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only a single male, and to those pla- On the other hand, the course of the ces where manufactures are established. Danube to Vienna is a level country.
In Hungary and its dependencies, and presents no obstacle to the prothe regiments are raised on the prin- gress of an army, except several great ciples of the feudal system ; indepen- rivers, running from south to north, dent of the general insurrection which which fall into the Danube. Of these takes place in times of necessity. the most important now in the posses
The frontier regiments are formed sion of Austria, are the Inn, which diby a peculiar military constitution. vides Austria from Bavaria, and the They were established in a narrow Ems, which divides Austria itself indistrict 600 miles in length, stretching to two parts. There are besides the along the Turkish frontier from the Salza, which falls into the Inn ; the Adriatic towards the Dneister. The Trafen, and several others of inferior inhabitants of this district are of the note. In the possession of the French Greek religion, and augmented by a and Bavarians are now the Iser, which considerable number of emigrants from runs through the middle of Bavaria, the Turkish dominions, who are en- the Lech, which divides Bavaria from couraged and protected by the go- Suabia, and the Iller, which runs thro' vernment. Their whole population Suabia. The Austrians are said to amounts to near 1,000,000 souls, and have passed the Inn and entered Bafurnishes about 60,000 capable of varia ; so that by this time they may bearing arms. They hold their lands be masters of the course of the Iser, on the feudal tenure, paying only a and perhaps of that of the Lech. small quit-rent ; but charge them. Hungary is also in many parts moun. selves with guarding the frontier in tainous, though here too the course of time of peace, and acting against the the Danube is level, from Vienna to enemy in time of war: Under Maria Belgrade. It is also a very marshy Theresa they first obtained a peculiar country. Gallicia, like the rest of constitution, entirely military. The Poland, is a plain, abounding with country was divided into four govern- woods and marshes. ments, dependent on the supreme Austria has for some time past been council of war;
government was weak in fortresses, in consequence of subdivided into a certain number of her frontiers having been driven in districts, and each district supplied its during her unfortunate wars with regiment. These troops are princi- France. She has been very actively pally light infantry, and known under employed however in repairing them. the name of Croats, Pandours, and Brannau, the key of her hereditary Warasdiners.
dominions on the side of Bavaria, has, The Austrian territory is in gene- it is said, been dismantled, and her ral possessed of great natural strength. chief attention directed to Ens, a town Bohemia is declared by Frederick of situated at the junction of the two Prussia to be the most difficult coun- great roads to Vienna, leading from try in Europe to make war in. It a- Passau and Saltzburgh. Lintz is al- .. bounds in every kind of obstacle to the so a place of strength. Vienna has progress of an army; mountains, de- stood repeated sieges from the Turks, files, woods, morasses; the people are but on account of the
great extension zealously loyal, and throw every dif- of the suburbs, its defence was not ficulty they can in the way of an in: attempted in the last French war. vader. Carinthia, Carniola, and in Prague in Bohemia is well fortified, general, all the southern part of the but in a bad situation, being comcircle of Austria, is also completely manded on all sides, and requires an à country of mountains and defiles, army to garrisori it. Tabor, Budweis,
Frauenberg, and Neuhans, are for: To the above view of the domi. tresses, but not of great strength. nions of Austria, it may be interest Hungary, being the theatre of the ing to add a sketch of the countries Turkish wars, contains a number of immediately adjoining to them, which fortresses. Comorn, which commands. she will endeavour to make the seat the entrance into it from Austria, is of war. Of these the most important naturally strong, and has recently been is Bavaria, which the Austrians are fortified with great labour. Brinn and said already to have entered. The Olmutz in Moraiva are well forti- northern part of Bavaria is level and fied.
fertile ; but the southern, bordering • The following is Mr. Cox's esti- on the Tyrol, becomes mountainous, mate of the Autrian revenues :
full of lakes and forests. There are
Florins.) two roads through this country lead. Arcbduchy of Austria, 18,000,000 ing. to Vienna; the one through the Styria,
northern part, following the course of Carinthia,
2,000,000 the Danube, by Ratisbon, Straubing, Carniola, includingilie Friuli, 3,500,000 Boheinia,
and Passau ; the other through the Moravia and Silesia, : 6,000,000
southern part by Munich and SaltzGallicia, Lodomiria, and Bu.
burgh. The former was taken by covina,
the confederates in the war of 1741 ; Hungary, including Sclavo.
but the latter has been taken by the nia, Cruatia, and the Ban.
French both in 1800 and 1805; and nat of Temeswar, 19,000,000 it is by it that the Austrians are 'adTransylvania,
vancing. The two roads meet at Ens. 1
Immediately south of Bavaria is the
Tyrol, long the bulwark of the House The Prince of Lichtenstein now of Austria, from the strength of the calculates it at 146,000,000. Of country, and attachment of the people. these 28 millions are for the support A grand object of her policy will of the Court, and 48 for that of the doubtless be to penetrate into this counarmy. A florin is 1-11th of a pound try; which, however, she cannot do, sterling ; so that Mr Cox's calcula- till, by advancing in Bavaria, she has tion amounts to something less than secured herself from being taken in seven millions sterling, while that of flank. the Prince of Lichtenstein exceeds There are two roads by which she thirteen millions. Though the Au- may penetrate into Italy; one from strian government have inade great the head of the Adriatic, through the exertions to improve their finances, it Venetian states; the other through seems difficult to believe that both the Tyrol, directly into Milan. these calculations should be correct. While these countries border upon
The principal sources of the Au Austria, Bohemia is bordered by strian revenue are stated by Mr Coxe Franconia and Saxony. The former, to be the territorial impost for the main- since the cession of Anpsach and Baytenance of the army, called contribu- reuth, is entirely French. The cention; stamps ; tax on houses ; lotter- tre is level, but the frontier towards ies; monopoly of salt, tobacco, and Bohemia, like that country itself, is spuff; royal demesnes, mines, customs, rough and mountainous. Saxony, unand tolls on roads and rivers ; pos. less where it immediately borders on tage of letters ; posts; tax on places Bohemia is a level country, and of and pensions.
Discourse by LORD MINTO, Governor will, I am persuaded, yield to the re
General of BENGAL, to the Members Mexion, that the same acute, informed, of the College of Fort-WILLIAM. upright, and delicate mind, is enlisted
Delivered 2d March 1808. in the service of the highest and dearFrom Calcutta Extraordinary Gazette of 3d
est interests of society.
pass, now, to the notice of those
accessions to the literature of the East, (Concluded from our last, p. 195.) which have been already made, and of Gentlemen of the College of Fort- immediate connexion with the college
those which are in progress, either in WILLIAM:
of Fort William, or associated to it, IF F I have been silent, hitherto, on by a similarity of liberal tastes anel
the acknowledged merits of the Pro- pursuits in their authors. fessors and other Officers of the Col- A printing press has been establishlege, it is because I feel, that the ex- ed by learned Hindoos, furnished with cellence of the scholar is the best complete founts of improved Nagree praise of the master; and that the fa- types of different sizes, for the printvourable sentiments I have been so ing of books in the Sanscrit language. happy as to express, concerning the This press has been encouraged by the general and increasing proficiency of College to undertake an edition of the students, conveyed in the least ques- best Sanscrit dictionaries, and a comtionable, and perhaps the most accept- pilation of the Sanscrit rules of Gramable form, the panegyric of the Pre- The first of these works is comceptor. i have great satisfaction, how- pleted, and with the second, which is ever, in saying distinctly, that the in considerable forwardness, will form skill, assiduity, and learning of the a valuable collection of Sanscrit philoProfessors and their coadjutors, have logy. It may be hoped that the innever been more conspicuous than in troduction of the art of printing among the present year.
the Hindoos, which has been thus beI feel myself, indeed, responsible for gun by the institution of a Sanscrit having, in one instance, withdrawn press, will promote the general diffufrom the College, one of its most dis- sion of knowledge arnong this numetinguished and efficient members.- rous and very ancient people ; at the But if I have despoiled one temple of same time that it becomes the means its ornaments, it has been for the deco- of preserving the classic remains of ration and service of another. If the their literature and sciences. familiar and universal knowledge of The compilation of an Alphabetical Dr Leyden in the numerous languages Sanscrit Dictionary, from the princiof the East, and yet much more, if his pal vocabularies of the language, and profound researches into the science of other authorities, had been undertaken Eastern philology be considered, we soon after the institution of the Colshould ascribe such extensive erudition lege, by learned natives, employed for and acquirements to the severe labour that purpose. The work, which comof a long life ; while in reality, their prizes the etymology as well as intersudden and rapid attainment has re- pretation of each term, together with sembled rather the gift of tongues, or examples from classical writers, has some peculiar privilege of his own, been lately completed, and a copy has than the slow process and long vigils been deposited in the Library of the of human study. The regrets of learn- College ing, however, which follow the trans- A dictionary, Sanscrit and English, fer of Dr Leyden to other functions, consisting of the text of the celebrated April 1809.
Amera Cosha, with a translation and shee, in the Hindoostanee department notes, the value of which will be un- of the College, having compiled and derstood, when I say, that they are arranged, in the Hindoostanee lanthe work of Mr Colebrooke, late Pre- guage, a work on the History and sident of the College Council, has been Geography of India, has been encoulong in the Press. The work is now raged by the College to print it for completed, and may be expected to be publication. The dissemination, by published in a few months.
means of the press, of works composed A plan of a Comparative Vocabu- by Nativęs eminent for their knowlary of Indian languages, in imitation ledge and practical skill in this diaof that which was executed under the lect, must gradually polish, and fix a orders of the Empress Catherine, for standard of excellence in a language, the provinces composing the Russian which, though long employed as an Empire, was proposed in the prece- elegant medium of colloquial interding year, by Sir James Macintosh, course, and as the vehicle of poetical who adorns and improves the short lei- imagery, has hitherto been little used sure of a laborious station, with learn- for prose composition. ing and the promotion of learning.– The College Council, and the AsiaHis proposal was founded on a very tic Society, who formerly resolved just view of the value and importance to support Mr Carey and his assistants of the information which such a com- in a translation of the Rámayán, have parison may be expected to afford. A since determined to extend a similar more extensive plan for the compila- support to the publication, by the same tion of Grammars and Dictionaries of persons, of the text book of one of the Așiatic languages had been also sug: systems of Hindoo philosophy, engested by Dr Leyden, who had it in titled Sánc'hyá. This will constitute contemplation to undertake himself a further step towards the attainment the task of conducting the compila- of the interesting object of making tion. This plan being, however, de- known, by means of literal versions, ferred, the Council of the College a
those works in the ancient language of dopted a different arrangement, with India, which are held in great estimathe view of furnishing the information tion by the Hindoos themselves. sought by Sir James Macintosh, and A Dictionary of the Marhatta lanat the same time forming a useful col- guage, compiled by Mr Carey, and lection of Vocabularies of all provin- printed by him in the Marhatta chacial languages and dialects of India. racter, has been some time in the press. For this purpose, a Vocabulary in It is a work which has been long Persian and Hindoostanee, and ano- wanted, and the publication of this, ther in Sanscrit and Bengalee, have with the grammar before prepared by been prepared, and will be printed and Mr Carey, furnishing the means of circulated, for the purpose of being acquiring a very useful language, will filled up by competent persons with be found of essential benefit, by the the corresponding terms in other lan- junior servants of the Company, on guages in use in India. The printed the establishments of Fort St George Vocabularies will be soon completed : and Bombay. and as it cannot be doubted, that as- We are indebted to Mr H. P. For. şistance will be rendered by every ster, for two works of great labour, gentleman, whose local situation en learning, and utility in Sanscrit Philo. ables him to forward this useful under- logy. taking, the successful issue of it may The first, of which about 400 pages be confidently anticipated.
are already printed, contains 1. An Meer Sheer Vlee, the head Moon- essay on Sanscrit Grammar, with ta
bles of inflections, 2. A dissertation scale of Oriental studies at the College on Sanscrit roots. 3. A translation of of Fort William, other languages unthe Magdabodha, a celebrated treatise doubtedly have deserved a preference on Sanscrit Grammar, in which the to its immediate support and patronenigmatical expressions of the original age, yet I cannot think either of those are fully illustrated, and the rules ex- I have mentioned entirely devoid of emplified. Mr Forster's second work, interest ; in the first place, as branches which is nearly ready for the press of the general and liberal pursuit of consists of a Dictionary in the San- Eastern learning which we profess; . scrit and Bengalee Languages. The and in the next place, as bearing eiwords are arranged alphabetically, ther à présent and immediate, or in with a translation into English. The the many chances of human vicissietymologies are pointed out, and where tude, a prospective, and, perhaps, not necessary, confirmed and illustrated by remote affinity to our affairs. Under examples.
these impressions, I have not deemed Mr Francis Gladwin has contribu-, it wholly foreign to the occasion, that ted to the stock of Indian Philology, I should notice any progress that may a Dictionary of Persian, Hindoostanee, have been made in the cultivation of and English, in three parts, composing these tongu three octavo volumes. The first part I shall begin with the Affghan, contains words in familiar use, inclu- which is spoken as well in Rohilkund, ding Synonyma. The second, Arabic and all the Affghan districts in our and Persian words that occur chiefly possession, as in Affghanistan proper. in books; compound and nietaphori- The first steps, in facilitating an accal allusions. The third, supplies In. Čess to that language, were made, I dexes to the different languages. understand, by Emir Mahummed, a
In this enumeration, I must not native of Peshawer in Affghanistan, omit a work of Mirza Kazim Ali Ju- who at the instance of Dr Hunter, an, entitled, an Historical Account of formed a Vocabulary of this language, the Bhamini Dynasty of the Dekhan, accompanied by translationsinto Pooshbeing nearly a translation into Hin- ta, of a few short tales, in prose. doostanee of that portion of Ferishta's The field, however, did not long rePersie history.
main in his single occupation. He There are two languages which, al- was joined by a zealous Orientalist of though included within the compre- our own country, who, invited by hensive scheme of Oriental study em- these fịrst specimens of Affghan pro- braced by the College of Fort Wil- duce, was tempted into this new proliam at an earlier period of the institu- vince of Philology. The fruits of tion, are not provided for in the modi- this association were, the extension of fied plan of instruction to which the Emir Mahummed's vocabulary into a College is now restricted. Both lan- considerable dictionary ; an essay in guages, however, are spoken within Affghan grammar; and a more finish the Company's possessions, and one of cd version of the prose compositions. them occupies many regions scattered The progress did not stop here. over a great space, which is not only The interest of the Affghans, awakenthe seat of an active and extensive ed to the honour of their language, commerce, but the theatre often of by the curiosity and exertion of stranother important and interesting trans- gers; and Mohubbut Khan, a chief. actions.
tain of Rohilkund, a learned man, and The languages to which I allude son of the celebrated Hafiz Ramut, are the Malay, and the Affglian or roused by the researches of Colonel Pooshta. Although on the present Collins concerning the Affghan com