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days in the saddle, the nights spent amply sufficient; anything more costly under the open sky in rain and snow, one feels would be incongruous.
His the months of weary lingering in fætid true monument is the labors, for two prisons, had broken his once magnifi. centuries, of Quaker men and women; cent constitution. On the 11th of No- in the figure of Penn carrying through vember, 1690, he preached for the last the American continent the fiery cross time with more than wonted fire and of complete toleration, in the story of directness in the old mecting-house in the devoted labors of Elizabeth Fry, Gracechurch Street. As he came out and in the echo of the stately eloquence he complained that he felt the cold of Bright. It may be said that Fox's strike at his heart. He went home and successors were greater than himself ; lay down never to rise again. “ All is and no doubt they possessed gifts, as well, though I am weak in body," he they possessed opportunities, which were said to the Friends who gathered about denied to him ; but they could not one his bedside ; “yet the power of the of them have done his work. Carlyle Lord is over all, and over death itself.” could find for him, in all history, but Two days later he passed away in per- one peer, the philosopher Diogenes. fect, peace and contentment.
“ Great, truly, was that Tub; a temple laid to rest in the Friends' burial- from which man's dignity and divinity ground near Bunhill Fields.
were scornfully preached abroad : but The exact position of his grave has greater is the Leather Hull, for the long since been forgotten, though a same sermon was preached there, and modern stone marks its conjectured not in Scorn but in Love.”—Macmilsite. As a memorial that plain slab is lan's Magazine.
WOMANLINESS AND WOMANISHNESS.
Our contemporary, Woman, has been clearly understand very well what she offering a prize for the best essay in meant by “advancing by mine and answer to this question, “ What is Un- countermine” to the taking of the womanly ?” and one prize has been Women's Rights citadel. It looks as gained by a lady who sends in the reply if she meant that a great deal of conthat it is unwomanly for woman "to cession could be gained by stealth which consider herself undeveloped man and should not be wrested even if it could ; act accordingly: to storm the Women's but if so, the drift of that suggestion is Rights citadel instead of advancing by not at all consistent with the general mine and countermine : to rudely re- idea of the answer, that woman is very ject man's aid, and then state that chiv- far from being “undeveloped man, alry is dead : to touch pitch’unneces- and would only spoil herself for being sarily and publicly, and then to abuse man's companion, if she endeavored to man for despising woman : to compete extract from man's willingness to spoil jealously with man, unmindful of her her, what she could not extract from delicate organism and the rights of pos- him by reason and appeals to his justerity : to fret because her home-work tice. For our own part, we should reis little : to wear too short skirts or to gard adrancing by mine and counterdrag them in the mud : to forget that mine,” if it means what it appears to woman is only womanly when she sets mean, as even more unwomanly than herself to man like perfect music unto “storming the Women's Rights citnoble words.' The objection to that adel.” The lady who replied that it is answer seems to us to be that it is writ the essence of unwomanliness“ to try ten too much for the express purpose to live up to the adage ‘Imitation is of pleasing men, with a little hint the sincerest form of flattery,' with man thrown in, -perhaps purposely obscure, as a model,” was perhaps herself at-of the best way of obtaining what tempting to advance “by mine and women desire without offending men. countermine,” for, in point of fact, Possibly the writer did not herself there is nothing which men dislike
more, and more justly, than a mannish that are not noble but ignoble, and that woman, and they all concede to a wom- is what a good many men's words are ; an who professes loudly her disgust for —and yet it is often much easier, and a mannish woman a great deal which certainly more womanish, to chime in they would never concede to a woman with lively music even to men's ignoble who openly found fault with the rules words, than to let the note be heard, men lay down for circumscribing wom- however modestly, which will jar on en's rights. Yet we should be disposed the speakers of those ignoble words. to say that the most unwomanly of all A genuinely womanly woman never forthe womanlike attitudes toward men, gets that she is not a mere accompaniis the habit of indirectness, the prefer- ment to man, but has the larger gift of ence of “mine and countermine” to humanity in her as well as the special frank statements of differences. There gift of tenderness, and that if she is are, in truth, two very different kinds not true to that larger gift, she cannot of unwomanliness ; one kind is to be be all she might be in her more spemannish, the other kind is to be wom- cially feminine relations. A womanish anish as distinguished from womanly. woman is less womanly than even some It is very unwomanly to be mannish, mannish women. Sir Walter Scott's but it is just as unwomanly to be wom- Die Vernon, who certainly has a mananish. The womanish woman is a nish flavor about her, is a fær truer woman who has not a nature large woman, far more womanly, than Thackenough to enable her to put natural eray's Amelia Osborne, who is much feminine etiquettes and preferences by, more womanish than womanly. when there is need to show that she is It is a great mistake, of course, for made like man in the image of God. women to try to make themselves bad A woman who cannot on occasion be imitations of men, but it is a much perfectly, though unostentatiously, greater mistake to forget that they are frank, who has not a large as well as a even more bound as women to cultivate tender heart in her, is not in the high- all the essentially human qualities, than est sense womanly. It is perhaps easier they are to cultivate their special gifts. for most women to be too fastidious for A man who cannot enter heartily into true womanliness, than it is for them the higher feelings of a woman is hardly to be too uncompromising and blunt. manly, but a woman who cannot enter The “defects of their qualities” are heartily into the higher feelings of a perhaps more often seen in women, man is still less womanly. A certain than the defects which arise from at- deficiency in sympathy in a man, though tempting to ignore these qualities. We a serious flaw in his nature, is not so should say that women who are un- great a flaw as the same deficiency in a womanly through their womanishness woman; yet no woman can do justice are commoner in most parts and ages to these larger sympathies who is so of the world,—though not perhaps here womanish that she cannot express them and now,—than women who are un- loyally when they happen to be at odds womanly from their sexlessness or man- with the prevailing tone of the men nishness. It is, for instance, certainly with whom she finds herself compelled not womanly, but womanish, to try to to associate. It is, perhaps, excusable steal a march on men by wheedling in the present day to throw out into rethem out of that which they could not lief the bad taste and unwomanliness of gain by open expostulation. And that mannishness in a woman, but it is a is, we suppose, the kind of advantage great question whether the offensivewhich is suggested by that obscure ness of these mannish affectations would phrase as to mining and countermining ; not be much more completely and radiand womanishness is certainly suggested cally cured by cultivating all the larger when we aie told of the mischief of human qualities, than by any attempt forgetting that “woman is only wom
woman is only wom- to win the favor of men by exaggerating anly when she sets herself to man like the special airs and graces of the softer perfect music unto noble words,'” for sex. A womanish woman may easily surely it is womanly also for woman not be tempted into mannish affectations ; to adapt herself like music to words but a womanly woman, though, like
Die Vernon, sbe may be superficially imply any similar shrinking from those manly in her independence and prompt. occupations in which nerve and fortiitude of action, can never tolerate the tude and the power to suppress all the affectations of the mannish school. physical qualms which hospital-nurses, The large human side of a womanly for instance, have to overcome, are woman is a far better security against tested to the utmost. In passive fortidoing what is against her natural sym- tude womanly women far surpass ordipathies, than any womanish timidity. nary men, though in the courage of ag
For example, we hold that while true gression they are usually much their womanliness is never aggressive, it is inferiors. Womanliness is strong where often much more courageous than even womanishness is conspicuously feeble. true manliness in getting over that fas- As all the stronger men have much of the tidiousness and disgust which so often woman in them, though they have also hamper the natural activity of sympa- the power of repressing their womanly thetic natures. Women are, and with sympathies when these interfere with their constitution no doubt ought to be, their manly duties, so all the stronger much more courageous in confronting women have much of true manliness in and overcoming this natural fastidious- them, though they do not show it, and ness and over-refinement, than men. ought not to show it, except when their But they are, and we also think ought womanly instincts require them to show to be, much less disposed to overcome it. Manliness in men generally results in it in the interest of aggressive sports their concealing the depth of their symlike the chase, which, instead of ap- pathy with the true woman, because to pealing to pure humanity, appeal only give way to it would unman them for to that instinct which is inherited by their work as men. But womanliness the male sex from their hunting ances in women not unfrequently requires tors who delighted in combat and dan- the open display of that large reserve ger for its own sake, and not merely for of courage and force, which on ordinary the sake of the living it gained for occasions it is both natural and modest them. It is not womanly to be eager for them to conceal. The womanly on a fine day “to go out and kill some woman is far nearer to the manly man, thing ;" though no one can say that than the womanish woman ; and the the chase has (hitherto at least) ceased manliness of man brings him much to be regarded as a thoroughly manly closer to the nature of the woman, than amusement. But woman's very nat- his mannishness,-his parade of reckural and right shrinking from the more lessness, combativeness, and audacity. aggressive delights of man, does not — The Spectator.
SOCIALISM IN FRANCE: ITS PRESENT AND FUTURE.
BY YVES GUYOT, LATE MINISTER OF PUBLIC WORKS OF FRANCE.
Socialists," said the judge. “I hope I.
so, indeed," answered Proudhon, not If it has not been decided, even by without irony. the aid of long dissertations, whether Some years ago in France, every man the paternity of the word " Socialism” who gave his attention to social quesbelongs to Robert Owen, Pierre Leroux, tions was given, and accepted without or Louis Reybaud, still less has any one protest, the title of Socialist. Much succeeded in fixing the exact significa- less importance was attached to it when tion of that term. Proudhon, on ap- the conquests sought were those of libpearing before a court of assize after the erty. All the advocates of social reform eventful days of June 1848, replied to asked for freedoin of the press and the the judge: “Socialism ! That is right of meeting. They demanded also every aspiration toward the ameliora- such changes in the law of association tion" of society.” “ Then we are all as should not leave trades unions to the
mere tolerance or the persecution of the animals for breeding; and they have public authorities.
endeavored to make political capital out Freedoin of the press and of meeting of these. If the agricultural syndicates were obtained in 1881. So wide, in- have rendered service to agriculture, deed, was the liberty conceded that it they have done nothing of the kind for lacked the indispensable counterpoise those who sought to use them as elecof responsibility. In 1884, instead of toral means. Employers have made use a general law on associations, a special of this law to found syndicates which law was passed on professional or trade have chiefly been worked for Protecsyndicates, authorizing “the free and tionist ends. As to the workmen, the unlicensed establishment of associations Annuaire des Syndicats counts as workof persons carrying on the same profes- ing with the syndicates only 208,000, sion, similar trades, or connected indus or about 6 per cent. of the laboring tries co-operating in the manufacture population of France, the agricultural of certain products. These syndicates laborers excepted. But many have not must have for their exclusive object the been willing to join syndicates constistudy and defence of economic inter- tuted in conformity with the law, as ests, manufacturing and agricultural. they consider that some obligations to Their founders must deposit a copy of which they are submitted under it do their rules and the names of the per- violence to their freedom and dignity, sons charged with their administration, and are police arrangements. More at the townhall of the Department than half of the syndicates which occuwhen the syndicate is established in the pied the Bourse du Travail were illegal. provinces, and at the Prefecture of the As the result of my speech in the Seine when in Paris. These syndicates Chamber of Deputies on the 8th of May may forin unions ; but while they can last, the Minister of the Interior, M. possess real estate and sue or be sued Charles Dupuy, took steps to compel in a court of law, the unions cannot. these syndicates to conform to the law Moreover the syndicates may possess before the 5th of July. The members only the real estate necessary for their of the “ executive commission of the meetings--libraries and business offices. committee” of the Bourse du Travail They may establish funds for assistance replied “ to the indescribable affront in case of ill-health, etc., and for pen- which the Minister of the Interior had sions; and they may open offices at just inflicted on the laboring class, that which information can be obtained on the dignity, the honor of the proletariat the supply of and the demand for labor. bid it not to let pass so odious a provoEvery member of a trade syndicate can cation." retire from it at any moment—without The syndicates affirmed by deliberate any other charge than the payment of and repeated resolutions, not merely his contribution for the year-while that those which were not en règle maintaining his right to remain a mem- would not put themselves in accordance ber of the benefit and pension societies with the law, but that the others, “in to which he has subscribed.”
order to recover their independence,” This law was demanded and voted by should cease to observe legal prescripthe Republicans as a law of freedom; tions. but they feared to pass a general law I cite this fact more especially to on associations, because of the religious show the singular conception of legality congregations. They, therefore, gave which has grown up among French freedom of association to trade associa- Socialists. A law has been passed abrotions only, and with the restrictions gating that of 1791 which, in order to which I have just indicated. The re- guarantee the freedom of labor against actionaries mistrusted this law much, the tricks of corporations, prohibited though, by a singular irony, it is they all associations between persons of the who have made the greatest use of it. same profession. This law of 1884 Pretending to the exclusive representa- gives them rights which they may retion of agriculture, they have founded gard as too restricted ; but, instead of agricultural syndicates for the purchase asking for their extension--for examof agricultural machines, manures, and ple, by enlarging their power of hold
ing property—they have refused to sub- article of the law of the 21st of March, mit to the law, while at the same time 1884, on workmen's syndicates, which they are promoting the adoption of a recognized the right of combination new law, which has been voted by the and of striking. The majority of those Chamber of Deputies and rejected by who demanded and obtained these legthe Senate, and is known by the name islative changes received, however, and of the deputy who has presented it as accepted, the name of Socialists. But the loi Bovier-Lapierre. According to now, in France, so far from Socialism this Bill, every employer who refused being a movement of liberty and equalto hire a workman and was so simple- ity, it might be defined :—The interminded as to declare that this refusal vention of the State in contracts of lawas based on the fact that the work- bor, always directed against the emman was a member of a syndicate, or ployer and to the exclusive profit of the who discharged a workman for the same laborer. reason, would be liable to from ten
II. days' to a month's imprisonment and a fine of from 100 to 2,000 francs. Every In 1789 the French Revolution afemployer would be under the obliga- firmed the rights of man against the tion, under penalty, to accept any work rights of the State. During its conman who was a member of a syndicate, tinuance there was but one really Soand—when once this workman was cialistic manifestation, that of Babæuf. domiciled with him-to regard him as The real awakening of Communistic immovable, whatever might be the ideas was at the Restoration and under freaks to which he gave himself up. the Government of Louis Philippe.
There still remains the question Saint-Simon and Fourrier were its two whether the workmen who take part most eminent exponents. Louis Blanc, with the irregular syndicates demand in a little book entitled L'Organisation the benefits of the loi Bovier-Lapierre, du Travail, made a passionate critiwhile su loudly scorning the law of cism of the actual state of society. He 1884. The attitude of their representa- proposed State workshops, in which, as tives in the Chamber of Deputies would an incitement to work, would be placed make one believe that they ask for the large placards bearing the inscription : good things of the one law and reject “Whoever does not work is a thief." the obligations of the other, although He thought that the State should bethe two laws would be connected. come the sole producer and the sole
Behold the phenomenon which has distributor of wealth. Proudhon pubmanifested itself, Until about 1889 lished his book La Propriété c'est le social reforms were regarded as reforms Vol! and, while ridiculing the Comin the direction of liberty and equality. munists, advocated the suppression of It was at that point of view we placed interest by the establishment of a bank ourselves when we obtained, by the law of exchange in which barter should reof the 2nd of April, 1868, the abroga- place the use of money, as a means of tion of article 1781 of the Civil Code, the abolition of poverty and the equaliby virtue of which the master's mere zation of fortunes. word was taken as to the amount of These various conceptions resulted in wages and its payment. Again, it was the creation of the national workshops from that point of view that we pro- in 1848, and afterward led to the insurcured, in 1883, the repeal of the laws rection usually called les journées de which obliged the workman to carry juin. Under the Empire Socialistic about a book in which were entered ideas, though restrained, manifested Bundry matters concerning him. It themselves in 1862 by the formation of was at that point of view we placed l’Internationale. They came to a head ourselves to attain the repeal of Article in the Commune of 1871. Resting la116 of the Penal Code, which prohibited tent after that, they grew in strength workmen from suspending their labors and expanded after the amnesty of in order to obtain an increase of wages. 1879, which brought back to France That article, modified by the law of the old chiefs and champions of the 1864, was finally abrogated by the first Commune. A certain number of these,