« ZurückWeiter »
peated the echoes of Holinshed. The happy king expiated the crimes of his more veracious Wyntown, calls Mac- fafhers, by “ his most sacrilegious murbeth, the thane ot Crumbachty, which is der." 'And, Macbeth hastily marched the Gaelic name of Cromarty: And in to Scone, where he was inaugurated, as the well known story of ihe weird sis- the king of Scuts, supported by the clans ters, the chronicler makes the first witch of Moray and Ross,and applauded by the hail Macbeth, thane of Crumbachty; shouts of the partizans of Kenneth IV. the second, thane of Moray ; and the If Macbeth had been, in fact,as fiction has third hails bim king. These intimations supposed, the son of the second daughlead directly up to the several fictions ter of Malcolm, his title to the throne of Boece, Holinshed, and Shakespeare. would have been preferable to the right Macbeth was, by birth, the thane of of Duncan's son, according to the ScotRoss, by marriage with the Lady tish constitution, from the earliest epoch Gruoch, the thane of Moray, and, by his of the monarchy. Whatever defect crimes, the king of Scots. Finley, as we there may have been, in his title, to the may learn from Tortæus, was maormor, sullied sceptre of his unhappy predecesor, as the Norwegian historian calls him, sor, he seems to have been studious to jarl of Ross, who, at the commencement supply, by a vigorous, and beneficent, of the eleventh century, carried on a vi- administration. He even practised the gorous war, in defence of his country, hospitality, which gives shelter to the against the incursions of that powerful fugitive. During his reign, plenty is . vikingr, Sigurd, the earl of Orkney, and said to have abounded ; justice was adCaithness. With his dominions, the dise ministered; the chieftains, who would trict of Finley was contiguous, while have raised disturbances, were either the country of Angus lay, southward, overawed by his power, or repressed by at a great distance. Finley lost his life, his valour. Yet, injury busied herself, about the year 1020, some hostile in plotting vengeance. Crinan, the abconflict with Malcom II. This fact a- bot of Dunkeld, who, as the father of lone evinces, that Finley would scarcely Duncan, and the grandfather of his suns, have fought with his wife's father, if he must have been now well-stricken in had been the husband of Doada. The years, put himself at the head of the Lady Gruoch, when driven from her friends of Duncan, and made a gallant, castle, by the cruel fate of her husband, but unsuccessful attempt, to restore the maormor of Moray, naturally fled, them to their rights. Yet, the odious with her infant son, Lulach, into the crime, by which Macbeth acquired his neighbouring country of Ross, which authority, seems to have haunted his was then ruled by Macbeth, who mar. most prosperous moments. He tried, ried her, during the reign of Duncan. by distributing money at Rome, by larWe have now seen distinctly, that Mac- gesses to the clergy, and by charity to beth was maormor of Ross, the son of the poor, to obtain relief from " the afa Finlegh, and the grandson of Rory, or fliction of those terrible dreams, that did Roderick ; and that he was the husband shake him nightly.” Macbeth, and the of Gruoch, who was the daughter of Lady Gruoch, his wife, gave the lands Boedhe, and the grand-daughter of Ken. of Kirkness, and also the manor of Bolneth IV. Macbeth thus united in him- gy, to the culdees of Lochleven. Yet, self all the power, which was possessed the friendship of the pope, and the supa by the partizans of Kenneth IV., all the port of the clergy, did not ensure Macinfluence of the Lady Gruoch, and of beth a quiet reign. His rigour increase her son Lulach, together with the au- ed with his sense of insecurity. The thority of maormor of Ross, but not of injuries of Macduff, the Maormor of Angus. With all these powers, in super- Fife, constantly prompted the son of addition to his own character, for ad. Duncan to attempt the redress of all dress and vigour, Macbeth became su.. their wrongs. With the approbation, perior to Duncan, and the partizans of perbaps, by the command, of Edward, his family. Macbeth bad to avenge the the Confessor, Siward, the potent earl wrongs of his wife; and to resent, for of Northumberland, and the relation of himself, the death of his father. The Malcolm, conducted a numerous army superiority of Macbeth, and the weak into Scotland, during the vear 1054 dess of Duncan, were felt, when the un- The Northumbrians, led by Siward, and Feb. 1808.
his son, Osbert, penetrated, probably, to the government feudal.
The counDunsinnan. In this vicinity, they were try was divided indeed into a number confronted by Macbeth, when a furious
of small districts, ruled by powerful conflict ensued. The numbers of the and almost independent chiefs : but sláin evince the length of the battle, and the bravery of the combatants. Osbert these neither paid to the Sovereign was slain: Yet, Macbeth, after all his the same forms of allegiance, nor were efforts of valour, and vigour of conduct, bound to each other by the same ties,
He retired into the as in feudal governments. North, where he had numerous friends, were unacquainted too with those naand where he might find many fastnes
tional assemblies, which were familiar Siward returned into Northumber.
to the other kingdoms of Europe, land, and died, at York, in 1055.
Under the head of Manners, Mr C. Meantime, Macbeth continued his bloody contest with Malcolm. And, this un.
states that the Scots, during this pecommon character was, at length, slain, riod, were strangers to the use of at Lumphanan, on the 5th of December coined money; that cattle were their 1056, by the injured hand of Macduff.
only medium of exchange, and that
P. 406. all their fines were imposed in cattle. Of the real fate of Lady Macbeth, his. He gives some curious particulars retory, tradition, and fable, are silent.Shakespeare, indeed, informs us, that lating to the war cries used in this pe“ the fiend-like queen, by self and vio- riod. He says, et lent hands, took off her life, as 'tis
Among the people of North-Britain, thought.” Tradition, with remains, the war cry was called sometimes the seem to evince, that a son of Macbeth Slughorn, and often the Slagan; yet gefell, with his father, in the same engage. nerally the name of the place, where the ment; and was favoured, with a similar clan were to meet, on the approach of memorial. The name of Macbeth was
danger, was the word of alarm. The long popular in Scotland. The Scottish chief of the Mackenzies had, for his people saw, with indignant eyes, foreign Slughorn, Tulloch ard, or the high hill.mercenaries interpose, in their domestic The chief of the numerous clan of the affairs. Men of great consequence con- Grants had, for his war cry, Craig-elachie, sidered themselves as dignified, by the
or rock of alarm. The chief of the name of " this dead butcher.” What- Macphersons had Craig.ubhe, or the black ever asperity of reproach, the poet in
rock, for his Slughorn. The chief of the dulged, to gratify the populace of the
Macdonalds had, for his Slughorn, Craigtheatre, the plenty of the reign of Mac
an Fhithich, the rock of the raven. The beth, bis justice, his vigour, his hospita- chief of the Macfarlanes had, for his Sluglity, were long remembered in Scotland. horn, Loch Sloy, a place, in the district of As a legislator, perhaps, he is entitled to
Arrochar, at the head of Loch-Lomond. lesš praise; as Macbeth's laws, which
The chief of the Macgregors had, for are detailed by Buece, are obvious for
his Slughorn Ard Chullich, The chief of geries, though they be admitted into
the Buchanans had, for his Slughorn, the Concilia Britanniæ,
P. 412. Clareinch, an islet in Loch Lomond, Having thus traced all that can
wheie he anciently resided. Mercer of now be collected relative to the civil Aldie had, for biš Slughorn, The Grithistory of this period, Mr C. proceeds districts appear to have acquired the
pool. During the progress of manners, to take an elaborate and curious sur
war cry, as well as the chieftains. The vey of its religion, laws, government, war-cry of Braemar, in Aberdeenshire, manners and learning. Throughout is Cairn-na-cuimhne, the cairn of remem the whole he contends, that every
after so many custhing is Celtic, not Saxon; the Bré- toms have been buried in -blivion, if this hon law was still the law of the land, fair, or assembly of people, all the men
be raised, within that district, in any and what is now called the common
collect, for the purpose of protecting the law. had no existence, but has been injured individuals. The district of subsequently imported. Neither was Glenlivet has, also, for its war-cry, Bo
cbail, the name of a well-known hill, în uniformly refers to the Danes. But, this vicinity. If this cry be raised, the absence of Rhunic inscriptions seem even at this day, in any of the neighbour- to refer them to a different people, and ing inarkers, the men assemble; and a a later age. There seems, however, to tumult ensues. After the revolutions be à true Danish monument, in the of a thousand ages, such are the singa. churchyard of Ruthwell, Dumfries shire: lar remains of ancient manners, when when it was entire, it appears to have government was feeble and the law was been, about eighteen feet high, without unheard.
P. 461. its pedestal, and to have been sculpturStones of memorial form another ed, on each of its four sides, with fo.
liage and birds, and marine animals; and interesting object.
inscribed with Runic letters. And this The sculptured stones of North-Bri- curious pillar, which seems to be the ontain may be divided into three classes: ly Runic remain, in North Britain, may 1. Religious monuments; 2. Monuments possibly have been erected, by some of of Events; and, 3. Funereal Monuments. the followers of Halfden, the Dane; Of the first class are the upright stones, and was certainly ordered, by the genewhich stand, in a cultivated field, near , ral assembly of the Kirk, in 1644, to be Cargıl; and whereon are carved the thrown down, as an object of idolatry moon and stars. Of the stones of me
to the vulgar.
P. 465. morial, the most remarkable is the sculp- A still more remarkable species of tured pillar, near Forres, which tradi.
antiquity consists in the terraces tion refers to the expulsion of the Danes,
which are found in various parts of by Malcolm II. Of the same kind, are the bieroglyphical obelisks, at Aberlem
the kingdom, and particularly abound no, which tradition supposes tu be me.
in Peebles-shire. They appear evimorials of the Danish defeats. An obe. dently to have been constructed for lisk, at Kirkden, in Forfarshire, is also purposes of amusement.
The measaid, by tradition, to perpetuate the dis- dow fronting a remarkable one near grace of the Danes, from the vigour of Markinch in Fifeshire, goes still by Malcolm 11. A standing stone, on the glebe of Mortlach, in Banffshire, is the
the name of the Play-field. But, says traditional memorial of the overthrow
Mr C., of the Danes, by their frequent conquer- The grandest terraces, in North Brior Malcolm II. An hieroglyphical co- tain, are those of Glenroy: three parallel Jamn, which stands conspicuous on the rows of terraces, or wide roads, run, for moor of Rhynie, in Aberdeenshire, is seven, or eight miles, along each side of the lasting evidence of a confict with this valley, which is narrow, with high the odious Danes.
Mac Duff's Cross, mountains, on both sides of it. These which once stood, near Newburgh, in terraces are, undoubtedly, singular moFife, is a sort of memorial of the defeat numents of ihe labour, skill, and perseof Macbeth, which, as it marked the re- verance of the people, who made them. storation of an exiled king, conferred Taken in their whole extent, these terpeculiar privileges on the race of Mac. races are at leas: forty-eight miles long; Duff, whose valour contributed to that each terrace being near seventy feet event. Of the third class, relating to broad, which are cut out of the curving funereal monuments, the carved stones, sides of the glen. There are also simiin Meigle Church.yard, are memorable, Jar terraces, in the neighbouring valleys for their connection with the renowned of Glen Spean, and Glen Gluy. The Arthur, and his unfaithful Venora. In tradition of the country attributes those this vicinity, at Glamis, there is a sculp- vast works to the accommodation of tured obelisk, which is called, by the hunting. When we recollect the huntpopular voice, king Malcolm's Grave ings of the Earls of Athol, during the Stone. And, the supposed assassination days of Mary Stuart, we may easily of Malcolm II. is also perpetuated by a. conceive what must have been the hunt. nother hieroglyphical stone, which stands ings of the Scotish kings, in Glenroy, within the inclosures of Glamis. In Ross, during earlier times, when a whole nain Sutherland, and in Caithness, there are tion was collected by a common passeveral funereal stones, which tradition sion.
With regard to the vitrified forts, has traced the descent of all the prin. which, from their recent discovery, cipal Scottish families from one of have drawn considerable attention, these three sources. This forms cerMr C. conceives them to be evident, tainly one of the most interesting parts by the remains of hill forts erected by of the work, but from its miscellathe Britons, both in Britain and Ire- neous nature cannot easily admit of aland. With regard to the vitrifica- bridgement. zion, opinions have been various.-. In the course of this period, the Some have ascribed them to a volca. constitution was gradually moulded nic origin; while others, which seems according to that of England and the a very strange idea, have imagined, other feudal countries. The titles of that they were vitrified designedly, Earl and Baron, the hereditary offices and in their first formation. The of Constable, Mareschal, and Senemost reasonable opinion seems to be, schal, were introduced. The dignithat they were originally like other fied clergy, who, at the commenceforts; and that the action of fire, to ment of this period, were few, and of which they might frequently be expo- little influence, became, as in other sed by war or accident, upon a species countries of Europe, next in rank to of very fusible stone common in Scot- the royal family, and a constituent land, has given occasion to the vitri. part of the legislature. During the fying process.
same period, English law was graduThe fourth treats of what is called ally forced upon an unwilling people. the Scoto-Saxon period, when, from As in the case of laws, there was the influx of new settlers into Scot- also a substitution of Anglo Saxon for land, the low country became almost Celtic manners. entirely Saxon. The most prominent Mr Chalmers has here a long chapcause of this migration seems to have ter on subjects which he had not hibeen the Norman Conquest, which therto touched; on Commerce, Shipdrove multitudes of the Anglo-Saxon ping, Coin, and Agriculture." Prior nobles and vassals to seek shelter in to this age, none of these things had Scotland. They, as well as other any existence. Towns, the theatre of strangers, met with a welcome recep- such operations, were unknown in tion. Scotland, at that time, seems to Scotland. During this period, they have been in a much less improved were gradually established and enlarstate than the neighbouring countries; ged. Coin was introduced ; trade and it was the laudable ambition of and shipping encouraged ; and Scotits sovereigns, to invite colonists from land made some, though yet slow, adabroad, and to introduce foreign arts vances to civilization. and cultivation. The abundance of Mr Chalmers concludes with a uncultivated land, an advantage com- comprehensive, though concise, supmon to all unimproved countries, ena- plemental view of subsequent times. bled them to hold out very tempting lures to these settiers. The consequence was, that a great number, not New Works published in Edinburgh. only of Anglo Saxons, but of Normans and Flemings, took up their re.
ALEDONIAN Sketches. By Sir sidence in Scotland; the population of
John Carr. 4to. 21. 2s. a large portion of that country under- Treatise on the Office of Justice of went an almost entire change. the Peace, &c. By Gilbert HutcheMr Chaliners has, with a degree of
Second edition. 2 vols, 8vo. industry almost incredible, investiga. Also a Supplement to the first edited the steps of this colonization, and tion.
The Edinburgh Review, No. 26. paring the text and notes, no labour This number contains, Cromek's Re- or expense has been spared to procure liques of Burns-Letter on the Eman- original information. The Tale of a cipation of South America-Gregory Tub, for example, is illustrated with on Steam Engines - Proceedings of the marginal notes of the learned Society for Suppression of Vice- Bentley, transcribed from manuscript Warburton's Letters --Wilkins's San- jottings on his own copy. Although scrita Grammar-West India Dis- neither long nor numerous, they offer tresses, and Distillation from Sugar- some curious elucidations of the auPartenopex of Blois-Davy's Re- thor, and afford a singular instance of searches-Johnes's Joinville - Pamph- the equanimity with which the satire lets on Gas Lights-Expedition to even of Swift was borne by the veneCopenhagen. 8vo. 5s.
rable scholar against whom it was so unadviseably levelled. Some prelimi
nary critical observations are offered Scottish Literary Intelligence.
on the various literary productions of
the Dean of St Patrick's; and histoM R Russell, who has long practi- rical explanations and anecdotes ac- . sed with such eminence
as a company his political treatises. All Surgeon in this City, will speedily those pieces which, though hitherte publish, a System of Surgery, in four admitted into Swift's works, are posivolumes, 8vo.
tively ascertained not to be of his Mr Professor Playfair will speedi- composition, are placed in the Appenly publish a new and enlarged edition dix, or altogether retrenched. On the of his “ Illustrations of the Huttonian other hand, the Editor is encouraged Theory.” It will be in quarto, and to believe, that, by accurate research, illustrated by Engravings.
some gleanings may yet be recovered, The admirers of the incomparable which have escaped even the laudable humour and powerful satire of Swift, and undeniable industry of Swift's last will be happy to learn, that an edi- Editor. So that, upon the whole, he tion of his works is preparing, which hopes the present edition will be fully will be illustrated by the industry and more complete than those of late years. genius of Mr Walter Scott. It will The work will appear in the course of be on a plan different from that adopt- 1810. ed by former editors. In the Life of Mr J. Graham Dalzell will speedithe Author, it is proposed to collately publish, a Tract on Monastic An. and combine the various information tiquities, with some account of a rewhich has been given by Mr Sheri- cent search for the remains of the dan, Lord Orrery, Dr Delany, Nir Kings interred in the Abbey of DunPilkington, Dean Swift, Dr Johnson, fermline. and others, into one distinct and com- A new edition will soon be pubprehensive narrative ; which, it is hop- lished, of Wallace's Dissertation on cd, may prove neither a libel or apo- the Numbers of Mankind. This work logy for Swift, nor a collection from was written in reply to Hume's Essay the pleadings of those who have writ- on the Populousness of Ancient Na ten either ; but a plain, impartial, and tions, and contains a great deal of cuconnected biographical narrative. By rious and important information. It the favour of distinguished friends in has, for some time, been extremely Ireland, the editor hopes to obtain considerable light upon some passages
Mr Robertson Buchanan has in the in the Dean's life, which have hither- press, the second part of his Practical to perplexed his biographers. In pre. Essays. It will relate to the Shafts