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This division of the city is governed thetis pang to your memory! Some by an aga, called the great aga, with of you tell us, with all the charms of other inferior agas, whose houses are verse, that you have been unfortunate situated at such a convenient distance in the world--unfortunate in love: he from each other as to enable them too has felt the loss of his little for- easily to assemble, to quell any riot tune, the loss of friends, and, worse or disturbance, An officer, and a certhan all, the loss of the woman he

tain number of janisaries, mount guard adored. Like


all his consolation at or near the houses of each of the was his muse : she taught him in rus- agas; this is the military government. tic measures to complain. Happy

Happy The civil magistrates are, the cadi or could he have done it with your judge, and a mufti, who is chief of strength of imagination and flow of the law and of religion ; both these verse! May the turf lie lightly on are dependant on, and appointed by, your bones! and may you now enjoy the great cadi and mufti of Bagdad, that solace and rest which this world properly so called; the agas are aprarely gives to the heart tuned to all pointed by the pasha of Bagdad. the feelings of poesy and love.

As the other side is the residence of all the chief men, (the court or the pasha's seraglio being there) as well as

all the public offices, there are not Description of BAGDAD.

to be found in the bazars any thing,

except provisions, worth noticing, the, From Parsons' Travels in Asia and Africa, for merchandise from all parts of Per

opposite side being the great mart (Lond. 1808.)

sia and India, by the way of the PerBAGDAD is seated on both banks sian gulph,

through Bussora and Araof the river Tigris, in latitude 330 bia. No khans, or caravanseras of 20 N. and latitude 43° 51' E. any note, for the reception of mer-,

The communication is by a bridge chant strangers and their goods, are of boats from the one side, which is in built in this district; yet the inhabiMesopotamia, to the other, situate in tants have advantages which those of Persia ; or, as geographical books call the other side do not possess ; first, in, it, in Irak Arabi.

the articles of provisions, which they The Persian side is more than twice have cheaper and in greater variety ; as large as the other, both in breadth as the many hords of Arabs, who supand length ; on the banks of the river' ply the city with all kinds of diet, are they are nearly equal, an extent of up- in the neighbourhood. Besides, housewards of three miles. The breadth rent is cheaper ; as they have in the of each side is very irregular. I shall suburbs many handsome broad streets, first atteinpt to describe the Mesopo- with large houses and pleasant gartamian side. It has neither wall, gate, dens, for the most part inhabited by ner castle; and the breadth is so irre- eminent merchants, who find it more gular as to defy description, Begin- convenient to reside here, though they ning at one end, on the banks of the transact their business in their maga-, river, and walking round (as nearly as zines (warehouses) in the khans on possible) until I came to the other ex- the other side, to which they repair tremity on the same banks, I found every morning, and return in the evethe distance to be four thousand two ning, on horseback. Here are also the hundred and twenty-five of my paces, houses of many eminent men in public exclusive of that side next the banks stations, who go daily to the other of the river.

side, to the duty of their respective Jan. 1809.


offices, and return in the evening to extended; the iron bars with which their houses, which are so open and the links are made are as large as a airy, with large gardens, as to supply man's wrist; the ends of those chains the place of country houses. For se- are fastened to the rings of two exveral miles in the environs the coun- tremely large anchors, which are butry is much more pleasant and conve- ried in the earth, two within the wall nient for the inhabitants, with their of the great mosque on the Persian families, to make the little excursions, side, the other two within the wall of which they frequently do, by way of a great warehouse on the opposite side. giving their wives and children little Each of those chains pass over the airings and exercise on horseback, pre- bows of twenty-nine of the boats, and viously sending their servants with a are kept in their proper places by one tent and provisions, as there is not any of the links being placed over an irou town, village, or caravansera, nearer bolt, which stands erect on the bow than three hours ride fit for people of of each boat. Over these twenty-nine condition to resort to. The greatest boats a stage is laid, made of strong part of the public gardens and mea- planks, gravelled over, with railing on dows are likewise on this side, which each side, nearly four feet high ; the occasions cheese, butter, milk, fruit, space between each railing is nearly and garden-stuff, to be cheaper than twenty-four feet, which gives the on the other; all which advantages breadth of the bridge. The other six make it a much more desirable situa- boats, of which the bridge is formed, tion than the great city, (which the are contrived so as to be moved when other is called, especially to those rafts or vessels pass down the river who have leisure to pass frequently from Mosul (the antient Nineveh,) or from each.

up the river from Bussorah, or any From the banks of the river, on other place, which is performed in this cach side, and directly opposite to each manner : from the jetty heads a stage other, are built two immense walls, is laid to the first boat, which reaches which project from the banks into the across that boat; from this boat anoriver, which are sixty - six feet in ther is laid over the second and third length, by twenty-eight in breadth.- boats, which reaches and is fastened These walls serve as jetty heads, and to the stage on the fourth, as the stage are built of excellent and well-burnt over the first boat is fastened to that brick, so high as not to be overflowed over the second on each side. When when the water is highest.

boats or large vessels want to pass, it The bridge consists of thirty-five is sufficient to loosen the first boat on boats, all of the same construction and that side where the boat or vessel chudimension, the bows being sharp like ses to pass; the boat with the stage'on the London wherries, the stern like- it immediately swings off itself with wise bearing a near resemblance; their the current, and is soon replaced ; but length is thirty-tour feet six inches, when large rafts pass, the next two and their breadth fourteen feet eight boats with the stages on them must inches. The distance from the jetty likewise be let loose, which causes an heads to the first boat on each side is impediment to the passage over the çight feet six inches, the space between bridge for at least half an hour. cach boat six feet four inches, which People who walk over the bridge makes the river Tigris, at Bagdad, to' ought to be very careful, as a great be, from bank to bank, eight hundred concourse of people on foot, as well as and seventy-one feet and four inches on horses, mules, and asses, are contibroad. From one side of the river to nually passing and repassing ; particu, the other, wo massy iron chain, are larly early every morning, when ma}; . wo massy iron chain


ny hundred beasts come loaded with rate it, and in unloading the other sø every kind of provisions from the Me- as to supply exactly its place. sopotamian to the Persian side; and The current of water causes the as in the middle of every boat timbers bridge to have a great curve, (which are placed across to secure and fasten is described in its proper proportion in the ends of the planks together, which, the design which I have taken.) The projecting above the gravel, form so two chains on either side from the first many ridges, and are the occasion of boat, over which they are placed, and many falls. No loaded camel is per- from thence to the walls of the buildmitted to pass over the bridge. ings which they pass through, are on

A toll of one para (three Farthings) ly visible for about twenty feet from is paid for the passage of every loaded each of the boats, and for the same horse or mule, and half a para for a

distance from the banks of the river; loaded ass, but nothing by foot pas- the remainder, owing to their great sengers, or even by those on horse- weight and length without support, back, who go over the bridge, nor for being under water. any beasts which are not loaden. As all vessels of every size on this

For moving one boat only, on ei river are flat-bottomed, they pass over ther side, to let boats or large vessels the chains without the least obstruck pess, one piastre (two shillings and tion. sixpence) is paid, for moving the From November to the latter eud three boats three piastres. The bota of March, boats and vessels of all sitoms of the boats are quite flat, and zes can come from Bussora up the Ti. draw six inches water at the bow, and gris to the bridge of Bagdad; in the four at the stern.

other months they do not attempt it, There are always boats ready to as the current runs so very strongly supply the place of any of those which against them, and the wind, being for form the bridge, when they leak or the most part in the western quarter, want any kind of repair. They are increases the difficulty ; in the interplaced in less than ten minutes, with. val, goods from Bussora, intended for out moving either railing, planks, or Bagdad, are brought up the Euphrates even the gravel on the bridge; it is to Helah, (mostly by tracking,) and effected in the following manner :

from thence across Mesopotamia, by The defective boat is loaded with camels, to Bagdad. stones sufficient to sink her so low as May the 16th, I arrived on the seto prevent her from bearing any part venth of this month, and as I rode. of the bridge; at the same time, the over the bridge was greatly surprised bolts in the bows, which are let into a to see the current run with such

great link of each chain, are likewise loo- velocity, and not then knowing the sened; the boat, thus liberated, is distance of Bagdad from the Gulph of moved in a minute, and the new boat Persia, I imagined that there was a (being previously loaded as the other regular tide, and that it was (at the was) is hauled up in her .place : the time of my passing over the bridge,) loading is, by means of many hands, the middle of an ebb tide ; the current quickly taken, until she bears her pro- seemed to me to run at the rate of seportion of the bridge, when the iron ven miles an hour. On this day (thá bolts are introduced into the links of 16th) in the evening, being the first the chain.

time that I had leisure to make obI have seen three boats shifted in servations, I went on the bridge, and this manner, each of them in less than observing that the current stili ran. ten minutes of time, which is mostly down, in all appearance, at as great a spent in loading the one, so as to libe rate as on the 7th, I concluded, as be



was the

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fore, that it was ebb tide; and, with. 7th, the water rose only three inches
out asking any questions, I made a and a half.
mark on the wall of the custom-house From this time to June the 14th I
coffee-house, which projects so far in- could not observe any rise or fall, as
to the river as to be washed even when it was at the highest; the current ran
the water is at the lowest. I returned as rapidly, to all appearance, as when
next morning, and found that the cur- I first arrived.
rent still ran as before, which it conti- June the 15th. I could observe
nued to do all that day, and that my that the water had fallen since the
mark on the wall still remained even day before, one inch and a half exact-
with the water's edge; I was then ly, agreeing with the first day's in-
convinced that there was not any

and reflux, but that what I had ob- From the 15th to the 30th, the wa-
served was owing to a fresh in the ri- ter fell forty-four inches; the first
ver, occasioned by rains in the inte- five days it fell ten; the next five,
rior part of the country. On enquiry, thirteen ; aid the last five, twenty-one
I was informed this


and inches. that in about a month the water would The current now seemed to have be at the highest, and remain, with abated since the 30th of May, at least little variation, several days, and would a mile in an hour. then gradually decrease, and continue From June the 30th to August the decreasing until the middle or latter 1st, the water fell seventeen feet four end of September, when it would be inches; the first eight days, thirtyat the lowest. That some time in Oc- four; the second eight, forty-six; the tober it would begin to increase again, third eight, sixty-two inches; and the the current always running out, but last seven days sixty-six inches. with less velocity as the water ebbed; From several experiments made by insomuch that when the water was at throwing chips into the river at the the lowest, the current was very

little. centre of the bridge, I believe the curAccording to my information, the rent did not run at this time four water in the river is eight months in- miles an hour; if this calculation be creasing, and only four decreasing ; exact, the current had abated since and as there was a likelihood of my re- the 14th of June three miles in the maining here some time, I determined hour. to attend to the rise and fall by daily From August the 1st to the 31st, observations.

the water feil eight feet ten inches; From my observations it appeared, the first eight days, forty-four inches; that from the 16th of May to the the second eight, thirty inches; the 30th, the water rose nineteen inches, third eight, twenty inches; and the and the current appeared to run at the last seven days, twelve inches. On the rate of seven miles an hour. At this 16th of this month, from observation, time people could not pass from the I believe the current did not run bridge to the custom-house, on the more than three miles in an hour; the banks of the river, as the water in ma- watermen now began to ply (to carny places washed the walls of the hou- ry passengers over the river in their ses between the bridge and the custom- baskets) at proper places on both sides house. The goods which passed over the river, which before they could not were carried full-three times the dis- do, owing to the strength of the curtance before they reached the custom- rent. These baskets are quite circular, house, which proportionally enhanced plaistered over with bitumen on the the price of porterage.

outside, which keeps them from leak. From May the 30th to June the ing, and which lasts as long as the


basket itself, which is made of a strong stages are then loosened from the jetwicker-work, and serves as a boat.- ties, and are hauled up higher, that is, They are paddled over by two men to the westward, (the three first boats or boys; though some of them are ca- and stages are higher in proportion ;) pable of carrying over six or seven the ends of the two first stages, which passengers, besides those who paddle. were before fastened to the jetty heads, These are the only passage-boats they are now laid down on the banks of have for crossing the river.

the river, and fastened to an anchor During the month of September on each side, which is placed about the water fell exactly two feet : the forty feet to the westward of each jetfirst ten days, ten inches; the second ty. These stages remain in this state ten days, eight; the third ten days, till the water in the river rises again, six. On the l@th of this month, the so as to bring the siages within four current did not exceed two miles in feet from the top of the jetiy heads; an brur.

at which time the stages are again On the 30th, it ran at the rate of moved, and fastened to the jetty heads. about one and a half miles in an hour. In the interval (which is about seFrom the 14th of June to the 30th of ven months) the jetties becoming useSeptember the water had fallen in all less to the bridge, they then have a thirty-one feet ten inches. On the roof built slightly over them, which is 30th of September, the depth of the covered with leaves of the date tree, siver at the centre of the bridge was and divisions being made on each side, fourteen feet six inches. From the are let out for coffee-houses, which are 30th of September to the 19th of Oc- very pleasant and airy, commanding a tober, from daily observations, I could view of the river and the opposite not observe any rise or fall of water shore." As they are well shaded, they in the river, nor any visible difference

are almost full of

company, in the current; so that from experience ly in the morning until late in the from the 7th to the 14th of June, the evening, so that it is not unusual te water was then at the highest, and the see above five hundred people in these depth then was forty-six feet four in- coffee houses on each side of the river. ches; and from the 30th of Septem- October the 20th was the first day ber to the 19th of October, the water that I could discern the water in the was at the lowest, fourteen feet six in- river to increase, and from this day to ches deep. According to the best calm the 28th, the water rose thirteen inculation which I was enabled to make, ches, and the current seemed to mend the current of the water, when great- its pace. est, was at the rate of seven miles;

(To be continued.) and, when least, one and a half miles in an hour.

It is worth noticing, that when the water in the river is at the highest, Memoirs of the Progress of MANUthe boats nearest the land are some- FACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, what higher than the jetty heads, con- and the FINE ARTS. sequently there is an ascent in passing from them to the boats over the sta- MR WALKER has published some ges, in proportion as the water rises, and consequently a descent when the that jewelled holes in clock-work are water falls: therefore when the water highly disadvantageous, being much has fallen so, that the gunwales of the more liable to become foul and clog-; nearest boats are about four feet lower ged than brass ones. A transit clock than the top of the jetty heads, the of his, made by Berraad, was cleaned

from ear

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