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our cause. It is mean to forget favours count of the exertions of Capt. West, of
to requite them with insult is an at. the Excellent, and his ship's company, rocious crime. He who commits them in assisting the Spaniards to defend against an allied nation offends against Rosas, and the castle of Trinity, against public peaee, endangers the public safe- the French in the month of November. ty, and reviles the national character; These services appear to have been in a crime so heinous shall not remain un. every respect meritorious and splendid, punished; the law and the Magistrates and to have prevented these places for shall justly and severely punish the of- a long time from falling into the hands fenders. J. A. S. DE MENDOZA.” of the enemy. The fortifications were
The police of Lisbon has issued a de- in bad repair, and the garrison not suffi. cree, ordering all Frenchmen who are ciently numerous to defend the works. not naturalized nor confined for crimi: Our gallant marines and their officers nal offences, to quit Lisbon in eight supplied every defect as far as it was days from the oth of February, They possible, and acted with an energy and are to retire to Caparica, Morsacem, and activity entitled to the highest praise. | Trifaria, and forbidden to carry on any The conduct of Lord Cochrane in parcorrespondence or intercourse, which is ticular is peculiarly splendid. We cannot absolutely necessary for their sub- not avoid laying the following letter of sistence, or the liquidation of their mer- Lord Collingwood, published in the cantile concerns. Violations of this de. same Gazette, and dated the 14th Decree by Frenchmen, or by Portugueze cember, before our readers : harbouring Frenchmen on their premia My letter of the ist inst. would in. ses, are to be rigorously punished. form you of the enemy having laid siege
We understand the British Govern- to the Castle of Rosas, and of the mea. ment has agreed to make a loan to the sures taken by the British ships in that Prince Regent of Portugal of the sum bay in aid of the Spaniards for its deof L. 600,000.
The mode of repay- fence. The Scout joined the squadron ment is to be by consignments of Bra. off Toulon on the 7th, and by her I re. zil commodities to Portugueze agents ceived further accounts from Captain here, and the produce, when converted Bennet, of the Fame, of the progress into money, is to be delivered over to the enemy was making against that imthe Treasury.
portant fortress. Captain Lord Coch.
session of Trinity Castle with great a.
bility and heroism; although the fort is On the 15th of January, a fleet of laid open by the breach in its works, he transports, consisting of about 40 sail, has sustained and repelled several ashaving on board the ist battalion 3d saults, having formed a sort of rampart Guards, Hon. Col. Stopford, the 87th within the breach with his ship's hamregt. (2d battalion) Major Grose, the mock cloths, awnings, &c. filled with 88th regt. Col. Duff, &c. in whole a. sand and rubbish. The zeal and ener. bout 7000 men, under the command of gy with which he has maintained that Major General Sherbrooke, sailed from fortress, excite the highest admiration. Spithead, under convoy of the Niobe His resources for every exigency have and Iris frigates, in order to take pos. no end. The Spanish Gov. of this castle session of Ceuta. On the 24th they is wounded, and on board the Meteor." encountered a violent storm in the Bay The dreadful storm of the 17th Ja. of Biscay, which entirely dispersed them. nuary has done considerable damage to Several of them returned to Portsmouth, the shipping. Two East Indiamen, the and others got into Corke, damaged. We Britannia and AdmiralGardner, were dri. have not heard of any being lost. They ven on the Goodwin Sands, and wrecked. have since nearly all of them assembled Great credit is due to the boatmen for at Corke, and sailed again for their des. their exertions in endeavouring to save tination on the 21st of February. the lives of the crews. The whole of
The London Gazette of February 4. them were saved, except seven of the contains dispatches from Lord. Colling". Britannia's, and three of the Admiral wood, dated on board the Ocean, off Gardner's men. Part of the cargoes have Toulon, December 1. It gives an ac. been saved, but the vessels are lost.
BOARD OF INQUIRY. Under Secretary of State, that Govern-
ment were extremely impatient for my
sailing. I also received a letter, previous Eighth day.-- Dec, 13.
to my leaving Portsmouth, from Lord The Court resumed its deliberations this Castlereagh, intimating a wish, before I morning at ten o'clock.
proceeded to the sourh of Portugal, that I The proceedings commenced by reading should touch at Oporto, or send some cona letter from Sir H. Dalrymple to Sir C. fidential agent there, to collect what infor, Cotton, stating the operations of the British mation I could upon the matters connected army up to the battle of Vimiera, and the with the service. Having experienced terms of the subsequent armistice and con- bafiling winds in the Channel, I went on vention.
board the Brazen sloop, and arrived at OSir A. Wellesley then came forward, and porto on the 16th of August, where I learnt stated, that, being at Brighton when he re- that Sir A. Wellesley, having been reinceived Sir D. Dundas's letter of the 10th forced by General Spencer's division, had instant, requiring him to deliver in a nar- debarked at Mondego bay. I proceeded rative of the operations of the army, and immediately on my voyage, and arrived at the orders and instructions given from the Mondego Bay on the 18th. It was my intime when he saw Sir Hurry Burrard on tention to have disembarked at that place, the 20th, to the period when he finally re- and to have sent Sir John Moore to the signed the command to that General on the Tagus with his division, with a view to 22d, the time was too short to draw up take the enemy in the rear, but I found a that narrative, and, consequently, he was variety of obstacles opposed to me. In the unable to comply with the wishes of the first place, Sir A. Wellesley had swept the Court; but he was ready to answer ver. country of every species of conveyance, and bally to any question that might be put to though the people were disposed to assist him, and to give every information in his the British arms, they had not the ability, power; observing, at the same time, that it Carriages we could find none, the streams rested with Sir Harry Burrard, as Com, were all dry, and with respect to provisions manding Officer at that period, to give the we should have been in a very precarious narrative the Court wished for, and he I made all possible inquiries after doubted not but it would be satisfactory the 150 mules, promised by the Bishop of and correct.
Oporto, but none had arrived, nor could Sir Harry Burrard then placed himself any account of their speedy arrival be beside the President, and read his narrative, gained. It was equally iniprudent at that in substance as follows:
time to have landed part of the reinforce. " Mr President, and my Lords and Gen. ments; for had Sir John Moore's brigade tlemen, In obedience to your commands - been disembarked, it would have taken attend the Court of Inquiry this day, and I time !o equip that brigade, with a view of have now the honour of submitting to youş marching into the interior, and would heconsideration a narrative of my proceedings sides have placed the columns at such a disand conduct, with respect to his Majesty's tance, that a want of co-operation must nearmy in Portugal. On the 15th of July, I cessarily have been felt. I therefore resolreceived a notification from Lieut.-Colonel ved on proceeding to some other point of Gordon, that I was to be employed as se. destination. On the 19th, we spoke a discond in command in an expedition deter- patch-boat, which informed us that Sir Armined on by bis Majesty's Government, thur Wellesley had had a smart action with and beyged I would immediately wait on the enemy on the 17th, and had sustained Lord Castlereagh. I waited on his Lord- some loss, but not adequate to that of the ship accordingly, and understood the expe- enemy. Having no cause to doubt the , dition was destined to act in Spain and truth of this information, I directed Sir Portugal, as circumstances should render John Moore to return, and land at Monde. necessary. On the 20th, I received a noti- go Bay, in order that he might be enabled fication from the Commander in Chief, that to support Sir A. Wellesley, should he be his Majesty had been graciously pleased to obliged to fall back, or to assist him to proappoint me second in Command under Sir secute further advantages. By the same Hew Dalrymple, and with that notification, boat I gained information that Peniche was I received a copy of my instructions, and a in the hands of the enemy, and that ic list of the Staff, and the amount of the ar- would be in practicable to land with safety my to be employed. On the 23d I recei- south of that fort.---(Sir Harry then de. ved my final orders from Lord Castlereagh; scribed the order in which he purposed on the 27th I embarked at Portsmouth; landing his troops.) --On the 20th ule. and on the 3tst sailed from that port, it when I was about to disembark, Sir Arthur having previously been stated to me by the Wellesley came off from the shore; and March 1809.
came to, name
when on board, in presence of Brigadier- thur's suggesting the propriety of the troops General Clinton, and others of the Staff, advancing, I answered, that I saw. no reason told me of the action of the 17th, and said for changing my first opinion, and that it it was his intention to advance next morna was better the army should wait the arri. ing. I was of opinion that it was not ex- val of reinforcements before they proposed pedient to adopt that intention, especially to advance. During the engagement, I as he had communicated to me the difficul. had observed the inability of the artillery ties the army laboured under, from the horses, and a want of celerity in their want of cavalry and artillery horses, and movements. I also observed large bodies the impracticability.of moving the army to of the enemy's cavalry moving in different any considerable distance from the victual directions, and a body of infantry to the left ling ships. The decision
which had not been engaged. These, and ly, that the army should halt, was a serious other circumstances, formed my determione, hut in my mind amply justified by the nation, and Generals Murray and Clinton considerations opposed to its advance. The said I had well determined. It also appearenemy greatly out-numbered the British in ed to me that the enemy's plan of attack cavalry, and the nearer they approached the was ill advised and ill supported. Had we defences surrounding Lisbon, the nearer been more advanced, we should have been were they to their resources.
In such a more exposed. I therefore thought it betstate of things, had the British army receiv- ter to halt and refresh the men, and to get ed a check, the disasters might have been the 'wounded on board the ships. Gen. incalculable. I therefore thought it most Ackland's brigade had been up all night, proper to desist from an advance till a and the rest of the army was under arms junction was formed with the remaining before daylight. Of these disadvantages part of the British army.--(Here Sir Har. the enemy might have profited had we ad, ry entered into a description of the relative vanced, as they knew the country, and strength of the several forts in the Tagus, were in possession of its resources; but the and inferred that, while the British army principal reasons were what he had already were engaged in reducing these forts, the stated, and the necessity of getting the enemy might have fought them under wounded off the field of battle. On the great advantage; and further, had Sir C.
22d, Sir A. Wellesley came to me from PeCotton been compelled to put to sea with niche, and informed me that Sir H. Dul. his feet, the impression upon the forts rymple had arrived. I went to the out. could have been very trifling, as the army posts, and found the French General Keller. had no heavy artillery or battering anımu. man was advancing with a flag of truce.pition. The surf too might have cut off of the transactions subsequent upon that, provisions.) Under all these circumstan- the Court, Sir Harry presumed, were alces, as I have before stated, I thought it ready in possession.” prudent that the army should halt, and I A string of qnestions were put by the felt great satisfaction that my brother offi. Court, and answered by Sir Harry Burrard, cers, whose talents and experience were un- which our limits will not permit us to de. questionable, concurred with me in the pro- tail; and, at their conclusion, priety of that opinion. On the morning of Lord Moira put the following questions the 21st I landed, and presently heard a fi. to Sir Harry Burrard: ring towards Vimiera. I was convinced Q. You have stated, as one of your rea. ihe enemy had anticipated the necessity of sons for not advancing, that the British the British arnay's advancing, by commen, troops had been long under arms, and were cing an attack themselves. I understood greatly fatigued. Is it not to be understood Sir Arthur Wellesley was on the left of the that the French troops had been an equal army, and I shortly after joined him on the time' under arms, and as fatigued with the heights. I had a few words of explanation action ?-A. I thought the troops required with him, and had such reason to be satis- refreshnient. The French troops, I should fied with the dispositions he had made, suppose, must have been under arms much that I directed him to go on, and complete earlier than the English, as they marched the business he had so successfully and so to the attack. happily begun. By thus directing him to Sir Harry Burrard then cook his seat at procced, ! imagined I was exercising one of' a table near Sir Hew. Dalrymple, and the the functions of a commander in Chief, and statement of Sir Arthur at the opening of I held myself responsible for the issue.-- the Court, and the narrative delivered by Soorr after the French gave way, and in Sir Harry, were read pro forma by the less than two hours they were every where Deputy. Judge Advocate, the Hon. Mr It pulsed. At this moment I was informed Ryder being absent. That no advantage could be expected from Gentleman, who officiated for the The l'ortugueze cavalry; and on Sir Ar. Judge Advocate, read a string of questions
which had been previously sent to Sir H. been induced to refuse Sir A. Wellesley Burrard ; and the latter read his answers, permission to proceed. They were, in subwhich chiefly tended to the same points stance, that he understood the whole of the which were dwelt upon in his narrative, enemy's force had not been engaged in the and in which he gave the same reasons for battle of the 21st, and that the extensive deciding that the army should not advance, lines which the British occupied were not which he had before detailed, namely, the favourable to any further advantages; that want of cavalry and the deficiency of artil- the centre of the British had been engaged lery horses.
an hour and a half; and that the enemy After Sir Harry Burrard concluded his possessed a large body of cavalry. He was narrative, he underwent an examination aware that his determination not to proupon questions suggested by Sir Arthur ceed was not likely to please a gallant arWellesley, as did Sir Arthur himself, toge. my in the moment of triumph; but under ther with Generals Spencer, Ferguson, and all the circumstances of the case, he conLord Burghersh, chiefly on the positions of ceived, that had he not done so, he should the French and British armies, and upon have been guilty of a gross dereliction of the propriety or in propriety of the move- duty. He lamented the absence of his ments suggested by Sir A. Wellesley after Staff to corroborate his opinion; declared the battle of the 31st, on the retreat of the that he acted from the best of his judgment, French ; in the course of which it was ale and admitted that the responsibility of the leged, that had the attack of the enemy business rested on him alone. been followed up, not a French soldier of Sir A. Wellesley rose, and said, “ Tho' the left wing would ever have reached Lis- I did, and still do differ from Sir H. Burbon, which measure had been urged very rard, with respect to the expediency of purstrongly by Sir Arthur, but counternianded suing the advantages gained over the enein the orders by Sir Harry Burrard, who my on the 21st, I hope I may be allowed directed that the British troops should to take this opportunity of declaring to the halt.
Court and the public, that I am convinced
he was only influenced by such motives as Ninth day.- Dec. 14.
an officer ought to feel in the discharge of Sir A. Wellesley underwent a long exa- his duty to his country.". mination by Sir Harry Burrard, of which Sir H. Burrard was then examined by nothing new or iinportant was the result. Sir H. Dalrymple ; in the course of which
Lord Moira then put to the three Gene examination, he distinctly allowed that the rals the following questions :--Could the convention had met with his approbation. French have crossed the Tagus after the At five o'clock the President adjourned 22d of August? How was this conclusion the Court, observing that the examination to be resisted, viz. that Gen. Junot thought of evidence had closed, and that their fupthe conditions of the convention more ad. ther proceedings would not be in public. vantageous to France than to protract the
REPORT TO THE KING. campaign in the manner in which it had been represented that it was in his power The Report and Opinion of the Board of to do?
Inquiry have been sent to his Majesty.-Sir H. Dalrymple, Sir H. Burrard, and The report contains a full abstract of the Sir A. Wellesley, concurred in replying to evidence, and is of great length, but the the first question, that in their opinion the opinion is stated to be as follows: French certainly had it in their power af- « On a consideration of all the circumter the 22d io cross the Tagus. They also stances, as set forth in this report, we nose concurred in answering to the last, that it humbly submit our opinion, that no further was impossible for them to conjecture the military proceeding is necessary on the submotiver by which Gen. Junot had been in- ject, because, howsoever some of us may fluenced in preferring the evacuation of Por. differ in our sentiments respecting the fietugal to a protracted compaign there. To ness of the convention, in the relative situthem the evacuation appeared advantageous ation of the two arnjes, it is our unanimous to the British interests.
declaration, that unquestionable zeal and Col. Torrens was re-examined by Sir A. firmness appear throughout to have been Wellesley and Sir H. Burrard. His testie exhibited by Lieut.-Generals Sir Hew Dalmony went to prove, that Sir Arthur had rymple, Sir Harry Burrard, and Sir Arthur represented to Sir Harry, in the strongest Wellesley, as well as that the order and terms, the expediency of pursuing the ad. gallantry of the rest of the officers and solvantages gained by the British on the 21st, diers, on every occasion during this expe. but in vain.
dition, have done honour to the troops, and Sir Harry Burrard briefly addressed the reflected lustre on your Majesty's arms. Court, stating the reasons by which he had It seenis that, upon this opinion being upon ?”
delivered to the Commander in Chief, his great advantages which had resulted, or Royal Highness found it was not so expli- were likely to result, from the former suc-. cit, upon the armistice and convention, as cessful operations of the British army in the the words of his Majesty's warrant appear. field, froin the considerable reinforcements ed to enjoin, and the Court was therefore which had joined it subsequent to the conordered to re-assemble, and subjoin their o- mencement of the negociation, from the pinion-" Whether under the relative situ3. cause in which the British army was ena tion of the two armies on the 22d of Aug. gaged being the cause of Portugal, which an Armistice was adviseable ; and if so, gave good reason to reckon upon the good whether the terms were such as ought to will, if not upon the active assistance, of be agreed upon ?"-And, in like manner, the majority of the inhabitants; and, also, their opinion--" Whether, under the rela: from the unusual readiness which, as it aptive situation of the two armies, subsequent pears tu me, was manifested by Gen, Junoc to the armistice, and after the whole of the to enter into negotiation, and by the French British force had been landed, a Conven- negotiator to accede to terms as they were tion was adviseable ; and if so, whether the proposed, and to such construction as Lieut. terms were such as ought to be agreed Gen. Sir Hew Dalrymple put upon them
in some instances, where they might have Upon these two questions being sepa- borne a difference of interpretation. I rately put to each member of the Court, it therefore think it probable, for the above appears that
reasons, that if less lavourable terms to the Gen. Sir D. Dundas,
French army had been insisted upon, they Gen. Lord Heathfield,
would have been acceded to. Gen. Craig, Were for the
PEMBROKE, Lieut. Gen. Lt.-Gen. Earl Pembroke, armistice. I feel less awkwardness in obeying the Lt.-Gen. Sir G. Nugent,
order to detail my sentiments on the naLt.-Gen. Nicholls,
ture of the convention, because I have alEarl Moira against the armistice. ready joined in the tribute of applause due
in other respects to the officers concerned. And, upon the second question, it ap- My opinion, therefore, is only opposed to
their's on a question of judgment, where Gen. Sir D. Dundas,
their talents are likely to have so much Gen. Lord Heathfield, Were for the
more weight, as to render the profession Gen: Craig,
of ny difference, even on that point, some. Lt.-Gen. Sir G. Nugent,
What painful. The duty is, however, imEarl Moira,
perious on me, not to disguise or qualify the Earl Pembroke,
deductions which I have made during this
convention. Lieut.-Gen. Nicholls,
investigation. The following are the reasons given by
An armistice simply might not have been the Officers who dissented from the niajo objectionable, because sir Hew Dalrymple, rity :
expecting hourly the arrival of Sir John
Moore's division, might see more advanMy reason for considering the armistice tage for himself in a short suspension of as advisable on the 22d of August was, be.
hostilities, than what the French could cause the enemy had been able to retire af
draw fronı it. But as the armistice involter the battle of the 21st, and take up a
ved, and in fact established the whole prinstrong defensive position.
ciple of the convention, I cannot separate OL. NICHOLLS, L. G.
it from ihe latter. I think, considering the great increase of Sir A. Wellesley has stated, that he conour' force from the first suspension of hosti- sidered his force, at the commencement of Jity to the definitive signing of the conven- the march from the Mondego river, as suftion, added to the defeat the enemy had ficient to drive the French from their posisuffered, Sir Hew Dalrymple was fully en- sions on the Tagus. That sorce is subse. titled to have insisted upon more favourable quently joined hy above 4000 British troops,
Ol. NickOLL3, L, G. under Generals Anstruther and Ackland. I approve of the armistice after a due The French make an attack with their consideration of the relative situations of whole disposeable strength, and are repulthe two armies on the evening of the 22d sed with heavy loss, tho' but a part of the August; but I cannot fully approve of the British army is brought into action. It is whole of the convention, after a due consi- cifficult to conceive that the prospects deration of the relacivesevation of the two which Sir A. Wellesley entertained couid armies at the time: because it does not ap. be unfavourably altered by these events, pear to me that, in the progress of the ne- even had not the certainty of speedy reingociation, sufficient stress was laid upon the forcements to the British army existed.