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work; but I, by being forced to take mineralogist, but there appears to be to the bed which the family had left, something peculiar in the stones of got the advantage of a feather bed a- this glen. There are numberless strabove the heath. Proceeding on, we tas in the rocks, of a hard crystaline passed Loch-Shell, and rested and re- nature, which, when exposed to the freshed ourselves at Lochiel-Head; weather, degenerate into a horny and and so on by the shore of that exten- flexible substance, capable of being sive inlet of the sea, until we came to parted into the most thin transparent the embryo of the Caledonian canal, slices imaginable. These, one would at which a great number of people imagine on viewing, the fire would were employed; but, at that early sea- consume in a moment; but, on the son, the advance they had made was contrary, it makes no impression on not great : and I acknowledge, that them. After this, we crossed the siwhile observing how carelessly the la- ver at Inverlochy; and, about five bourers were dabbing with their picks o'clock, P. M. arrived at Fort; Wiland spades, and how apt they were to liam, intending to tarry there all look around them at every thing which night; but, unfortunately for us, as was to be seen ; while others were well as many others, no doubt, the lawinding slowly out with each a little dy of Glencoe, an amiable young wogravel in a wheelbarrow, I say, while man, of the most respectable conneccontemplating the exertions of these tions, had been lately carried off by men, and wishing to anticipate in my an unfortunate accident, and that was mind the important aera when they her burial day : and as the northern should join Lochiel to the Moray gentry were all expected to tarry in Firth, at above fifty miles distance, I the village on their return from the could not help viewing it as a hope- burial place in Loch-Leven, there was less job: my head grew somewhat not one of the houses would admit us dizzy, and I felt the same sort of as lodgers: and Mr W. got into such quandary as I used to do formerly a passion at the people's impertinence, when thinking of eternity. It was, on that he would not suffer us to take the other hand, creative of a joyous any dinner, for fear lest the abominasensation, as it pourtrayed in lively ble town should be benefited by our colours the beneficence of our govern- money ; nor would he listen to the ment, and its kind concern about eve- arguments, that we were only taking ry thing that can contribute to the amends of ourselves ; which, considerhappiness of a brave people, and the ing the state of our stomachs at that prosperity of this too long neglected time, was ample enough. Mr J. country. This road by which we had however, wisely tarried behind, and come from Arisaig is all tolerably bought some sweet-meats, which he good, saving about three miles in the distributed amongst us, else I know middle, which is nearly impassible; not how we should have endured the and as it is much the nearest commu- other stage of fourteen miles. We nication betwixt the south country passed some scenes of incomparable and the extensive and populous isles in beauty; cottages embosomed in wild the slaires of Inverness and Ross, the woods, and hallows of the hills ; and rendering of it a safe and easy passage at a late hour arrived, weary and fafor horses and carriages, is certainly a tigued, at Balnachulish, where I shall matter of much national utility, On bid you good-night, after subscribing all this track the country is finely cal- myself, culated for producing the finer breeds

Your affectionate Shepherd, of sheep, the grounds being so re

J. markably well sheltered. I am no

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Description of BAGDAD.


the parapet round the ramparts, but

these are intended for musquetry, as From Parsons' Travels in Asia and Africa, well as arrows. The carriages of the (Lonil. 1808.)

guns are many of them broken ; and

the parapet walls, are in many places (Concluded from P. 37.)

in a shattered condition. IT now remains to describe Bagdad The esplanade is as even as a bowlon the Persian side.

ing grcen, and very spacious, extendThis part of the city has a very ing from the citadii to the west, to large citadel at the west end of the the castle at the east end of the town. town, which reaches to the banks of I paced round the walls, close to the the river, capable of containing up- glacis, from the citadel to the castle, wards of five thousand men in garrison; and found the result six thousand three at present it has in it upwards of three hundred and forty-six of my paces. thousand. There are forty brass guns Near the west end of the town is mounted, eighteen and twenty-four the pasha's seraglio, which is a very pounders.

large building, and close to it is another From the citadel the wall commen- spacious structure, without window or ces, which extends quite round, and door on the land side, which is the haterminates at a large castle that stands ram, or ladies' apartment, having on the banks of the river at the east communication with the palace, or seend of the town. The walls are up- raglio, through a long and lofty coverwards of thirty feet high from the bot- ed gallery, supported by a range of tom of the ditch, which is dry, and is arches. Between the banks of the thirty-five paces broad, and thirteen river and the seraglio is a spacious garfeet deep from the top of the glacis : den, the walls of which are so close it can be filled with water at pleasure. to the river, that they may be said to

The walls form an irregular penta- make part of its banks, as there is not gon, with ten bastions and four gates. room for a man to pass, the water washSix of the bastions have sixteen guns ing them when at the lowest. In the mounted on each ; on each of the o- centre is a gate with steps, to which the ther four are mounted ten; over each pasha’s barge comes occasionally. On of the two gates are mounted six, and the land side of the seraglio is a large over each of the other two are mount- area, sufficient to draw up three or four ed eight guns; the former on two thousand janisaries ; besides whick demi-hexagons, and the two latter on there are a military school, offices and two demi-octagons; besides these, apartments for domestic officers, the there are upwards of thirty guns, from mint, stables for many hundred horses, twelve to twenty-four pounders, round with lodgings for the grooms and their the ramparts, and thirty-six mounted dependants, several large granaries, an in the castle, at the east end of the arsenal with barracks for the foot and town: all the guns are brass. There horse guards, all inclosed with a high are ten brass mortars, which, at pre- wall, with only one gate for an en. sent, are in the meydan,or great square, trance. There are not any houses or where the horses are trained and exer- buildings near to the walls of the secised. The ramparts are supported by raglio. I believe the circumference of strong arches, built regularly within the whole is more than an English mile. the walls, so as to have a very pretty

About half a mile from the seraglio effect. In the walls, within these ar- is the great mosque, to which the ches, are apertures, about three feet in pasha goes in great state every Friday right, and nine inches in breadth ; morning, attended by the great officers,

same kind are on the upper part, both military and civil, all mounted

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on excellent horses, so superbly capari- from the walls on each side so far, as soned with gold and silver embroidery, only to leave an opening of about 3 inlaid with pearls and jewels of every feet in the middle, which is sufficient kind, as to surprise every stranger to give light, and to shade the shops who sees them. The janisaries and from the sun, as they have but little spahis, on those days, wear their best rain in this country. Here are only accoutrements, and make a noble ap- two bazars arched with brick. The pearance.

principal merchants who are inhabiBetween the seraglio and arsenal is tants, and all foreign merchants, carry a great square, called the Meydan : on their business in khans, (called by on the side near the walls of the ar- Europeans Caravanseras,) as being senal the horses are trained and exer- more secure from fire and thieves, havcised : at one end is one of the gates ing only one entrance from the street, of the city, on the other a high wall, with strong gates, which lead into an which reaches from the walls of the se- area generally square.

On the sides raglio to those of the arsenal, along the are magazines for goods, strongly banks of the river, without any aper- arched and above, a gallery, which ture. On the side next the city, and extends quite round, well covered, in opposite the arsenal, are shops of all which are lodging rooms, arched in kinds, with many coffee houses, and in the same manner. The roofs are flat, the open space a continual fair is kept and terraced over, (as indeed all the in booths, built with boards, and co- houses are ;) there is a fountain of wavered, but open all round. The goods ter in them all, and I am informed are brought in the morning, and carri- that there are upwards of eighty such ed home in the evening The rent khans in Bagdad; which is hy na of these booths is considerable, and is means surprising, when it is considerthe property of the Kyah (the pasha's ed that this is the grand mart for the lieutenant,) who is always governor produce of India and Persia, Constanof the arsenal.

tinople, Aleppo, and Damascus : in Within the walls is a spacious palace, short, it is the grand oriental deposiwhich extends the whole length of the tory, there being a continual intercity. On the one side is the town course by caravans between these ports, wall

, with flights of steps in many excepting the communication with places, to mount up to the ramparts: Bassora, which is carried on by water on the other side are the walls of the on the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. gardens of those houses which lie The mosques in this city are innucontiguous to the town-wall. These merable, ornamented with handsome houses are mostly large, and the upper domes and lofty columns; with the rooms overlooking the walls, being exception of the dome of the great very pleasant, are consequently inhabi- mosque, which is covered with lead, ted by people of fortune. In going they are all cased with painted and round the town through this street, glazed tiles, which have a pretty efyou pass by all the gates: the second fect; though, when the sun shines gate from the arsenal is walled up, so bright, the glare is hurtful to the eyes. that there are only three which are The mosques, excepting the great one, made use of. The bazars, or marts, which is of stone, as well as every

house for all kinds of goods and merchan- in the city, are built of excellent bricks, dise, are many, and well filled : the which are well burnt. two principal are each above half a cipal houses have all large outlets, mile long, but not arched like those at either yards or gardens, or both, in Aleppo; instead of which there are which many trees are planted, the sheds made of boards, which project loftiest of which are the palm or date


The prin

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trees, which are so numerous, that in ber was the pasha, and every person
July, August, and September, dates belonging to the seraglio, which was
are sold at about a halfpenny a pound; then shut up, The pasha and his
all other kind of fruit are indeed ex- suite retired to a country palace, with
ceedingly cheap. The water melons spacious gardens, about three miles
are much coveted for their excellence, from the city, where forbidding all
and are sent by water as presents as intercourse, they avoided the disease.
far as Bussora, which is near seven The account seemed so surprising,
hundred miles distant, either by the that when it was observed I doubted
Tigris or Euphrates. The streets are the truth of it, I was referred to the
all built in a strait line, and paved, ex- register offices, which are two, one
cepting the bazars. The houses make being kept on each side. The offi.
no appearance on the outside, as no- cers who kept the books were so civil
thing is to be seen except brick walls as to shew them; by them it appeared
and lattice windows ; yet the princi- that upwards of three hundred thou-
pal ones are very commodious, and sand had been carried out to be bu-
have all subterraneous apartments ar- ried, who had died of the plague, in
ched, and ornamented with handsome the space of little more than four
stucco-work, to which the families re- months.
tire, about ten in the morning, where The officer on this side said that
they dine, and remain until about an they could not be mistaken, as the
hour before sun-set.

dead were all ordered, without disIn the months of June, July, and tinction, to be carried out of one gate August, to avoid the excessive hot only, and the number amounted to weather, every one sleeps at night on two hundred and eleven thousand the terrace on the tops of the houses, three hundred and fifty-four; adding, as the subterranean apartments are at that after the plague had ceased, and that time very hot, although they are the people began to return home acool in the heat of the day. The air gain, the gate through which these at Bagdad is so hot in these three people had been carried out to be bumonths, that the mutton and fowls, ried was, by order of the pasha and his which are killed early in the morning, divan assembled, shut up with a strong if not eaten by noon become putrid. brick wall, as it now is, the occasion The butchers and poulterers kill their of which I had not learned before. meat twice a day, so that it has hardly Bagdad is the cheapest place for time to cool before it is dressed : yet provisions that I had ever heard of or notwithstanding, this hot #ind is not seen. They are all good in their sickly, but the reverse, as there is not kind, and the price of all sorts of grain, a more healthy place in any part of bread, butcher's meat, and fish is rethe world. In March last the plague, gulated once in every month by the which they had been strangers to for pasha and his divan (council.) In more than sixty years, was brought to the space of five months mutton has this city by a caravan from Ezroom, been at two or three paras the oka, and raged 'so violently, that of near that is, from three halfpence to twofive hundred thousand inhabitants, pence farthing for forty-six ounces, which both sides of the city are said to English averdupoise weight, the Baghave contained before the plague com- dad oka exceeding the Turkish four menced, not one hundred thousand ounces; lamb at one para the oka remained alive when it ceased, be- more than mutton. Beef is not kil. sides the fifty thousand which had led in the warm weather. The reason fled away to avoid it, and after- why the price increased from two to wards returned again; of which num- three paras in so short a time, was the


gteat increase of inhabitants, as from the oka; they sometimes weigh from ihe middle of July last year (at four to six pounds. Besides, here are which time the plague had entirely many different kinds of small fish, the ceased,) to the middle of May this prices of which are not regulated; but year; it was computed that the they are as cheap in proportion as the increase of the inhabitants was one others. hundred thousand, and from the mid- The water of the Tigris is most dle of May to the middle of this pre- excellent, so much superior to spring sent month of October, it is computed or well water, that the poorest person that the number of inhabitants has in- . in the city will not deign to taste of creased in the same proportion ; so either, although there are wells in the that according to the computation yards of most houses. At gentlemade at those two periods, there has men's houses and in public khans are been as great an increase in the last fountains of water continually playing, five, as there was in the ten pre- which are conducted by earthen pipes ceding months.

into this part of the city, from springs On inquiry I found that they made on a hill about five miles distant. At their computation by the number of all these places they have well water, empty houses which were rented by the Turks giving it the preference in the new comers, and observing of making their ablutions, as it is clear, how

many the family of such persons and the river water turbid. The riconsisted. Lodgers are a description ver water is carried to every house in of persons unknown among the Turks; skins upon horses and asses. Some as when once a man is married, nei- families agree at a certain sum annualther father, mother, brother, nor sister, ly, others by the load. A horse load (excepting they happen to be children,) sells from two to three paras, accorlive in the same house with him. ding to the distance from the river to From all these circumstances I ima- the house ; an ass's load for half the gine that they cannot be much out price. It is asserted that there are a in their computation. Bread in the bove twenty thousand asses employed last five months has been from one to in this work, and at least hialf as many one and a half paras per oka, exactly horses. half the price of mutton. Here are Coffee-houses are so numerous, that three sorts of fish in the river, the it excited my curiosity to enquire if prices of which are from one to three 'there was any method of knowing the paras per oka, and which have not real number. I was told nothing deviated in five months.

For exam

was more easy, as they were all regisple, the largest sort are from six to tered, paying an annual sum for their twenty pounds weight, their scales and licence. A friend' was so kind as to form resemble salmon, excepting their go with me to the office, when I nose, which is fiat, and not unlike, a found the number then occupied to be a swine's snout ; their flesh is well nine hundred and fifty-five, and of tasted, but not firm; these are sold those untenanted four hundred and at one para the oka. The next sort, ninety, which the officer hoped to see resembling nearly our grey mullet, all opened within a year, as he exare exceedingly good, with firm flesh ; `pected that in that time the number these are sold at two paras the oka. of inhabitants would increase so as to The third sort are shads, exactly the equal the population before the plague; same as those in England in shape and he added, that more than half the pretaste, and were in high season all June, sent number have been tenanted within July, and most of the month of Au... six months. Those coffee - houses gust; these were sold at three paras which are in the skirts of the town, Feb. 1809.

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