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power ; I have long done with both; The columns vary, in imperfect having been an original offender against forms, from the trihedral to the hepall principles set up since the death of taedral: some diminish towards their the Queen, I could not think it worth points, and end in obtuse faces; others, my while to quit my old ones *, and on the contrary, preserve an equal dimust have done it with an ill'
grace, ameter. Many of them are scattered though honour and conscience had in masses, or insulated, and of various been out of the question. Whoever dimensions. The largest which I saw really believes that things are well, is on the Kschoes, was 87 feet in height many ways happy; he is pleased with and 32 in diameter. When these the world, (as I was formerly,) and columnar-formed rocks constitute the the world with him ; his merit is al. summit of the ridge, their direction is lowed, and favour will certainly fol- perfectly perpendicular ; as ex. gr. the low ; which I heartily wish you ; only Crown Mountain, north of Steppan desiring, that in what appears to my Zminda ; but if they are in large maseyes a very dirty road, you would pick ses, or rise insulated above the mounout the cleanest stages you can; and tains, they incline westward under an believe me to be, with much esteem, angle of 19o. SIR,
The substance of which they are Your obedient bumble rervant, composed is a coarse basalt, contain
J. S. ing blackish-green schoerl; and where
ever they have been rent by the cold of the accumulated ice, or by some
other power, the fracture appears unMineralogical View of Mount dulated. When the columns project CAUCASUS.
beyond the top of the ridge, they are
separated, and connected by a basis of From Wilkinson's Description of Mount
compact, dark yellowish - grey schisCaucasus.
tus, of metallic splendour, and smooth I BEGIN with its general physiogno- tion de la touch, but in some places exfoobserver, when he approaches Cauca- interstices and fissures, and strongly sus, or after he has ascended it. adheres to the rough basalt. But as
At the highest summit, particularly soon as this schistus begins to sink inon the western side, we commonly find to large, rough masses, it changes coa coarse kind of rock, interspersed with lour, becomes of a brilliant black, and grey and black spots. In some parts, indurated to a great degree. this continues to a great distance : in It is only on the S.S.E. side of others, the masses are more accumu- Caucasus that this substance is attachlated and detached, and have a co-ed to the basaltic summit, which, after lumnar-form cohesion. Single co
a fall of 229 feet, lays on the coarse, lumns, likewise, project high above grey rock: but to the S. E. and the flat back of the ridge, and are ge
E. it is incumbent on granite, it is nerally covered with snow, or clouds. even visible at the foot of the moun.
tains, and forms there peculiar rocks
of some height. * When he quitted the Whigs, he I saw, in the island of Paros, a si. thought it worth while to quit still oider principles. See his Letter to Stella; asbestiform schistus, containing rough
milar dark yellowish-grey, micaceous, Sept. 9, 1720, where he mentions Lord Godolphin's receiving him coldly, and garnets, incumbent on granite, and says, he will make him sorry for it. laying under marble. Vol. xiv. p. 220. N.
Besides the uncommon hardness of
the schistus, it is strongly impregnated species of all Caucasus, but in the sewith yellow mica : cubes of marcasite quel I shall bring proofs to the conare also found in great abundance, in 'trary; and I think I may venture to the lower soft strata, partly uncovered, assert, that even the origin of this gra. and partly in spathose quarz. Hence, nite was the work of an earlier, not in fine, clear weather, the mountaineerless strong operating, power of nature, sees his black mountains glittering underlaid by another species of stone like gold; and often bitterly laments, still to be met with in the mountains. that he does not understand the art of Most of the fissures of the compact reaping those fruits which his country granite are filled with the finest white apparently offers.
quarz; and the largest and hollowest It appears as if this schistus had co- contain beautiful crystals, whose bavered formerly the whole south-eastern ses generally adhere to the upper side, surface of Caucasus ; for I have seen it so that their points are free, and laying on different parts of the princi- turned downwards more or less perpal mountains, and filling up the lar- pendicularly. The fissures also are gest clefts. The uppermost beds are commonly full of an unctuous yellow very hard, yet it is always found in ochre, for the granite every where is larger or smaller fragments; but when moistened by the dropping of the wait fills up the lower clefts, it is softer, ter. The clearest and most beautiful and exfoliates into plates, or flakes, crystals are found in the rents or infrom the thickness of some ieet down terstices of the highest columnar-formto an inch. Plates, from one to two ed rocks, under the snow ; and in suminches thick, are used by the civilized mer they often fall down with frag. mountaineers for the purpose of bak- ments of stone and ice. I have seen ing their bread; but if they incau- some perfectly black, others hyacintiously heat them red hot, the plates thine, but in general they are white. fly into innumerable pieces, frequently Their thickness is from two lines, to to the injury of the by-standers.--two, four, and six inches; the greatest When they find any long round pieces length was rather more than ten inin the streams or rivers, they employ ches. them as pestles, but the softer kind However, I have been assured, that serves the gold and silver smiths for a hyacinthine crystal, completely třanstouchstones.
parent, preserved in the church at We find another kind of stone, that Steppand-Zminda, is eighteen inches contains neither streaks nor stratifica- in diameter, and 27 in length. Fretion, but only a separation of its com- quently, on the southern side of the ponent parts. It is generally a grey, mountains, masses of different kinds of or white and brown speckled, smooth earth and stones are incumbent on the granite, undulated on the exterior sur- above-mentioned granite. They apface; but in many places it occurs of pear partly under the form of a bluedifferent degrees of hardness, and bril. ish white, or dark red schistus, and liancy of colours. Granite, in some partly of a brown, basaltic, columnarlower parts, certainly constitutes the formed granite. summit of Caucasus, but it does not All the preceding substances constirun deep; though it should seem as if tute the shell
, or exterior stratum, of the middle mountains were really in- the primitive chain of Caucasus. The cumbent on it, for it frequently appears outer course of mountains are of anobetween them, and but seldom in the ther composition. Notwithstanding promontories. We might immediately their great elevation, they bear marks conclude, with a certain degree of rea- of a more recent origin, and show that son, that granite was the most ancient they were produced by other powers
which partly destroyed the primitive and the fertility, according to the difrange.
ference of situation, is abundant, at On the western side, there is only least, there is no where real want; on soil sufficient to produce different spe- that account, they are adorned with cies of moss. The beech trees, which pleasant forests, and rich pasture have sparingly taken root, between lands: for, wherever the summit althe fissures, are stunted and unsightly. lows of any possible approach, it is There are no inhabitants. The few covered with villages and single houremains of masonry appear to be the ses, and rendered productive. The ruins of churches, or the habitations contented inhabitant certainly suffers of hermits, who buried themselves in indigence in the midst of abundance ; that elevated solitude,
but he feels not the loss, because liIn the highest mountains there are berty makes him easy and happy, and no large natural caverns; but we fre- insensible to every thing unnecessary. quently meet with hermitages, and Every where on Caucasus are to be places of refuge, hewn out by the seen irrefragable signs of powerful hands of men. Under the undulated and repeated changes, to which it granite we certainly perceive some must have been exposed before it apholes, but they are scarcely two or peared under its present form. Grathree feet wide; yet it should seem, nite is certainly one of the most ancithat the compact granite contains ent compositions, but I conjecture, more ; for they appear in the sides of that it originated from another subthe naked rocks, which undoubtedly stance, which being changed in its esindicate others. Limestone, particu sentiality by a very operative power, larly when it begins to be purer, a- underwent the first violent change to bounds in the large open holes ; and, which this range was exposed. The baaccording to all conjecture, we might saltic columns, the basaltic granitesearch for others, especially where the could they be anything else but a translimestone is ferruginous, and there is muted, reformed granite? The surface no-want of water. Yet can the ca- incontrovertably shows, that, before verns be the only things concealed the origin of the basalt, the whole from our eyes! There are much summit was of granite, which appamore important objects on and around rantly had been heated very hot, and Caucasus : but the inhabitants, as well was near fusing. The compact parts as their neighbours, all equally barba. of the granite rock suffer more or less rians, trouble themselves too little a- according to the different operating bout the advantages to be derived power of the fire ; yet every time a from these mountains, and think, that complete change in their composition, they cannot enjoy the treasures so well that forced them to a closer and more in peace, and with industry, as after compact union : when suddenly some useless shedding of blood, and unheard- opposing power,-cold, or perhaps of cruelties.
water,--worked upon these heated In the primitive and middle moun- rocks, and obliged the uppermost, and tains are found veins of very rich ore, hottest summits, to fly in pieces ; and and springs of excellent quality. In from thence each part of the whole, many parts of the promontory, black according to a more or less determinaphtha rises, and on the S.E. side, nate equal force, received the form of white petroleum is found. As the columns, or of rough fragments, as surface of all the foremost, and of we meet with them upon the highest most of the middle mountains, is co- ridges. yered with a sufficient quantity of soil, By this extraordinary change, the
inevitable inevitable fall of mountainous masses
SCOTTISH REVIEW. produced the present high mountains, (which are either solid or cavernous,) Gertrude of Wyoming ; a Pennsylvaadjacent to the more elevated. Some nian Tale; and other Poems. By of them open, and without any cover- Thomas Cambell, Author of the ing of earth, or connexion, lie near the Pleasures of Hope, &c. 4to. ll. 5s. sources of the river Xan, and Ghuda, Longman & Co. a village in Ghef; whilst others are coated with earth, or carry the ap- MR CAMPBELL has now, for some pearance of peculiar mountains, owing
time, been justly ranked among to a new cohesion of their parts.
the first of our national poets; and The interior of the granite moun- considered as one whose talents do the tain, though not so much exposed to greatest honour to his country. The fire, was at least caught by its heat, appearance, therefore, after so long an and changed into another species of interval, of a volume of poems by him, granite that underlaid the real
forms no ordinary occurrence; and we vite ; for wherever it is found free, lose no time in gratifying, upon this this always lies lower than the other. subject, the curiosity of our readers. The same cause seems to have produ- The scene of this poem is laid in ced its undulating surface, and the the woods of Pennsylvania. There the dilatation of its interstices, which ex. village of Wyoming formed a spot tend to the above mentioned caverns peculiarly peaceful and happy, till, by in the compact granite. This, how- the junction of European with Indian ever, is certain, that the trapp did not arms, it was converted into a frightbelong to Caucasus before this event; ful waste. The picture of its original for, at present, it fills up the fissures state, and afterwards of this fatal tranand more recent-formed interstices of sition, forms the subject of the
present the basalt columns, and in many pla- poem. Its principal inhabitant is the ees lies buried even in large pieces of aged Albert, an emigrant from Britain, them.
and his amiable daughter. The first But why do we find trapp only on incident is the arrival of an Oneyda the southern and south-eastern side of warrior with a boy, whom, it appears, the mountains and on their summits? he had saved from the fury of a hosCan it be a volcanic aşh that has been tile band of Indians, who, after stormthrown thither in a red-hot state, and ing an English fort, were butchering become indurated ? If so, then some all it contained. This child proves to distant southern volcanoes, or per- be the son of Waldegrave, an intimate haps mount Ararat, (whose tremen- friend of Albert's. The latter, theredous crater, at the distance of 220 fore, takes him under his protection. versts from Caucasus in a straight line, The poem then returns to the scenery no one can observe without shudder- and occupations of Wyoming, and a ing, and wbich began to smoke and considerable time is understood to ethrow out fire on the 13th of January, lapse, till another arrival breaks the and 22d of February 1783,) must uniformity of the scene. This proves bave driven the ashes on the summit to be Henry Waldegrave, the young of Caucasus, and set fire to it. man left by the Indian, and who, it
And when the ashes united with appears, had long ago left the village, the basalt columns, they contained, no and been travelling through various doubt, a very great degree of heat ; parts, both of the old and new Contis for in the act of induration, the fore nents. Gertrude and he, between mer lost their colour, besides a part whom a mutual passion bad long subof their essentiality.
sisted, are then united. Three moons
are then spent in mutual happiness, "successful delineation of minute parti-
ly possesses. It must depend for its Before endeavouring to form an es- interest, on pathos, and on the skilful timate of its merits, it may be advan- display of minute incidents. The lattageous to take a general view of the ter, we observed, is not to be expected character of Mr Campbell's genius. from our author; and though he can
His peculiar excellence, we think, not be said to be destitute of pathetic is undoubtedly sublimity, and that of powers, yet it is not domestic pathos“; a peculiar kind, to which we would it is only that excited by subjects give the name of mystic sublimity. – deeply tragic and terrible. The sufHis ideas take an immense range, with ferings of nations, “ the woes of hua certain mist spread over them, which man kind,” he may sing with success, heightens their magnificence, but which but not the sorrows of individuals, and is unfavourable to minuteness and pre- of private life. We do not see any cision. Hence he shines chiefly in decay of genius ; nay, we incline to subjects which have a wide compass; think, that passages may be selected in grand and general views of nature froin the present poem, superior to and of human destiny ; or, if he de- any thing in his former productions. scends with success to the delineation But this is only occasionally, when of particular events, it is in such as he breaks loose from the fetters of are accompanied with peculiar circum- his subject. In general, it prevails stances of mystery, darkness, and ter- over him, and affords slender scope to ror; such as the descent of Brama, that wide-spreading grandeur of conthe midnight assault and destruction ception in which he delights to inof Prague. Upon the whole, he ex- dulge. cels in generalities, rather than in de- From this censure we must, howtail ; and that tendency to ideas of in- ever, except one important departfinity, which is characteristic of minds ment; we èan that descr
ive of Inof the first order, engrosses him to a dian character, and Indian Warfare.-degree, hardly compatible with the These are drawn in the strongest and April 1809,