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issues, never feezes, owing, as it is sup- ment would be seen incrusting the posed, to its being strongly impregnat- rocks on the margin of the lake. The ed with sulphur, and that, in the win. waters of Loch Ness, however, have ter, if horses are led into it, with ici- nothing of the hepatic smell, nor is cles hanging round their fetlocks, pro- any crust of sulphur to be observed on duced by other waters, they will spee- its borders. dily dissolve *."

Lastly, he may mean that the waIt may be thought that Sir John ter is strongly impregnated with sulCarr has been cautious in only say. phuric acid; but this could only be ing, that such a thing is supposed; through the medium of sulphate of sobut if he did not join in the supposi- da, or sulphate of lime ; and I have tion, he should explicitly have object- never understood that the water of the ed to it: mere silence implies an ac- Ness was remarkable either for being quiescence in the doctrine ; but when hard or snline : on the contrary, it has it is considered, that this supposition no discernible taste, and it is so far is introduced by way of clearing up a from being hard, that it is employed difficulty stated by Dr Johnson, the for the washing of clothes, by almost promulgation of it seems to argue all the families of Inverness, and breaks even a zeal for the doctrine.

soap remarkably well. It is to be regretted that Sir John While I must despair, therefore, of Carr has not explained what he means arriving at Sir John's meaning when by the water being “strongly impreg- he says that the water is a strongly nated with sulphur.” No native sul- impregnated with sulphur," I can pophur has ever been discovered about sitively assure him, that the non-freezLoch Ness, or the river that flows ing cannot be ascribed to this sulphufrom it, or even in Great Britain. Sir reous impregnation, whatever be its John Carr himself tells us, (p. 370,) mysterious nature. This may be prothat the “ bottom of the lake is soft ved by a very simple experiment. Let s mud, of a dark brownish colour,” a pitcher of water be taken from the At any rate, it does not appear on lake or the river, in the time of frost, what principle he assumes that water and it will congeal as quickly as any strongly impregnated with sulphur, other water. During the late intense (supposing sulphur, properly so called, colds the inhabitants of Inverness witto be soluble in water, which it is not) nessed daily confutations of Sir John's is capable of maintaining its fluidity sulphur theory. When their fountains when the mercury in the thermometer were locked up by the frost, they of falls 20 degrees below the freezing course repaired to the river Ness for point, as it almost every winter does at water ; but so far was this water from Inverness.

not freezing at all, that they could He may mean sulphurous acid: but scarcely get it carried home in a liwaters impregnated with this acid are quid state ! very rare ; they have hitherto been I

may here remark, that Sir John deemed of volcanic origin only; and Pringle (who, when a young man, indeed they could not fail to be at had been stationed for some time at once distinguished by the smell. Fort Augustus) has, in his celebrated

Again, he may mean “sulphurated Treatise on the Diseases of the Army, hydrogenous gas," (which he speaks of incidentally mentioned Loch Ness; in another place, p. 57. :) but in this and has, in a more philosophical style case also, the smell would infallibly than Dr Johnson or Sir John Carr, asindicate the quality, and a white sedi- cribed its not freezing to its great

depth alone. The lake is so very deep, * Caledonian Sketches, P. 380.

that it had always been considered as




unfathomable till Sir John Pringle tices of the Peace at Kirkwall, by sounded it, and found it to be from Messrs Peace, Sherar, Fotheringham, 600 to 700 feet. These soundings and Folsetter, who saw and examined have lately been verified by the en- the Great Sea Snake, (Halsydrus Pongineers who surveyed the track of the toppidani,) cast ashore in Stronsa in Caledonian Canal.

Oct. last; with remarks illustrative I conclude, therefore, that the true of some obscure and apparently conand the only calorific principle in Loch tradictory passages in the different deNess, is to be found in its great depth, positions. 2. An account of the disas long ago suggested by Sir Johncovery of a living animal resembling a Pringle. I am, &c.

toad, imbedded in a stratum of clay, Feb. 18. 1809. Scotus juvenilis. (in a cavity suited to its size, and

which retained its shape,) at the depth of fifty seven fathoms, in the coal-for

mation at Govan ; communicated by Proceedings of the Wernerian Natural Mr Dixon of Govan-hill. 3. An inHistory Sociery.

stance of remarkable intrepidity dis

played by an old male and female otA

T the meeting of this Society, on ter (at the river Dart, near Totness in

11th February, Professor Jame- Devonshire) in defending their young, son read a short account of the oryc- although the otter is generally actognostic characters and geognostic counted a very timid animal ; commurelations of the mineral named Cryo- nicated by J. Laskey, Esq. of Credilite, from West Greenland.

Mr P. Neill read a description of At this meeting also, Mr Laskey, a rare species of whale, stranded near (who is at present with his regiment, Alloa, in the Frith of Forth, in the stationed at Port Seton Barracks, East end of October last. It measured 43 Lothian, and who is well known in feet in length; had a small dorsal fin, the scientific world as an eminent convery low down the back; longitudi- chologist,) presented to the Society an nal folds in the skin of the thorax, pa- ample and very valuable collection of rallel in front, but rather diverging the native shells of Great Britain, are behind; short whale bones (fanons) ranged and named by himself;—an in the upper jaw; the under jaw some acquisition which must afford great what wider, and a very little longer facilities to those members who may than the upper ; both jaws acumina. incline to pursue the investigation of ted, (at least, considering the bulk of Scottish conchology. the body, they might be so described,) the under jaw ending in a sharp point, proceeding from a twisted bony ridge on the lower side. From these charac- Memoirs of the Progress of MANUters, he considered it as evident, that

FACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, it was the Baleinoptera acuto-rostrata and the FINE ARTS. of La Cepede, and that that author had fallen into a mistake, in saying: A Species of wasp which builds

its that this species never attains a great- nests in lately er length than 8 or 9 metres, or from served in different parts of this country, 26 to 29 feet.

and was frequently met with during the At the same meeting, the Secreta- last summer in different parts of the ry laid before the Society several in- West Riding of Yorkshire. It apteresting communications.--1. Copies pears to be a new introduction, and is of the affidavits made before the Jus- supposed to have been brought across




the Atlantic into some of the ports on will support the bolts, in case a necesthe western shore of the island, and sity should arise to encounter sandis gradually spreading itself through banks. In sailing over a bar, or in the country. The trees on which the places where the water is shallow, the nests have been most frequently ob- rudder will with ease draw up even served, are the gooseberry and cur- with the keel, and when in deep warant, and an instance of it has been ter, it will let down easily, and with met with on the common elder, to equal facility, a foot below it, in conwhich insects in general are averse. sequence of which advantage the boat This species is smaller than the com- is found to steer remarkably well. mon wasp, but it is much less voracious, The forecastle of the boat forms a caand less easily irritated.

bin ten feet wide, six feet long, and Sir W. Clarges, Bart. has construc- four feet deep, into which women, chilted a life boat on an improved princi- dren, and disabled persons may be put; ple, the leading features of which are, it is amply supplied with air, by means that she will not upset, sink, or be of two copper ventilators; it is furniwater-logged; that she affords cabin shed besides with two grapnels

, very room, and is like a man of war's proper to be thrown out on board a launch, well built for rowing, the oars wreck, to ride by; the grapnel topes not on a curve, but nearly in a right will assist the sufferers to remove and line and low to the water, of which escape from the wreck to the boat.-she draws little. The description of She is likewise equipped with masts this boat is as follows:-her length is and sails, and is as manageable with thirty feet, her breadth ten, her them as any boat of her dimensions depth three feet six inches. The space can possibly be : in a tempest, howbetween her timbers is fitted up with ever, she must be dismasted and rowed pine wood; this is done with a view by fourteen men, with oars sixteen to prevent the water lodging there : feet long, double banked ; the men the pine wood is well caulked and are all fastened to the thwarts by paid; she is buoyed up by eight me- ropes, and cannot be washed from tal cases, four on each side; these are

their seats.

In his observations on • water tight, and independent of each this boat, Sir William says, “ having other. They will serve to buoy upstated the leading features of my boat, six tons, but all the buoyant parts of I need not dwell on a few secondary the boat, taken collectively, will buoy points, which, however, it would be up ten tons. The cases are securely improper not to mention : these are, decked over, and boarded at the sides her being provided with small ropes or with pine ; there is a scuttle to each lines fastened to hooks on the gun-case, to put goods in ; the edges are wale, and each having a piece of cork

1; lined with baize; and over each scut. painted red at the extremity: intend. tle, in the case, is one of wood of a ed not only for persons who fall overlarger size, the margin of which is lin- board, or swim from a wreck, to see ed in the same manner to exclude the and catch hold of, but to tow those water : between the cases are Nor- for whom there may not be room in wegian balks, bolted to the bottom, the boat ; and her having a very powfastened to each other by iron clamps, erful rudder. The copper cases, tho' and decked over. The depth of her affording additional security to those keel is nine inches below the garboard who chuse to be at the expence, are streak, the dead rising is four inches; no more a necessary point of my plan, her keel is narrow at the under part, than coppering her bottom. The and wide above for the purpose of gi- wood work alone, if well executed ving the timber a good bed, which and properly attended to, may be


kept quite air tight. If the assistance smell of fire, to which they replied in of cork were to be called in, it ap- the negative. The captain then went pears to me that it might be better to the fore hatchway, uncovered it, applied than in the other boats, by and renoved the hatches, when the filling the cases with cork jackets, to flame burst forth with great fury as take to a crowded wreck; in going high as the main stay. He ordered off to which the cases would not be the hatches to be put on again, and wanted for any other purpose, and the used every endeavour to extinguish jackets would not be an incumbrance. the flames, but without effect. At 3 Every one must be aware of the im- A.M. on the 5th, the ebb tide having portance of the side cabins or cases, made, she went over on her broad-side. for stowing valuable goods, from a The decks by this time were so much richly laden vessel. A boat of this heated, as to oblige the people to quit kind, but somewhat smaller dimen- her. At four P.M. she was completesions, would be exceedingly useful to ly burned to the water's edge. Such ships on voyages of discovery; and in- was the fury of the flames, that the

r deed to any large vessels; as it would treasure between decks was run into not only answer for wooding and wa- masses of from two to ten thousand tering, but is peculiarly adapted for dollars weight. Suspicion of misconexcursions up rivers or small inlets of duct or carlessness at first fell upon the sea, or exploring clusters of islands. the people ; but it was afterwards asAs a pleasure boat, she answers ex- certained that the loss of the Albion tremely well; and with respect to her was occasioned by some paper umbrelsafety, I can say that I have sailed in las, received on board as cargo, packed her from Brighton, round the Cornish up, but not thoroughly dry, having coast to Conway, in North Wales, spontaneously caught fire in the hold. without any accident, though we experienced some very dreadful weather on the voyage.” To the various instances of sponta

SCOTTISH REVIEW. neous combustion, which are probably much more numerous than could be

Caledonia ; or an Account, Historical supposed, is to be added the following: and Topographic, of North Britain. The ship Albion, Capt. James Robert- By George Chalmers, F.R.s. & S.A.

Vol. I. son, was burned in December 1807, at Whampoa in China, under these

(Concluded from Oct, last, p. 764.) circumstances :--On the morning of the 4th, the company's treasure left. We cannot observe, without some Canton, and Capt. Robertson proceed- consternation, that although we ed down the river with a quantity of have now devoted two articles to the money belonging to the owners, but consideration of Mr Chalmers's work, did not reach the ship till about six in yet so long have we been detained by the evening. In going over the gang- the importance and variety of its conway, he observed to the officers en- tents, that we have scarcely completed ployed in receiving the treasure, of half the volume. We must therefore which upwards of a million and a half endeavour to quicken our pace, in orof dollars had been taken on board, der to complete this before the appear. that there was a strong smell of fire. ance of the second volume, which we He went below, to discover if possible understand may be shortly expected. whence it proceeded, and finding the In the next chapter Mr Chalmers people at work in the main hatchway, treats of an interesting subject ; the inquired whether they perceived any introduction of Christianity into Scot



land. There is reason to believe, that converted by the Northumbrians, ta the parts of North Britain which were the rites of the Romish church. not subjected to the Roman power, re- In the year 893, begins the third ceived some rays of its light so early period of Mr Chalmers, which he enas the third century. The conversion titles, the Scottish period. The Picts, of romanized Scotland, or Valentia, distracted by a long period of civil was first undertaken by St Ninian, at wars, were more and more weakened, the beginning of the fifth century.-- while the Scots continually gained This venerable person was born in ground, till at length Kenneth effectthis country: he received his ecclesi- ed their complete subjugation, and uastical education abroad, and, on his nited the whole kingdom under the return, undertook the conversion of Scottish dominion. After this, the his native country. He appears to name of Scotland was gradually exhave been held in considerable ho tended over the whole of the united nour, and even raised to the dignity of territory. This ruling people graduBishop of Valentia. Although the ally wrested Cumberland and Galloprogress of conversion was retarded way from the British, and from another by wars and disturbances, yet he had tribe of Irish settlers ; the Orkneys many successors who gradually diffu- and Hebrides from the Scandinavians; sed the light of the Gospel. These Lothian and Berwickshire from the holy men seem to have been subjected Northumbrians or Saxons. Of the to severe privations, and to have had steps by which these conquests were little to support them in their task, be- effected, and the state of these differsides the consciousness of well-doing. ent districts, Mr C. gives a detailed They were often obliged, by the tur- and satisfactory account. bulence and indocility of their flocks, Mr Chalmers then proceeds to colto seek shelter in caves, many of which, lect, with great industry, the slender throughout Great Britain and Ireland, details of the civil history during this derive their names from the residence

age. He adheres in general, to the of some celebrated saint. Hence the order of succession given in Innes's epithet Kil, or Cil, which, in the Bri- Critical Essay, with, however, a few tish and Irish languages, signifies cave, slight variations. The following acis attached to so many names of pa- count of the history of Macbeth will rishes. A cave near Glasserton, in probably interest our readers, who Wigtonshire, afforded a retreat to the


compare the splendid fictions worthy Ninian. At St Andrews, the of the poet with the solid matter of residence of St Rule and of St Andrew, fact, elaborated by the antiquary. several such caves are found, one of which is evidently artificial. The

Macbeth, fame of all former apostles, however, tre," in his' firmer gripe. About the

Immediately, seized "the barren scepwas eclipsed by that of Columba, an

lineage and station, of this celebraIrish ecclesiastic, who came over about ted personage, whose misdeeds have the beginning of the fifth century, and been dramatized, writers have written established a convent in the island of variously, as their purposes were either Hy, afterwards Iona. He undertook narrative, or dramatic. The fabulous also, and accomplished, the arduous Boece was the first, who said, that Maco task of converting the northern Picts. · beth's father was thane of Angus, and The religion which he and his follow- married Doada, the second daughter of

Malcolm II. Buchanan, without inquiers propagated seems to have been on

ry, pted the fables of Boece. Ho. the primitive model. At the begin- linshed followed Boece, as to the staning of the eighth century they were tion of Macbeth ; and Shakespeare re


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