at last the Socialism will be comthe best, and indeed a conclusive an- plete as well as absolute. The State swer to the arguments of those who which at present Socializes a part of maintain that Socialism is unworkable ; rent and interest will at last have Sofor it is a theory at once illustrated by, cialized the whole. It seems entirely and based on, a number of industrial to escape Mr. Shaw's mind, that if the facts, which the essayists declare to be State should attempt to socialize the examples of Socialism already at work. whole, or even the larger part of this I am going to take the principal exam- sum, the result would be that the sum ples cited by them, and to show the would no longer be produced. With reader that not a single one of them is the exception of a very small part of it really Socialistic in the sense which the --namely, the prairie rent of the land Socialists attribute to the term ; but —the sum which he alludes to, and that the Fabian writers--no doubt with which he estimates at about five hunperfect honesty–have been playing fast dred millions, is an annual product of and loose alike with their language and ability, new since the last generation ; their thoughts ; and that while defining and were the conditions and influences Socialism as being in its essence one which have stimulated its production thing, when they are looking for real- withdrawn it would disappear far more ized examples of it they mean quite an- quickly than it appeared. But I have other.

dwelt on this point already, and I only The chief examples which the Fabian mention it here in passing. What I essayists give us are the Post Office, the want here to insist on is that, whatever Income Tax, Free Education, and the might happen under other circummanagement by municipal bodies of stances, the Income Tax as we know it gas-works, water-works, public libraries, at present is actually a transfer to the tramways, and ferries. Each of these State from a sum that is produced by they declare to be an actual instalment individual enterprise — by individual of Socialism ; while Trusts and Joint ability manipulating private capital ; Stock Companies are represented as the and that the amount transferred has Socialistic chicken, alive and almost been carefully adjusted with a view to ready to burst out of the Individualistic taking as little as possible from the inegg. I propose to show that in none dividual, not as much ; in other words, of these examples is the real Socialistic to diminishing as little as possible the principle embodied at all ; but that, on normal reward or incentive of those the contrary, the suécess of each experi- who save private capital, or who emment involves that very principle of In- ploy it. Instead, therefore, of being dividualism which the Fabian essayists an example of Socialism, it is one of the declare it is the mission of Socialism to most astonishing witnesses to the prodestroy. What I mean in saying this ductive force of Individualism. The is, that in every one of these so-called same criticism applies to Trusts and to examples of Socialism the presence and Joint Stock Companies. I need not

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