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SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. any established magazines. In this situa-
tion, nothing is more essentially requisite A set of Papers, relative to the late ex than money, and unfortunately we have peditions to Spain and Portugal, have been been able to procure here very little. Sir faid before the House of Commons, consist- David Baird has come without any, and ing principally of letters from Lord Castle his troops paid only to the 24th Septemreagh to the Commanders in Spain and ber, and from this we could only send him Portugal, and to Officers sent into those 8000). countries to procure intelligence, prepara Letter 4th is dated Salamanca, Novemtory to the sending of is British force to ber-24. It states the arrival of the troops their assistance. It appears, from these pa there in good order. It concludes thus :pers, that it was upon the information so “ The information, which your Lorde collected, together with the assistance of ship must already be in possession of, rens / the Marquis De La Romana, that Lord ders it perhaps less necessary for me to / Castlereagh prepared in England the plan dwell upon the state of affairs in Spain, so of the war that has been since adopted, and different from that which was to be expecended so unfortunately. A second set of ted. Had the real strength and composipapers, on the same subject, has been since tion of the Spanish armies been known, printed; but, like the former, are too volu- and the defenceless state of the country, I minous for detail in a periodical paper. conceive that Cadiz, and not Corunna, They consist of three letters from General would have been chosen for the disembarkSir Hew Dalrymple to Lord Castlereagh; ation of the troops from England; and Se. six from Lord William Bentinck, all dated ville or Cordova, not Salamanca, would
thirteen from Major Gen. Bro- have been selected as the proper place for derick; twenty-one from Capt. Kennedy, the assembling of this army. dated successively from Corunna, Lugo, “ The Spanish Government do not seem Astorga, and Villafranca ; and thirteen from ever to have contemplated the possibility Lieut. Gen. Sir John Moore. Of these last, of a second attack, and are certainly quite as being the most interesting and import- unprepared to meet that which is now ant, we shall endeavour to give a sketch. made upon them; their armies, all inferior,
Letter 1st is dated Lisbon, 9th October even in number, to the French ; that which 1808, acknowledging to Lord Castlereagh, Blake commanded, including Romana's to whom they are all addressed, the receipt corps, did not exceed 37,000 men, a great of his appointment to the command of an proportion of them mere peasantry: The army of 30,000 infantry and 5000 cavalry, armies of Castanos and Palafox united do to be employed in the north of Spain, and not now exceed 40,000 men, and are not, I stating his determination to proceed by suspect, of a better description, and until land, in conformity with the advice of the lately they were much weaker. In the Spanish Generals.
provinces no armed force whatever exists, Letter 2d is dated Lisbon, October 18. either for immediate protection, or to reinIn it he says" It is impossible to be more force the armies. The French cavalry from anxious than I am to get forward; but it Burgos, in small detachments, are over-runis needless to take forward troops without ning the province of Leon, raising contri. the means to enable them to act; and, how. butions, to which the inhabitants submit ever light the equipment I have fixed, yet without the least resistance. The enthuthe difficulty of procuring it is very consi. siasm, of which we have heard so much, derable. Add to this, a Commissariat, ex no where appears; whatever good will tremely zealous, but quite new and inex there is (and I believe amongst the lower perienced in the important duties which it orders there is a great deal) is taken no adnow falls to their lot to execute."
vantage of Letter 3d is dated Lisbon, 27th October. ! I am at this moment in no commiuni. le states, that he has sent General Hope, cation with any of the Generals commande with the artillery, cavalry, and a corps of ing the Spanish armies. I am ignorant of infantry, total 6000, by the great road their plans, or of those of their Goversie leading from Badajoz to Madrid; that he General Castanos, with whom, afhas written to General Baird to march ter repeated application, I was desired to from Corunna, to Astorga, proposing him. conimunicare, for the purpose of combining self to march to Salamanca. He adds, the operations of the British army, was de“ Colonel Lopez, the officer sent to me prived of his command at the moment I from Madrid, was with me two days. He had begun my correspondence with hini. is very confident that we shall not want The Marquis of Romana, who is appointsupplies ; and it is upon this general assu ed bis successor, is still at St Ander. rance of the Spanish Government, that I is difficult for me to form any plan for myam leading the army into Spain, without self beyond the assembly of the army, 1 April 1809.
shall then be in a state to undertake some. his opinion ; but the sudden defeat of Gething; and if the Spaniards, roused by their neral Castanos's army left nothing either to misforcunes, assemble round us, and be aid me, or to prevent the further progress come once more enthusiastic and determin. of the army. ed, there may still be hopes of expelling the “ The British army was at that moment French. It is my wish to lay before your on its march to collect at this place and AsLordship, for the information of Govern- torga. General Hope, with the head of his ment, things exactly as they are. It an. division, was at Villa Castrin, and from the swers no good purpose to represent them collected manner in which it was necessary otherwise, for it is thus that we must meet for him to march, he could not have jointhem.
ed me sooner than he has done. Sir David “I feel no despondency myself, nor do I Baird's corps could not be collected at Aswish to excite any in others; but our situ- torga before the 4th of this month; it was ation is likely soon to become an arduous thus impossible for this army to have been one. Reverses must be expected ; and united before the 13th or 14th, and still lathough I am confident this army will al ter before it could be ready to undertake ways do its duty, yet ultimate success will an offensive movement. This time was depend more upon the Spaniards them- more than sufficient to enable the enemy to selves, and their enthusiastic devotion to finish the destruction of what little Spanish their cause, than on the efforts of the Bris force renained, and to turn the greatest tish, who, without such aid, are not sufla part of his army against the British, which, ciently numerous to resist the armies which when united, does not exceed 26,000 men, will be inmediately opposed to them.” but which probably he would be able to
Lecter 5th is dated Salamanca, 29th No attack whilst detached and separated. I vember. It announces the total defeat of consider the British army as standing, a. the army of Castanos and Palafox. Hecon. lone ; that its union could not be attempted ceives that, by this event, his junction with without great hazard; or, if effected, that General Baird is become quite impractica. it could not withstand the great force that ble ; and that, even although united, after would be brought against it, It was vain, the specimens of the little resistance made I thought, to expect, that, under such cir. by the Spaniards, the British army, alone cumstances, it could retrieve the Spanish could have no chance of resisting the for. cause ; and, though I knew the army would midable numbers that will be immediately cheerfully attempt whatever I ordered, I brought against it. “ By persevering long- thought my duty called upon me not to er,” says he, “ I shall certainly sacrifice the expose it to a contest in which its best efarmy, without benefiting Spain, I have forts could not promise to be successful. It therefore determined to retire.” He con may fairly be said, that the British army cludes with saying, “ If landed at Cadiz, never reached Spain; it cannot, in the true we may still be useful."
sense, be called an army, until it is united Letter 6th is dated Salamanca, Decem- and prepared to act; the Spanish forces ber 5th. In this letter, after announcing were defeated, and their cause lost, before the success of the French at Somosierra, he the British, so constituted, could come to says
their assistance. “ Your Lordship may believe that it was “ I feel the weight of the responsibility not without much reflection and extreme which has fallen to me. I had nothing but reluctance that I determined to withdraw difficulties to chuse; whether I have chothe army from Spain, and to abandon a sen the least, and that which will be the cause, for the success of which the Govern- least disapproved by his Majesty and my ment are so much interested, and the pub. country, I cannot determine ; my wish has lic mind so highly exalted.
been to decide right. I reflected well upon “ As long as there remained an army, the different duties I had to discharge ; and and any hope of resistance on the part of if I have decided wrong, it can only be bethe Spaniards, I was determined to perse cause I am not gifted with that judgment vere, at all risks, in the junction of the ar which was imputed to me when I was inmy, and then, if General Castanos had re trusted with this important command." ceived a check, or been forced to retreat, Letter 7th is dated Salamanca, Decemit was my intention, if nothing better of- ber 5. It states, that, in consequence of fered, to march upon Madrid, from whence, the general opinion entertained from the getting behind the Tagus, we should have resistance of Madrid, which is also Mr given the Spaniards an opportunity of ral. Frere's, he ordered Sir David. Baird to sus. lying around us, and have shared their for- pend his march. tunes. This intention I mentioned to your Letter 8th, dated Salamanca, the 8th DeLordship in my letter of the 24th, and cember, states, that in consequence of the imparted it as a question to Mr Frere for resistance of Madrid, and the hope expres.
sed, in which, however, he participated pletely ; but as there is nothing to take advery slightly, he had ordered Gen. Baird, vantage of it, I have risked the loss of the who was retreating, to advance to Bene- army for no purpose. I have no option vente, with intent to join him and Romana now, but to fall down to the coast as fast as there, and march, united, to Burgos. He I am able. I found no provision here, the adds, “ While there is a chance I'll remain, little which had been collected had been but Madrid may fall, and the ground be consumed by Sir D. Baird's corps in their suddenly cut from under my feet. I hope passage, and there is not two days bread a better spirit prevails in the southern pro to carry the army to Villafranca. There vinces. Here no 'one stirs, and yet they are is no means of carriage ; the people run aall well inclined."
way; the villages are deserted; and I have Letter 9th, dated Salamanca, December been obliged to destroy great part of the 10, states the fall of Madrid, but his deter ammunition and military stores; for the mination to advance to Tordesillas, and same reason I have been obliged to leave thence to Valladolid. His army' good- the sick ; in short, my sole object is to save that of Romana, he is informed by General the army.' Baird, “ very bad." The letter thus con The following is an extract from the cludes : “ Uncil affairs in Spain bear a more last letter of the deeply lamented Gene. prontising aspect, I should think your Lord- ral, dat&d Corunna, January 13, 1809 : ship will approve of keeping at Corunna
• Situated as this army is at present, or Lisbon a sufficient quantity of transports for the re-embarkation of the army."
it is impossible for me to detail to your Letter 10th is dated Salamanca, 12th Lordship the events which have taken December It states, that he has not place since I had the honour to address heard from the Marquis Romana, and you from Astorga, on the 31st ult. I must give up the co-operation of his corps have therefore determined to send to for the present ; that he is determined, England Brigad. Gen, Charles Stewart, however, to advance, to create a diversion, as the officer best qualified to give you if the Spaniards can avail themselves of it; every information you can want, both but that the French have from 80,000 to with respect to our actual situation, 90,000 men in the north of Spain. In case and the events which have led to it. of retreat, requests transports to proceed “ Your Lordship knows, that, had I first to Corunna for orders, and then rendezvous at Vigo. The British army is
followed my own opinion, as a military from 27,000 to 28,000 men, including two
man, I should have retired with the ar. regiments coming from Portugal.
my from Salamanca. The Spanish arLetter 11th, dated Toro, 16th Decem
mies were then beaten ; there was no ber, communicates an intercepted letter Spanish force, to which we could unite; from Berthier to Marshal Soult, which in and I was satisfied, that no efforts would duced him to direct his force against Soult; be made to favour the cause in which but expects no good to the general cause, they were engaged. even though he should obtain a victory, “ I was sensible, however, that the unless it should rouse the Spaniards. De apathy and indifference of the Spaniards sires the transports from Portugal to be would never have been believed ; that, sent to Vigo. The intercepted letter or. ders Soule to make himself master of Leon, of the cause would have been imputed
had the British been withdrawn, the loss to drive the English into Gallicia, and seize Benevente and Zamora.-It appears from
to their retreat; and it was necessary to it, that Bonaparte thoughe Sir John Moore risk this army to convince the people was retreating to Lisbon.
of England, as well as the rest of EuLetter 12th is dated Benevente, Decen- rope, that the Spaniards had neither the ber 28, announces his abandonment of his power nor the inclination to make any design to attack Soult, and his retreat, in efforts for themselves. It was for this consequence of information of the French
reason that I made the march to Saha. marching in force from Madrid.
gun. As a diversion, it succeeded; I Letter 13th is dated Astorga, 31st December. It says, “ I arrived here yesterday, the French against this army, and it has
brought the whole disposable force of where I found the Marquis de' Romana, been allowed to follow me, without with a great part of his troops. With respect to me, my Lord, and the British a single movement being made to fatroops, it is come to that point which. I vour my retreat. The people of the have long foreseen. From a desire to do Gallicias, though armed, made no at. what I could, I made the movement against tempt to stop the passage of the French Soult; as a diversion, it has answered come through their mountains. They aban
doned their dwellings at our approach, At Lugo I was sensible of the im. drove away their carts, oxen, and every possibility of reaching Vigo, which was thing that could be of the smallest aid at too great a distance, and offered na to the army.
The consequence has advantages to embark in the face of an been, that our sick have been left be- enemy. My intention was then to have hind; and when our horses or mules retreated to the peninsula of Betanzos, failed, which, on such marches, and thro' where I hoped to find a position to cosuch a country, was the case to a great ver the embarkation of the army in Ares extent, baggage, ammunition, stores, or Redes Bays; but having sent an offi&c. and even money, were necessarily cer to reconnoitre it, by his report I was destroyed or abandoned.
determined to prefer this place. I gave “I am sorry to say that the army, notice to the Admiral of my intention, whose conduct I had such reason tu ex.. and begged that the transports might be tol on its march through Portugal, and brought to Corunna; had I found them on its arrival in Spain, has totaliy chan. here on my arrival on the rith, the em. ged its character since it began to re barkation would easily have been effecttreat. I can say nothing in its favour, ed, for I had gained several marches on but that, when there was a prospect of the French. They have now come up fighting the enemy, the men were then with us; the transports are not arrived; orderly, and seemed pleased and deter- my position in front of this place is a mined to do their duty. In front of very bad one ; and this place, if am forVilla Franca, the French came up with. ced to retire into it, is commanded witlithe reserve, with which I was covering in musket shot, and the harbour will be the retreat of the army; they attacked so commanded by cannon on the coast, it at Calcabelos. I retired, covered by that no ship will be able to lie in it. In the 95th regiment, and marched that short, my Lord, General Stewart will innight to Heresias, and from thence to form you how critical our situation is. Nogales and Lugo, where I had order. It has been recommended to me to make ed the different divisions which preced a proposal to the enemy, to induce him ed to halt and collect. At Lugo, the to allow us to embark quietly, in which French again came up with us. They case he gets us out of the country soon, attacked our advanced posts on the 6th and this place, with its stores, &c. com. and 7th, and were repulsed in both at. plete'; that, otherwise, we have the tempts, with little loss on our side. I power to make a long defence, which heard from the prisoners taken that three must cause the destruction of the town. divisions of the French army were come I am averse to make any such proposal, up, commanded by Marshal Soult; I and am exceedingly doubtful if it would therefore expected to be attacked on the be attended with any good effect; but, morning of the 8th. It was my wish whatever I resolve on this head, I hope to come to that issue ; I had perfect your Lordship will rest assured, that I confidence in the valour of the troops, shall accept of no terms that are in the and it was only by crippling the enemy
least dishonourable to the army or to that we could hope either to retreat or the country. If I succeed in embarking to embark unmolested. I made every the army, I shall send it to England; it preparation to receive the attack, and is quite unfit for further service until it drew out the army in the morning to of has been refitted, which can be best done fer battle. This not Marshal there." Soult's object. He either did not think himself sufficiently strong, or he wished The French papers have published a to play a surer game, by attacking us long detail of the particulars of the siege on our march, or during our embarka and capture of Saragossa, which at length tion. The country was intersected, fell on the 21st of February, after a most and his position too strong for me to dreadful carnage on both sides. The attack with an inferior force. The want Spanish officers taken prisoners have of provisions would not enable me to been sent into France, ainong whom we wait longer. I marched that night; and ret to find the gallant Pallafox. in two forced marches, advancing for six This article, which is interesting, we are or eight hours in the rain, I reached Be- under the necessity of postponing till tanzos on the ļoth inst."
in his power:
*** In the mean time, the following trea. Spain, as well as that of the French ty has been concluded between Great squadron taken in the month of June, Britain and Spain, and signed at Lon. and now in the harbour of Cadiz, from don on the part of the latter by the falling into the power of France ; for Spanish Deputy, Admiral de Apodaca. which purpose, his Britannic Majesty Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Alli- engages to co-operate by all the means
ance, between his Britannic Majesty and his Catholic Majesty Ferdinand forth with be negociated, stipulating the
Art. II. (separate.)--A treaty shall VII. Signed at London the 14th Feb
amount and description of succours to ruary 1809.
be afforded by his Britannic Majesty, a. Article 1.There shall be between his greeably to the third article of the preMajesty the King of the United King- sent treaty. dom of Great Britain and Ireland, and Additional Article. The present cir. his Catholic Majesty Ferdinand VII. cumstances not admitting of a regular King of Spain and of the Indies, and negociation of a treaty of commerce bebetween all their kingdoms, states, do tween the two countries, with all the minions, and subjects, a Christian, sta care and consideration due to so imporble, and inviolate peace, and a perpetual tant a subject, the high contracting parand sincere amity, and a strict alliance ties mutually engage to proceed to such during the war against France.
negociation as soon as it shall be pracArt. II.-To obviate all complaints ticable so to do; affording, in the mean and disputes which might arise on the time, mutual facilities to the commerce subject of prizes, captured posterior to of the subjects of each other, by temthe declaration issued by his Britannic porary regulations, founded on princiMajesty on the 4th of July last year, it ples of reciprocal utility. has been mutually agreed, that the ves. Done at London, this 21st day of sels and property taken posterior to the
March 1809. date of the said declaration, in any seas
GEORGE CANNING. or ports of the world, without any ex
J.R. DE APODACA.. ception, and without any regard either This treaty will be afterwards followto time or place, shall be restored by ed by commercial regulations between both parties,
the two nations. Our Government have Art, II1.-His Britannic Majesty en resolved to act according to the spirit gages to continue to assist, to the ut. of this treaty, and to send the most ef. most of his power, the Spanish nation, fectual assistance to every part of Spain in their struggle against the tyranny where there is a prospect of acting with and usurpation of France; and promi. ses not to acknowledge any other King The French papers contain a long acof Spain, and of the Indies thereunto ap count of Joseph Bonaparte's entry into pertaining, than his, Catholic Majesty Madrid, which took place on the 22d Ferdinand VII. his heirs, or such law- of January. It might serve to amuse ful successor as the Spanish nation shall our readers, but the great abundance of acknowledge ; and the Spanish Govern- other matter puts it out of our power to ment, in the name, and on the behalf of insert it. Two days after his entry inhis Catholic Majesty Ferdinand VII. to Madrid, he issued the following letengages never in any case to cede to France any part of the territories or pos “ In returning to this capital, our first sessions of the Spanish monarchy, in any care, as well as first duty, has been to part of the world. :
prostrate ourselves at the feet of that Art. IV.—The high contracting par
God who disposes of crowns. We have ties agree to make common cause a offered him the homage of our existence gainst France, and not to make peace for the felicity of the brave nation which with that power, except by common he has intrusted to our care. It is with consent.
this end only, in conformity with our Article I. (separate.)- The Spanish dearest thoughts, that we have addresGovernment engages to take the most sed to him our humble prayers. effectual measures for the preventing of " What is an individual in the imthe Spanish squadrons in all the ports of mense population of the earth? What