Abbildungen der Seite
[ocr errors][merged small]

lost our way by land, or were thwart very young; and as his guardiani deed by the winds and the sea. Yea, stined bim to occupy the farm when so visibly were we crossed in the very he should be of age, a learned educasmallest matters, that the latent sparks tion was not thought necessary. But of superstition, believed to be inherent he soon discovered, from perusing in our countrymen, were aroused; and books of agriculture, that few pursuits we all three concluded, that an over can be extensively cultivated without truling Providence frowned upon our elevating the mind beyond mere me. designs; and the event hath now fully chanical knowledge; and in the first justified the prediction. Now, my instance, he perceived it would be nedear Sir, acknowledge that I have ful. cessary to study chemistry. With filled your injunctions to a tittle, in this view, he resolved to attend Dr giving you an account of my High. Cullen's Lectures, who, although Jand journies; and as I am resolved surprised that one so very young never more to take another journey, should have formed this resolution, of such a nature, at my own expence, had soon reason to admire his pupil's and it is most probable no other will laudable curiosity and good sense, and employ me, so I expect this will be liberally afforded him every encouthe last letter ever you will receive ragement in his power. To chemistry from me on these subjects. I will he added the study of other collateral therefore take my leave, with assuring branches; and entered upon his farm you, that I remain

at the age of fifteen, with knowledge Your most affectionate,

superior to most of his neighbours, and Obliged and faithful Shepherd, an enterprising spirit, which induced

J. H. him to attempt improvements, where

ever they could be introduced with
apparent advantage. Among these

was the small two-horse plough, now 'Sketch of the Life of Dr JAMES 20 common in Scotland.--At interANDERSON.

vals, he prosecuted his studies with

indefatigable zeal, and attended a priAMES ANDERSON was born vate course of lectures, which Dr Culo

in the year 1739, at Hermiston, a len delivered to a few favourite pupils. village near Edinburgh. . His ances- Mr Anderson was the only one who tors were farmers, and had for many took minutes of these lectures, which generations occupied the same land; were afterwards unfairly obtained from a circumstance which


be suppos- him, and advertised to be published i ed to have early introduced Mr An- but he prevented this, as he was afraid derson to that branch of knowledge that his imperfect transcripts might which formed the chief occupation of tend to injure the fame of his master. his life. Among the companions of In a few years, he left Hermiston, his youth, born in the same village, and took a long lease of a large farm wis the present Dr James Anderson, of 1300 acres, in Aberdeenshire, which Physician-General at Madras. They was almost in a state of nature. While were related, educated together, and endeavouring to cultivate this unproformed an intimacy and correspon- mising soil, he began his literary cadence, which death only has interrup- 'reer by publishing, in 1777, Essays ted, and which a similarity of pur- on Planting, which he had written in suits rendered pleasant and honourable 1771, in the Edinburgh Weekly Mato themselves, and advantageous to gazine, under the signature of Agrithe world.

cola' All his early works were comMr Anderson lost his parents when posed during a residence of

more than


[ocr errors]

20 years at Monkshill, the name of him to carry on this work with ad, this farm.

vantage. Agriculturists, scholars, men The fame of these works procured of taste and fancy, became occasionalhim a very extensive acquaintance and ly his correspondents in the Bee ; correspondence with persons of emi- which, however, owing to some diffinence, who wished to profit by the culties in the mode of publication, he knowledge of so able a practical far was compelled to relinquish. He mer. In 1780, the degree of LL. D. wrote much in this work ; not only was conferred upon him by the Uni- the principal part of the papers that versity of Aberdeen, in a manner high. are without signature, but those signed; ly honourable to him, and without Senex, Timothy Hairbrain, and Alcithe least solicitation on his part.

biades. In 1783, having previously entrust Among other papers in the Bee, ed the management of his farm to pro was a series of Essays on the Political per persons, ne renioved to the neigh Progress of Great Britain. These bourhood of Edinburgh; partly with having been published during the dea view to the education of his numer mocratic


which prevailed at ous family, and partly to enjoy the Edinburgh, soon after the breaking society of those literary persons with out of the French Revolution, the whom he had corresponded. About Sheriff sent for Dr Anderson, and this time, he printed and circulated a demanded the name of the Author. tract among his friends, on the sub This he refused to give up, and deject of the establishment of the North sired to be considered as the Author ; British Fisheries, with a view to alle- a circumstance the more singular, viate such extreme distress as he had as his sentiments were well known witnessed in Aberdeenshire, from the to be directly opposite ; but his confailure of the crops in 1782. This duct, in this case, proceeded from his tract, although not published, drew peculiar notions on the subject of the attention of Government; and he literary secresy; and as he had adwas requested by the Treasury to take mitted those letters, he thought hima survey of the Western coast of Scot- self bound to take the blame upon land, for the purpose of obtaining in- himself. After a second and third formation on this important subject. application, he still refused ; and He readily acquiesced, and performed when the printers were sent for, he the task in 1784. The Report of the charged them, in the face of the maCommittee appointed to inquire into gistrates, not to give up the name the State of the British Fisheries, of the Author. Respect for his taMay 11, 1785, makes very honour- lents and character induced the maable mention of Mr Anderson's ser- gistrates to let the matter drop. Tha vices ; but we do not find that he re- real Author, a Mr Callander, who ceived, or was offered any species of thought proper to leave his own counremuneration ; and it is well known, try for America *, previous to his dehe was of a temper too spirited and parture, waited on the magistrates, disinterested to ask for any.

and insinuated that Lord G, After his return, he resumed his li. terary labours in various shapes; and, among other schemes, projected a periodical work, intituled “ The Bee,"

* Where he was accidentally drown. to be published weekly, and to con- have contradicted the old proverb. He

ed; a death which, in his case, sist of the usual materials of a Maga- had certainly given many indications of zine. Its encouragement was, for a having been born to an exit of a very considerable time, such as to enable different and more public kind : March 1809.


seems to

one of the Scotch Judges, a man to was remarkably handsome in his per. whom he owed many obligations, was son, of middle stature, and robust the Author. Immediately on hearing make. Extremely moderate in his of this infamous conduct, so unbecom- living, the country exercise animated ing, however, the character and spi- his cheek with the glow of health ; rit of a gentleman, Dr Anderson but the overstrained exertion of his went to the magistrates, and gave up mental powers afterwards shook his Callander's name as the Author. constitution, ultimately wasted his fa

About the year 1797, Dr Ander- culties, and hurried him into old age. son removed to the vicinity of Lon. He was a man of an independent don, where he cultivated the acquain- mind; and in the relative duties of tance of many eminent characters ; husband and father, exhibited a pruand, among the rest, the late Marquis dential care, mixed with affection, of Lansdown paid much attention to from which he had every reason to him. At the request of his friends, have expected the happiest results, he again took up his pen, in a perio- had Providence spared the whole of dical work, intituled, “ Recreations in his family. In those who remain, it Agriculture;" the first number of which is not too much to say, that his inteappeared in April 1799. The great- grity and talents have been acknowest part of this work was composed by ledged by all who know them. One himself, except what was enriched by of his sons, who lately died, is rememcorrespondence from abroad, and a bered by the connoisseurs, as having, very few contributions from his friends brought the beautiful art of wood-enat home. The same difficulties, how- graving to great perfection. ever, occurring as in the case of his Of Dr Anderson's abilities, his “ Bee," with respect to the mode of works exhibit so many proofs, ihat publication, he pursued this work no they may be appealed to with perlonger than the sixth volume, March fect confidence. Althcagh a volumi. 1802.

nous writer, there is no subject conFrom this time, except in the pub- nected with his favourite pursuit, on lication of bis correspondence with which he has not thrown new light. General Washington, and a pamphlet But his knowledge was not confined on Scarcity, he devoted himself al- to one science. He exhibited, to give most entirely to the relaxation of a only one instance, a very strong proof quiet life, and particularly the culti- of powers of research, when in 1773, vation of his garden, which was now he published, in the first edition of the become the miniature of all his past Encyclopedia Britannica, an article labours. For some time past, his under the head Monsoon. In this, he health and powers suffered a very sen- clearly predicted the result of Capt. sible decline. He died October 15th, Cook's First Voyage ; namely, that 1808, aged 69.

there did not exist, nor ever would He was twice married. First, in be found, any continent, or large isl1768, to Miss Seton of Mounie, an and, in the southern bennisphere near amiable and accomplished woman, by the tropicks, excepting new Holland whom he had 13 children. She died alone; and this was completely veriin 1788. Secondly, to a lady of Isle- hed on Captain Cook's return, seven worth, in 1801, who survived him.- months afterwards. Of his numerous family only five sons In his style, Dr Anderson was and a daughter, Mrs Outram, the wi- bundantly copious, and sometimes, dow of Mr Benjamin Outram, are perhaps, inclined to the prolix; but, alive.

on perusing his longest works, it will In his younger days, Dr Anderson be found difficult to omit any thing,



without a visible injury to his train of to the new Corn Bill proposed for reasoning, which was always conspi- Scotland. A tract. 8vo. cuous and guarded. In conversation, 1777. Essays relating to Agricul. as well as in writing, he had the ture and Rural Affairs. 8vo. Fifth happy faculty of not only entering edition in 1800, 3 vols. with spirit and zeal on any favourite 1779. An Enquiry into the Causubject, but of rendering it so intelli- ses that have hitherto retarded the gible, as to command attention in Advancement of Agriculture in Euthose to whom it might be of less im- rope ; with Hints for removing the portance, and convey instruction to Circumstances that have chiefly obthose who sought it. His manners structed its Progress. A tract. Elwere gentleman-like, free, and uncon. liott, 4to. strained ; and, in the social circle, * 1782. The Interest of Great had a dash of pleasantry, from the Britain, with regard to her American many anecdotes he had stored up in Colonies, considered. Cadell, 8vo. his travels and long experience ; and * 1783. The true interest of Great with respect to the principal object of Britain considered; or a Proposal for his attention, he had the happiness to establishing the Northern British sée agriculture, in all its branches, be- Fisheries. 12mo. come the favourite study of his coun * 1785. An Account of the pretry, and a leading pursuit with the sent State of the Hebrides and Westmost opulent and distinguished cha- 'ern Coasts of Scotland; being the racters in Great Britain and Ireland. Substance of a Report to the Lords

The following is a very correct list of the Treasury. Edin. 8vo. of his works :

* 1789. Observations on Slavery 3 Books written and published by Dr particularly with a view to its Effects ANDERSON. N.B. Those marked *, Indies. Manchester, 4to.

on the British Colonies in the West are out of print.

* 1790. Papers drawn up by him In the year 1776. A Practical and Sir John Sinclair, in reference to Treatise on Chimneys; containing full a Report of a Committee of the HighDirections for constructing them in land Society on Shetland Wool. 8vo. all cases, so as to draw well, and for Creech, &c. removing Smoke in Houses. 12mo, 1791 to 1794. The Bee ; consistLondon. Third edition published in ing of Essays, Philosophical, Philolo1783.

N. B. In this little Treatise gical, and Miscellaneous. 18 vols. was first explained the principle on Edin. 8vo. which the patent Bath stove was af * 1792. Observations on the terwards constructed.

fects of the Coal Duty. Edin. 8vo. * 1776. Free Thoughts on the A tract. American Contest, a tract. Edin. Svo. * 1793. Thoughts on the Privi

1777. Miscellaneous Observa- leges and Power of Juries; with Obtions on Planting and Training Tim- servations on the present State of ber-trees, by Agricola. Edinburgh. the Country with regard to Credit. 8vo. first printed in t'e Edinburgh A tract. 8vo. Edin. Weekly Amusement in 1771, and * 1793. Remarks on the Poor supposed to be his earliest production. Laws in Scotland. A tract. 4to. Edin.

1777. Observations on the Means 1794. A Practical Treatise on of exciting a Spirit of National Indus. Peat Moss, in two Essays. Svo. Rotry. Edin. 4to:

binsons. * 1777. An Enquiry into the Na * 1794. A General View of the ture of the Corn Laws, with a View Agriculture and Rural Economy of


the County of Aberdeen ; with Ob Several articles for the Encycloservations on the Means of its Im- pædia Britannica, first edition, Edinprovement. Chiefly drawn up for burgh; among which are, under the the Board of Agriculture; in two heads, Dictionary, Winds and MonParts. 8vo. Edin.

soons, Language, Sound. 1794 An Account of the differ. He contributed numerous Essays, ent kinds of Sheep found in the Rus- under a variety of signatures, in the sian Dominions, &c. By Dr Pallas; early part of the Edinburgh Weekly with five Appendixes, by Dr Ander- Magazine ; the principal of which son. 8vo. Edin.

were Agricola, Timolcon, Germani* 1795. On an Universal Charac- cus, Cimon, Scoto - Britanus, E., ter. In two Letters to Edward Home, Aberdeen, Henry Plain, Impartial, Esq. A tract. Edin, 8vo.

A Scot. 1797. A Practical Treatise on He reviewed the subject of AgriDraining Bogs and Swampy Grounds; culture for the Monthly Review for with Cursory Remarks on the Origi- several ycars. nality of Elkington's Mode of Draining. Robinsons. Svo.

1799 to 1802. Recreations in Agri- Letters occasioned ly Sir John Carr's culture, Natural History, and Miscel CALEDONIAN SKETCHES. laneous Literature. 6 vols. 8vo.

(Continued from p. 117.) Longman, &c.

LETTER II. 1800. Selections from his own Correspondence with General Washing- Edinlurgh-University-Register Ofton. A tract. 8vo. London.

fice-St Giles's-- Roman Heads 1801. A calm Investigation of the Theatre-Dulse--Cleanliness. Circumstances that have led to the STR JOHN CARR is in raptures about

Edinburgh. It is a city peculiarsuggesting the Means of alleviating ly “ novel and romantic,”—“ grand that Evil, and of preventing the Re- and impressive,"'_“ sublime and excurrence of such a Calamity in future. traordinary.” It is not unlike ancient A tract. 8vo. London.

Athens: the castle resembles the acro1803. A Description of a Patent polis ; Arthur's Seat, Mons HymetHot-house, which operates chiefly by tus, (not certainly as producing hothe Heat of the Sun ; and other Sub. ney ;) and Leith, the pyræeus. The jects. London. 8vo.

prospect from Queen Street 6

surpasThe following are also of his com ses the view from Richmond Hill." position :

To hear all this praise from so farAn Account of the ancient Monu- famed a traveller as Sir John Carr, ments and Fortifications in the High- must be very gratifying to the inhalands of Scotland; read in the So- bitants of Auld Reikie. ciety of Antiquaries, 1777 and 1780. Sir John describes and charactere

On the Antiquity of Woollen Ma- izes all the principal public buildings. nufactures of England. Gent. Mag. The Royal Infirmary receives great Aug. 1778; and other papers in that praise : but the Surgeons, instead of work.

attending three years as assistants, three A Letter to J. Burnett, Esq. on the as full surgeons, and three more present State of Aberdeenshire, in re- consulting surgeons, should, he thinks, gard to provisions, 1783.

be six years in each of those departA Letter to Henry Laurens, Esq. ments; and this is perhaps one of the during his Confinement in the Tower. soundest opinions to be found in the Public Advertiser, Dec. 6. 1781. book. The new University buildings



« ZurückWeiter »