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of the real fermenting matter, as five mon life, that, if we did not know the or six of the liquid,) but also retaining, real cause, we might be apt to say, that for a much a longer time, the power such an egregious departure could to produce the process of fermentation. only be produced by a liberal use, and If properly secured from moisture, in a repeated application of the distillers' order to prevent the putrefactive fer- staple manufacture, or by downright mentation taking place, it will keep insanity. for years, without losing any of its vir- It is an observation which cannot tue : and simply by adding to this be disputed, that self interest governs powder as much fresh wort as will mankind: those, therefore, who volunreduce it to the consistency of com- tarily act in opposition to their intermon yeast, does it become fit for all est in general, do so through ignothe purposes of the distiller : yet rance. In justice, therefore, to this such is their determination against the class of men whom I have just menuse of this article, that it is with the tioned, I shall point out the fallacy of greatest reluctance they have recourse an argument, by which, as I have been to it, when no other can be had ; and informed, theirideas of this matter have even then sometimes maintain a hard chiefly been governed, and to this same struggle to go on without it, sustain
error must the prejudice which forms ing considerable losses in their busi- the present subject of animadversion ness, from the imperfect attenuation of be attributed. their wash, and the irregularmanner “ It is well known,” say these men, in which the process of fermentation “ that fixed air is the principal constiis carried on : losses and irregularities, tuent of common yeast, being almost which could not take place, were the wholly composed of that fluid in a conuse of this article as liberally introdu- crete state, and heat or fire, it is known, ced, and an acquaintance with its pe- in a most powerful manner disengages culiarities cultivated with such atten- and disperses all aerial substances extion as the interest of the distillers in posed to its influence: now, in deprithis country demands. They ought by ving the liquid yeast of the aqueous parthis time to be sufficiently convinced ticles, it is impossible to prevent the of the necessity there is for having a escape of the fixed air; and particularly substitute for common yeast, and, one when the concentration is nearly comshould think, should also know that pleted, that aerial fluid must be disen. this necessity will continue, while the gaged in very great abundance ; conyeast market continues at London; sequently the yeast, now concentrated for the wind will always continue to be to a powder, must be much inferior to changeable, and the sea to be occa- what it was previous to its being subsionally tempestuous, of course they mitted to this operation.” must be often disappointed of their But from what authority is the asexpected supply. The necessity of a sertion made that yeast is almost whol. substitute for common yeast, therefore, ly composed of fixed air, or carbonic is not obviated, even should the distil- acid. Lavoisier, the most correct of ler boldly resolve to remain ignorant all modern chemists in analytical operof his true interest, and be determined ations, in a very ingenious manner, 2to exclude from his distillery the nalysed this substance; but his account best succedaneum which has ever been of the constituents of yeast by no means discovered.
corresponds with that given by our A resolution steadily maintained in modern distillers ; on the contrary, he opposition to interest, is so contrary shews, that carbonic acid, or fixed air, to the principles of human nature, and forms but a small part in the composiso different from the maxims of com- tion of yeast; the carbonic acid, how
ever, is disengaged, in very great medicine which it affords; but it serves abundance, in the process of fermenta- for a number of other beneficial purtion, and it is, no doubt, from having poses in the countries where it grows. observed this circumstance, that the In the East Indies, aloes are employabove assertion is made regarding the ed as a varnish to preserve wood from formation of yeast. But, granting worms and other insects; and skins that yeast were chiefly composed of and even living animals are anointed carbonic acid, what proof is there that with it for the same reason. The hait must be deprived of that chief in- voc committed by the white ants in gredient, by the moderate degree of India first suggested the trial of" aloe heat to which it may be exposed in juice, to protect wood from them; for the operations of evaporation and con- which purpose the juice is either used centration? For example, the carbonate as extracted, or in solution by some of lime is a substance almost entirely solvent. Aloes have also been found composed of the carbonic acid, yet it effectual in preserving ships from the requires a temperature equal to red ravages of the worm, and the adhesion heat, to disengage the aerial fluid ; of barnacles. The ship's bottom, for and, in common pit coal, hydrogen this purpose, is smeared with a comgas is a principal constituent, and is position of hepatic aloes, turpentine, much more volatile than carbonic acid; tallow, and white lead. In proof of yet the coal must be burnt, or other- the efficacy of this method, two plank wise exposed to a very high tempera- of equal thickness, and cut from the ture, in order to expel the hydrogen same tree, were placed under water, gas.
one in its natural state and the other These anticipations, therefore, re- smeared with the composition; when, garding the inferiority of yeast pow- on taking them up after being immerder, are obviously entirely groundless. sed eight months, the latter was found Let the distillers, then, in the first in- to be as perfect as at first, while the stance, only bestow some little atten- former was entirely penetrated by intion, in order to acquaint themselves sects, and in a state of absolute rottenwith the most proper manner of
ap- ness. An aquatic solution of hepatic plying this succedaneum, and they will aloes preserves young plants from der find a sufficient recompence in having struction by insects, and also dead atheir liquors regularly fermented, and nimals and vegetables from putrefaçproperly attenuated, effects so much tion; which renders it of great use in wished to be obtained by every intelli- the cabinets of naturalists. The spigent distiller. When once they have situous extract is best for the purpose, resolved to be at this little trouble, though in this respect it is inferior to their purpose is half effected, and that of cantharides, prepared by infuthereafter they will neither feel the sing two grains in one ounce of spirits, want, nor suffer the loss, which at pre- which has been found to be so effecsent are so often occasioned by a scar- tual in the extirpation of bugs. Pærn city of liquid yeast.
ner asserts, that a simple decoction of aloes communicates a fine brown co. lour to wool. Fabroni, of Florence,
has extracted a beautiful violet colour, Memoirs of the Progress of MANU- which resists the acids and alkalis, from
FACTORES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, the juice of the fresh leaves of the aand the FINE ARTS.
loe exposed to the air by degrees.
The liquid first becomes red, and at FEW persons
in this country know the end of a certain period turns to a any other use of the aloe than the beautiful purple violet, which adheres April 1809.
to silk by simple immersion, without in order to divide the particles, may the aid of acids.
be purified of its oily particles, and deRichard Walker, Esq. of Oxford, prived of its empyreumatic smell, has proposed an alteration in the scale when sublimed with a small quantiof the thermometer, which suggested ty of potash. The process by which itself to him during a long course of this effect is produced, is described experiments, and which has been a- as follows: Two drachms of camdopted by himself and his friends from phor, with considerable empyreumathe persuasion of its being founded on tic smell, and dirty, were mixed with the truest principles.-" The two fixed one of olive oil, and eight of sand ; afpoints, the freezing and boiling points ter which twenty grains of pure potof water as they have hitherto been, ash were added and heat applied ; but will (he observes) probably never fail though it was greater than is necessato be continued, as being perfectly ry for its sublimation, the product was sufficient for the accurate adjustment perfectly free from empyruematic of thermometers. The commence- smell, and a little whiter than it genement of the scale, and the number of rally is. The substitution of linseed oil divisions, only appear to claim atten- produced no alteration in the product, tion. With respect to the first, since The subcarbonate does not answer the neither the extremes of hoat or cold purpose, because in that state the afare likely to be ascertained, the hope finity of potash for oils is less than of fixing 0 at either of these may be when entirely deprived of carbonic 4entirely relinquished, and it reinains cid. to fix it at the fittest intermediate point. Here I propose the following mode of graduation : Having ascertained that the temperature of 62° of Original Letter from SWIFT to Dr Fahrenheit is the temperature at which
JENNY, at his house in ARMAGH*. the human body in health is conscious From Barrett's Essay on the earlier part of of no inconvenience from heat or cold,
the Life of Swift. and that a deviation from that point
Dublin, June 8. 1732. of only one or two degrees, above or
SIR, below, actually produces that effect under ordinary circumstances, I fixed IT is true, that some weeks ago a
manuscript paper of verses my zero or Othere. I adopted the handed about this town, and afterdivisions of Fahrenheit, considering wards printed. The subject was my
, those of Reaumur, the centigrades, &c.
great as too few, and decimal divisions unnecessary. Hence it will follow that O being placed at 62° of Fahrenheit, * Where Dr Jenny, it is believed, 150° will be the boiling, and minus was Rector. He resided in the neigh, 30°, the freezing point of water, and bourhood of Sir Arthur Acheson, and is all other points on Fahrenheit's scale tun's Bawn. See Swift's Works, 1808,
introduced into Swift's poem on Hamilmay be reduced to this, by subtract- vol. xvii. p. go. This perfectly characing 62 for any degree above 0 of Fah- teristic Letter, which has been among renheit, and adding 62 for any de- the desiderata of ail former editions, is gree below 0. For ordinary meteoro- now first printed by the favour of Lord logical purposes, a scale of this kind Viscount Cremorne, in whose family it extending to 65° above, and as many been, many years ago, noticed by Dr
has been preserved. The letter bad below 0, will be sufficient.”
Thomas Campbell, an Irish clergyman, It has been found that camphor in his Philosophical Survey of the South mixed with different fixed oils and sand, of Ireland." 'N.
great ingratitude and breach of hos- persons and proceedings. As to Iren pitality in publishing a copy of ver- land, where I lived very little before ses t, called HAMILTON'S BAWN.- the Queen's death, and ever since in The writer hath likewise taken severe perfect retirement, I remember to notice of some other verses published have published nothing but what is many years ago by the indiscretion of called the Drapier's Letters, and a friend, to whom they were sent in a some few other trifles relating to the letter. It was called a JOURNAL, and affairs of this miserable and ruined writ at Mr Rochfort's $; and the con- kingdom. What other things fell sequences drawn from both by this from me, (chiefly in verse,) were only late writer is, that the better I am u- amusements in hours of sickness or sed in any family, the more I abuse leisure, or in private families, to dithem; with other reflections that vert ourselves and some neighbours, must follow from such a principle. I but were never intended for public was originally as unwilling to be li- view; which is plain from the subjects, belled as the nicest man can be, but and the careless way of handling having been used to such treatment them : neither, indeed, can it answer ever since I unhappily began to be the true ends of vanity or desire of known, I am now grown hardened; and praise, to let the world see such little while the friends I have left will con- sallies of fancy or humour, because tinue to use me with any kindness, I if they be ill or indifferently performshall need but a small degree of phi- ed, (which must often be the case,) losophy to bear me up against those the loss of reputation is certain; and who are pleased to be my enemies on however well executed, after a week's the score of party-zeal, and the hopes vogue, they are utterly forgot. I of turning that zeal to account. One know not how I come to be led so thing, I confess, would still touch me far from the subject of your letter.
. to the quick; I mean if any person I confess there were some few persons of true genius would employ his pen who made random conjectures that gainst me; but if I am not very par- you might possibly be concerned in tial to myself, I cannot remember, the paper you hint at, but they were that among at least two thousand pa
such who knew very little of you or pers, full of groundless reflections me; for others, who were better acagainst me, hundreds of which I have quainted with us both, have always seen, and heard of more, I ever saw cleared you, because they did not any one production that the meanest look upon that paper any way equal writer could have cause to be proud to your known good sense and canof; for which I can assign a very na- dour, or talent of writing. And as tural reason; that during the whole to myself, I had further conviction, busy time of my life, the men of wit because I knew how well you were (in England) were all my particular acquainted with the whole history and friends, although many of them dif- occasion of writing those verses on the fered from me in opinions of public Barrack; how well pleased the mas
ter and lady of the family were with it;
had read it more than once; + These verses were written in 1729. that it was no secret to any neighbour, See them in vol. xvii. p. 85. See also, nor any reserve but that against giving in vol. xvi. p. 444, the Dean's Poem in 1928,“ On cutting down the old Thorn dents that reserve was broken by grant
a copy. You know well by what inci. at Market hill." N.
1 At Gaulstown, in the county of ing a copy to a great person, and from Westmeath, in the year 1721. See vol. thence how it fell into other hands, xvi, pp. 251-2, 182. N.
and so came (as it is the constant case)
his own way.
to be published, and is now forgot. I that the whole dozen should be pub. confess my own conjectures about this lished if I would not let him alone. late libel against me lay towards ano- This was a little hard upon me, who ther gentleman, who, I am informed, had never one single moment in my hath since cleared himself, I mean Dr life the least inclination to enter the Tisdall* ; but that suspicion was first lists with him, at those or any other taught me by others; and yet I weapons whatsoever, any more than I know very well, that for at least fif. would venture to sit four hours. disputeen years past, he hath been often en- ting with him any point of controversy. gaged in a kind of flirting war of sa- I confess, this keenness of the Doctor tiric burlesque verse with certain wags in determining, whenever he was atboth in town and country, who, it tacked, to fix on me for his adversary, seems, were provoked with his faculty inclined me to conceive that he might of jibing, and used to answer him in have probably writ this last paper,
and Yet I have been as: other people had the same thought; sured, that in these coinbats he was but I hear he hath utterly denied it generally mistaken in his adversaries, and I believe him ; for I am confident falling foul upon many persons who he is an honest man, but unhappily never dipt a pen either for or against misled through the whole course of him; and I think you, among others, his life, by mistaking his talent, which had some marks of his favour. But, he hath, against nature, applied to wit, as to me, who, I solemnly profess, was and raillery, and rhyming : besides always entirely innocent, during the which, his incurable absence of mind, whole time that his pen and tongue on all occasions, and in all companies, took this unhappy turn, as well as be- hath led him into ten thousand errors, fore and since, I could never be one especially of that kind, which are mormonth at peace for his wit ; what- tal to all agreeable or improving conever was writ to ridicule him was laid versation, and which hath put him at my door, and only by himself; upon such a foot with every friend, with a further declaration, much tó that I heartily lament the situation hé my honour, that he knew my stile, is in. would trouble himself to inquire no I intreat your pardon for the length farther; and, using my surname, said, and insignificancy of this letter, but I was his man. Some of his perform- my solitary way of life is apt to make ances I have seen, and have heard of me talkative upon paper. I desire more, besides the great number he you would believe, first, that I have kept in petto; so that five or six gentle- so frequently been libelled, that my men have often and very lately assured curiosity to know the authors is quite me, that in one evening sitting he has extinct, though that of some friends is produced a dozen of his libels wholly not; secondly, that I am not hasty in against me ; desiring I might be told judging men's stile, or matter, or maof it, and assuring those gentlemen lice. I can venture to say, that
thing is not written by such a person,
because it is much below his good * To this gentleman Dr Swift addres. sense ; and to look among the herd of sed a letter, April 20. 1704, on the sub- dunces is endless. As to yourself, I ject of his addresses to Mrs Johnson; hope you will be my witness, that I assuring him very candidly, that he had have always treated you with particuhimself never seen any other lady lar distinction ; and if we differ in opiwhose conversation he entirely valued; nions relating to public proceedings, it
1 and freely giving consent to her mar. rying' Dr Tisdall. See vol. x. pp. 33,
is for very good reasons : you are an 41. N.
expectant from the world and from