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ges have taken place in Europe ; many CORRESPONDENCE with the Russian and States have been overthrown. The cause
FRENCE GOVERNMENTS relative to the is to be found in the state of agitation and OVERTURES received from ERFURTH. misery in which the stagnation of maritime (See vol. 70. p. 867.)
commerce has placed the greatest nations. Presented, by bis Majesty's command, to
Still greater changes may yet take place,
and all of them contrary to the policy of both Houses of Parliament.-Jan. 1809.
the English nation. Peace, then, is at once No. 1. --- Letter from Count Nicolas de the interest of the continent, as it is the in
Romanzoff, to Mr Secretary. Canning, terest of the people of Great Britain. dated Erfurth, 30th Sept. o. s. (12th Oc. We unite in entreating your Majesty to tober) 1808. Received October 21. listen to the voice of humanity, silencing
SIR--I send to your Excellency a letter that of the passions; to seek, with the inwhich the Emperors of Russia and France tention of arriving at that object, to conwrote to his Majesty the King of England. ciliate all interests, and by that means to The Emperor of Russia flatters himself that preserve all the powers which exist, and to England will feel the grandeur and the sin- insure the happiness of Europe, and of this cerity of this step. She will there find the generation, at the head of which Providence most natural and the most simple answer has placed us. to the overture which has been made by (signed) ALEXANDER.–NAPOLEON. Admiral Saumarez. The union of the two empires is beyond the reach of all change, (No. 3. is, a duplicate of No. 1, but signed and the two Emperors have formed it for
by Champagny, the French minister. peace as well as for war.
No. 4. is a duplicate of No. 2. with the His Majesty has commanded me to make
signature of Napoleon before that of Aler.
ander.- No. 5. and 6. are notes from Mr kaown to your Excellency that he has nominated Plenipoteptaries, who will repair
Canning to the French and Russian mito Paris, where they will await the answer
nisters at Paris, acknowledging the rewhich your Excellency may be pleased to
ceipt of their respective letters.) make to me. I request you to address it No. 7.-Letter from Mr Secretary Can, to the Russian Ambassador at Paris. The
ning to the Russian Ambassador at PaPlenipotentiaries named by the Emperor ris, dated Foreign Office, Oct. 28. 1808. of Russia will repair to that city on the Continent to which the Plenipotentlaries
SIR-Having laid before the King my of his Britannic Majesty and his allies shall master the two letters which his Excellency have been sent,
the Count Nicolas de Romanzoff has transIn respect to the basis of the negotiation, mitted to me from Erfurth, I have received their Imperial Majesties see no difficulty in his Majesty's commands to reply to that adopting all those formerly proposed by which is addressed to him, by the official England, namely, the wsi possidetis, and note which I have the honour to enclose to every other basis founded upon the reci- your Excellency. procity and equality which ought to pre
However desirous his Majesty might be vail between all great nations.
to reply directly to his Majesty the EmpeI have the honour to be, with sentiments
ror of Russia, you cannot bur feel, Sir, that, of the highest consideration, &c.
from the unusual manner in which the letCount NICOLAS DE ROMANZOFF. ters signed by his Imperial Majesty were To his Excellency Mr Canning, &c.
drawn up, and which has entirely deprived
them of the character of a private and per No. 2.-Letter from his Majesty the Em
sonal communication, his Majesty has found peror of all the Russias, and Bonaparte, it impossible to adopt that mark of respect to his Majesty, dated Erfurth, 12ch Oc.
towards the Emperor of Russia, without at tober 1808,- Received October 21.
the same time acknowledging titles, which SIRE-The present circumstances of Eu- his Majesty never has acknowledged. rope have brought us together at Erfurth. I am commanded to add to the contents Our first thought is to yield to the wishes of the official note, that his Majesty will and the wants of every people, and to seek, hasten to communicate to his Majesty the in a speedy pacification with your Majesty, King of Sweden, and to the existing Gothe most efficacious remedy for the mise- vernment of Spain, the proposals which ries which oppress all nations. We make have been made to him. known to your Majesty our sincere desire Your Excellency will perceive that it is in this respect by the present letter, absolutely necessary that his Majesty should
The long and bloody war which has receive an immediate assurance, that France torn the continent is at an end, without the acknowledges the Government of Spain aş possibility of being renewed. Many chan- a party to any negotiation,
That such is the intention of the Empe- been prolonged only because no secure and ror of Russia, his Majesty cannot doubt. honourable means of terminating it have
His Majesty recollects with satisfaction · hitherto been afforded by his enemies. the lively interest which his Imperial Ma- But in the progress of a war, begun jesty has always manifested for the welfare for self-defence, new obligacions have been and dignity of the Spanish monarchy, and imposed upon his Majesty, in behalf of he wants no other assurance that his Impe- powers whom the aggressions of a common rial Majesty cannot have been induced to enemy have compelled to make common sanction, by his concurrence, or by his ap- cause with his Majesty, or who have 80probation, usurpations, the principle of licited his Majesty's assistance and support which is not less unjust than their example in the vindication of their national indepenis dangerous to all legitimate Sovereigns. dence.
As soon as the answers on this point shall The interests of the Crown of Portugal, have been received, and as soon as his Ma- and of his Sicilian Majesty, are confided to jesty shall have learnt the sentiments of the his Majesty's friendship and protection. King of Sweden, and those of the Govern. With the King of Sweden his Majesty ment of Spain, I shall not fail to receive is connected by ties of the closest alliance, the commands of his Majesty for such com. and by stipulations which unite their counmunications as it may be necessary to make cils for peace as well as for war. upou the ulterior objects of the letter of To Spain his Majesty is not yet bound Count Romanzoff.
by any formal instrument; but his Majesty I have the honour to be, &c.
has, in the face of the world, contracted (Signed) GEORGE CANNING. with that nation engagements not less saNo. 8. is the same in substance as No. 7, cred, and not less binding upon his Majesbut addressed to M. de Champagny.
ty's mind, than the most solemn treaties."
His Majesty therefore assumes, that in an No. 9.-OFFICIAL Note.
overture made to his Majesty for entering The King has uniformly declared his into negotiations for a general peace, the readiness and desire to enter into negotia relations subsisting becween his Majesty tions for a general peace, on terms consis. and the Spanish Monarchy have been disa tent with the honour of his Majesty's tinctly taken into consideration; and the Crown, with fidelity to his engagements, Government acting in the name of his Ca. and with the permanent repose and secu. tholic Majesty Ferdinand the Seventh, is rity of Europe. His Majesty repeats that understood to be a party to any negotiation declaration.
in which his Majesty is invited to engage. If the condition of the Continent be one (Signed) GEORGE CANNING. of agitation and of wretchedness; if many
No, 13 -TRANSLATION_NOTE. States have been overthrown, and more are still menaced with subversion, it is a con- The undersigned, Minister for Foreign solation to the King to reflect, that no part Affairs of his Majesty the Emperor of all of the convulsions which have already been the Russias, has the honour to reply to the experienced, or of those which are threat- note of the 28th of October, signed by Mr ened for the future, can be in any degree Cauning, Secretary of State for
Foreign Afimputable to his Majesty. The King is fairs to his Majesty the King of Great Brimost willing to acknowledge that all such tain, and addressed, by his Excellency, to dreadful changes are indeed contrary to the the Russian Ambassador at Paris, that the poliey of Great Britain.
admission of the Sovereigns in alliance with • If the cause of so much misery is to be England to a congress cannot be a point of found in the stagnation of commercial in any difficulty, and that Russia and France tercourse, although his Majesty cannot be consent to it ; but this principle by no expected to hear, with unqualified regret. means extends to the necessity of admitting that the system devised for the destruction the plenipotentiaries of the Spanish insurof the commerce of his subjects has recoil- gents; the Emperor of Russia'cannot admit ed upon its authors or its instruments, yet them. His empire, in similar circumstanit is neither in the disposition of his Ma- ces--and England can recollect one partijesty, nor in the character of the people cular instance,-has always been true to over whom he reigns, to rejoice in the pri- the same principle. Moreover, he has als vations and unhappiness even of the nations ready acknowledged the King Joseph Nawhich are combined against him. His Ma- poleon. He has announced to his Britannic jesty anxiously desires the termination of Majesty, that he was united with the Emthe sufferings of the Continent.
peror of the French for peace as well as for The war in which his Majesty is enga- war, and his Imperial Majesty here repeats ged was entered into by his Majesty for the that declaration. He is resolved not to see immediate object of national safety. It has parate his interests from those of that mos
but they are both ready to conclude ting to the negotiation the Spanish insura peace, provided that it be just, honour gents? What would the English Govern., able, and equal for all parties.
ment have said, had it been proposed to The Undersigned sees, with pleasure, them to admit the Catholic insurgents of , that, in this difference of opinion respecting Ireland? France, without having any the Spaniards, nothing presents itself which treaties with them, has been in comnunicacan either prevent or delay the opening of tion with them, has made them promises, a Congress. He derives his persuasion, in and has frequently sent them succours. this respect, from that which his Britannic Could such a proposal have found place in Majesty has himself confided to the two a note, the object of which ought to have Emperors, that he is bound by no positive been not to irritate, but to endeavour to engagement with those who have taken up effect a mutual conciliation and good unarms in Spain. After fifteen years of war, derstanding ? England will find herself Europe has a right to demand peace. The under a strange mistake, if, contrary to the interest of all the powers, including that of experience of the past, she still entertains England, is to render it general; humanity the idea of contending successfully upon commands it; and such a desire, surely, the Continent against the armies of France. cannot be foreign to the feelings of his Bri. What hope can she now have, especially as tannic Majesty. How can it be that he a- France is irrevocably united with Russia ? lone can withdraw himself from such an The Undersigned is commanded to repeat object, and refuse to terminate the miseries the proposal, to admit to the negotiation all of suffering humanity!
the allies of the King of England; whether . The Undersigned consequently renews, it be the King who reigns in the Brazils; in the name of the Emperor, his 'august whether it be the King who reigns in Swemaster, the proposal already made, to send den; or whether it be the King who Plenipotentiaries to any city on the Conti- reigns in 'Sicily; and to take for the basis nent which his Britannic Majesty may of the negotiation the uti possidetis. He please to point out; to admit to the con. is commanded to express the hope that, gress the Plenipotentiaries of the Sovereigns not losing sight of the inevitable results of in alliance with Great Britain; to treat u- the force of states, it will be renien bered, pon the basis of the uti possidetis, and upon that between great powers there is no solid that of the respective powers of the belli- peace, but that which is at the same time gerent parties; in fine, to accept any basis equal and honourable for all parties. The which may have for its object the conclu. Undersigned requests bis Excellency, Mr sion of a peace, in which all parties shall. Canning, to accept the assurances of his find honour, justice, and equality.
highest consideration. The Undersigned has the honour to re- (signed)
No. 17.-Official Note, dated Foreign
Office, December 9, 1808.
The Undersigned, his Majesty's Principal No. 15.-NOTE.-T3 ANSLATION.
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, has The Undersigned has laid before the Em- laid before the King his master the note peror his master, the note of his Excellency transmitted to him by his Excellency the Mr Canning. If it were true that the evils Count Nicolas de Romanzoff, Minister for of war were felt only on the Continent, cer- Foreign Affairs of his Majesty, the Enipetainly there would be little hope of at- ror of all the Russias, dated the 16th--28th taining peace. The two Emperors had fla of November. The King learns with asto-, tered themselves that the object of their , nishment and regret the expectation which measure would not have been misinterpret appears to have been entertained that his ed in London. Could the English Minis- Majesty should consent to commence a netry have ascribed it to weakness or to ne- gotiation for a general peace, by the previous cessity, when every impartial Statesman abandonment of the cause of the Spanish must recognise, in the spirit and moderation nation, and of the legitimate monarchy of by which it is dictated, the characteristics Spain, in deference to an usurpation which of power and true greatness ? France and has no parallel in the history of the world. Russia can carry on the war so long as the His Majesty had hoped that the participa-, Court of London shall not recur to just and tion of the Emperor of Russia, in the overequitable dispositions; and they are resolve tures made to his Majesty, would have afed to do so. How is it possible for the forded a security to his Majesty, against the French government to entertain the pro- proposal of a condition, so unjust in its efa' posal which has been made to it, of adnit. fect, and so fatal in its example,
Nor can his Majesty conceive by what
BOARD OF INQUIRY. obligation of duty or of interest, or by what
CONVENTION OF CINTRA, principle of Russian policy, his Imperial
His Majesty having declared his disapMajesty can have found himself compelled probation of the Convention concluded by to acknowledge the right assumed by
Lieut. Gen. Sir Hew Dalrymple with the France, to depose and imprison friendly
Commander of the French army in PortuSovereigns, and forcibly to iransfer to her.
gal on the 30th of August last, (hoth in self the allegiance of loyal and independent his answer to the City of London's address, nations.
and in the speech at the opening of ParliaIf these be indeed the principles to which
ment) as a measure " which had disapthe Emperor of Russia has inviolably artached himself, to which his Imperial Ma- pointed the hopes of the British nation,"
has been pleased to order a Board of Injesty has pledged the character and resour.
quiry to assemble at Chelsea, in order to ces of his empire ; which he has united
take the said transaction under their consihimself with France to establish by war,
deration. The Members of the Board met and to maintain in peace; deeply does his
accordingly in the Great Room in Chelsea Majesty lament a determination by which
Hospital on Monday the 14th of Novemthe sufferings of Europe nrust be aggravat
ber.--They are as follow: ed and prolonged; but not to his Majesty is to be attributed the continuance of the
PRESIDENT.--Gen. Sir David DUNDAS. calamities of war, by the disappointment of
Earl Moira. all hopes of such a peace as would be con
Generals....... Peter Craig. patible with justice and with honour.—The
Lord Heathfield. Undersigned, &c.
Earl of Pembroke.. (Signed) George CANNING,
Lieut.-Gens....... 3 Sir Geo. Nugent.
Oliver Nicholls, No. 19.-- Official Note, dated Foreiga
The Board being constituted, without Office, December 9, 1809.
any formality, the Hon. R. Ryder, Judge The Undersigned, his Majesty's Princi- Advocate, read his Majesty's warrant, of pal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, which the following is a correct copy :has laid before the King his master, the “ GEORGE R.-Whereas we were plea-, note transmitted to him by his Excellency sęd, in the month of July 1808, to constiM. de Champagny,dated the 28th Novem-' tute and appoint Lieut.-General Sir Hew ber.
1 Dalrymple, Knt. co the command of a boa He is especially commanded by his Ma- dy of our forces, employed to act on the jesty to abstain from noticing any of those coasts of Spain and Portugal, or in such otopics and expressions insulting to his Ma. ther part of the Continent of Europe as he jesty, to his allies, and to the Spanish na- might hereafter be directed to, and the said tion, with which the official note transmite Lieutenant-General did, pursuant to our ted by M. de Champagny abounds. instructions transmitted to him, proceed to
His Majesty was desirous to have treat- Portugal, and did, on the 22d of August ed for a peace which might have arranged 1808, land in that country, and take upon the respective interests of all the powers himself the command of the said body of engaged in the war, on principles of equal our forces accordingly. And whereas it apjustice ; and his Majesty sincerely regrets pears, that on the same 22d of August, and that this desire of his Majesty is disappoint- subsequently to his having assumed the ed.
command, an armistice was concluded as fole But his Majesty is determined not to a- lows--(Here is recited the armiscice as stabandon the cause of he Spanish nation, and ted in Sir Hew Dalrymple's dispatch.) of the legitimate monarchy of Spain : and
“ And whereas it appears, that on the the pretension of Trance to exclude from 30th day of August 1808, a convention was the negotiation the Central and Supreme concluded as follows (Here is recited the Government, acting in the name of his convention, as stated in Sır H. Dalrymple's Catholic Majesty Ferdinand VII. is one, dispatch.). which his Majesty could not admit, with- . We think it necessary that an inquiry out acquiescing in an usurpation which has should be made by the General Officer's no parallel in the history of the world.- herein after-named, into the conditions of The Undersigned, &c.
the said armistice and convention, and into (Signed) GEORGE CANNING. all the causes and circumstances (whether
arising from the previous operations of the (The intermediate numbers of these Pa- British arny or otherwise,) which led to pers are short letters from the different them, and into the conduct, behaviour, and Ministers, merely acknowledging the re- proceedings of the said Lieut.-General Sir ceipt of their respective official notes.) Ilew Dalrymple, and of any other officer or officers, who may have held the command
Second Day, Nov, 17. of our troops in Portugal; and of any other The General Officers constituting the person or persons, as far as the same were Board of Inquiry assembled again at econnected with the said armistice and con leven o'clock. vention, in order that the said General Of. ficers may report to us, touching the mat.
The Judge Advocate read a volumi. ters aforesaid for our better information. nous correspondence between the ComOur will and pleasure therefore is, and we manders naval and military, of the exdo hereby noninate and appoint the Gene- pedition to Portugal, on the nature of ral Officers of our army, whose names are
their instructions. respectively mentioned in the list annexed, He then addressing himself to the au. to be a Board, of which we do hereby ap. dience, stated, that the Board, influenpoint General Sir David Dundas, K. B. to ced by a wish to promote the ends of be President, who are to meet accordingly public justice, were extremely anxious for the purposes above mentioned. And io prohibit any thing that had a tenden. you are hereby required to give notice to
cy to defeat that desirable object. It the said General Officers when and where was therefore their determination not they
are to meet for the said examination and to suffer the publication of any part of inquiry, and you are hereby directed to summon such persons as may be judged ne the proceedings perding the investigacessary by the said General Oflicers (whe- tion,
and until the general result should ther the General Officers employed in the be known. expedition or others,) to give information The copy of a letter was produced, touching the said matters, or whose exami- written by Sir A. Wellesley to Gen. nation shall be desired by those employed Burrard. The former objected to its in the said expedition. And the said Gene- being publicly read, because he had ral Officers are hereby directed to hear such written it in confidence, and it contain. persons as shall offer to give information ed free opinions on the characters of couching the same, and they are hereby au: several Portuguese officers, who, not thorised, empowered, and required strictly to examine into the matters before mention being subjects of our Government, ed, and to report a state thereof as it shall ought not to have their actions examinappear to them, together with their opi- ed by any Court belonging to this counnion thereupon, and also with their opinion, try: whether any or what further proceedings · Lord Moira perused the letter, and should be had thereupon; all which you said, that its contents certainly did not are to transmit to our Commander in Chief, refer to the subject of investigation ; to be by him laid before us for our consi: and as the practice of publishing letters deration ; and for so doing this shall, as well of a confidential nature, abounding to you as to our said General Officers, and with free opinions on persons not sub. all others concerned, be a sufficient warrant. jects of our Government, would lead to “Given at our Court at St James's this first day of November 1808, in the 49th
most unpleasant consequences, it should year of our reign.
not be read publicly. The other Mem.. “ By his Majesty's command,
bers of the Court concurred in his (Signed) “ JAMES PULTENEY. Lordship's opinion, and the letter was To our right trusty and well-be
privately perused by the different Mem loved Counsellor, the Honourable
bers of the Board. Richard Ryder, Judge Advocate
Sir Hew Dalrymple then read a paGeneral, or his Deputy."
per to the Court. It stated, that he had The Judge Advocate next read all the to claim their indulgence in the state. documents which appeared in the London ment of some circumstances, by which Gazette of the 16th September last. his feelings and reputation had been
After a short consultation among the deeply wounded. He had always look. Members of the Board, the President ob- ed forward with joy to this moment, served, that, in obedience to his Majesty's when he should have an opportunity to warrant, it was incumbent upon them proceed with all convenience to the exami- repel a calumny, which he had every nation of witnesses. Then turning to the au
reason to know had the most injurious ditory, he intimated, that as it was probable effect upon his character. He alluded there would not be any more public busi
to a paragraph which appeared in one ness transacted this way, it was the pleasure of the public newspapers, and which of the Board that strangers should with. had been transmitted to the army in draw. The Court was accordingly cleared. Portugal, calculated, not only to destroy