Abbildungen der Seite
[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

your colours."

[merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

sons; to make it so, you should at least sonality, some distrust; perhaps an inhave let yourself be beat by him, cipient asperity ; which happens alwhich I do not think ever happened.” ways, says Philip de Comines, in the

." I was not beat, because I never interviews of Sovereigns. The King fought.”—“ Thus it is,” said I,“ that took a great deal of Spanish snuff ; the greatest generals have often made and as he was cleaning his dress as war; we have only to look at the cam- well as he could, he said to me: “I paigns of 1674 and 1675, between am not neat enough for you,

GentleMontecuculi and Turenne." _“There men; I am not worthy of carrying is no difference between Traun and the

The air with which former ; but how great, my God, be- he said this, made me believe that he tween the latter and me." I shewed would dirty them again with gunhim the count d'Althan, who had been powder, when an opportunity should adjutant-general, and the count de Pel. Offer. legrini. He asked me twice who and The King was sometimes too cerewhere they were, and said his sight was monious; this tired the Emperor. I so short, that I must pardon him.- know not if it was to shew himself a “ And yet, Sire,” said I," at the war, disciplined Elector ; but when the you had it good, and if I recollect right, Emperor put his foot in the stirrup, very extensive.”—“ It was not 1,” the King took his horse by the bridle ; replied the King, “it was my glass.” — and when the Emperor put his legoI know not how the conversation chan. ver the saddle, the King put his foot ged; but it became so free, that seeing into the stirrup, and so in other things. some one arrive to take a share, the The Emperor had an air of sincerity, King warned him to be on his guard, in expressing much regard for him, as and that there was a danger in conver- a young prince for an old king, and sing with a man condemned ta eter- a young soldier for the greatest of nal fire by the Theologians. It ap- generals. One confidential day they peared to me that he valued himself a talked of policy together. Every little too much on his damnation, and one, said the King, cannot have the boasted of it too often. Independent same policy; it depends on situation, of the insincerity of these free-think- on circumstance, and on the power of ing gentlemen, who often fear the de- states. What may suit me would not vil most heartily, there is bad taste suit your majesty ; I have sometimes in conversing thus ; and it was with risked a political lie.”—“What is people of bad taste whom he kept about that?" said the Emperor, laughing.him, such as Jordans, d'Argens, Mau- “It is," replied the King, also very gaipertuis, La Beaumelle, La Mettrie, ly,“ to invent a piece of nets, which L'Abbe de Prades, and some heavy I knew well would be found out to be sceptics of his academy, that he had false at the end of twenty-four hours ; got the habit of speaking ill of reli- but no matter, before any one percej. gion, Spinosism, &c. I made no an- ved it, it had produced its effect.” swer whenever he spoke thus.

Sometimes there were appearances The King, from politeness, wore of cordiality between the two sovewhite, that he might not shew us the reigns. You saw that Frederick II. blue, which we had seen so much in loved Joseph II., but that the prethe war ; he had the air of being one ponderance of the empire, and the of our army, and in the train of the vicinity of Silesia to Bohemia, stifled Emperor. There was, I believe, in the sentiment of the King for the Emthis visit, on both sides, a little per. peror.

Account May 1809.

[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]


Account of the Constitution of the the deputies of cities, Stockholm has SWEDISH Diet.

ten; cities of the second class have

two or three, and the rest. send only [As this body is about to act a part of pne. It sometimes happens, that two

some importance on the political thea. small cities are represented by the tro, the following account of its con. stitution, from Catteau's " General

same person, for the sake of

economy, View of Sweden, (London 1790,)"

because the expences of the deputies may not be uninteresting.)

must be defrayed by their constitu

ents. To be qualified to vote, one IT may be here necessary to give an must be a citizen, and twenty-four

account of the present organisation years of age : those who are elected of the diet. It is composed of the must have also attained to the same king and the four orders, the nobility, age, and have been enrolled citizens clergy, citizens and peasants. The three years. nobility are divided into three classes, Farmers who cultivate lands bethat of counts and barons, that of longing to them and their descendants, knights or ancient gentlemen, without as long as they fulfil their engagetitles, and that of esquires, Sven, com- ients with the crown, constitute, in prehending all untitled gentlemen who the diet, the order of peasants. Swehave obtained letters of nobility since den is the only country where the rethe reign of Charles XI. There are presentatives of the body of labourers reckoned to be in Sweden 1300 noble form a separate and distinct class in families, which is a great number in a the national assembly. Many delibekingdom containing scarcely three rations respecting the public interests millions of inhabitants. The eldest may arise, and many objects may ocof each family sits in the diet, under cur, which a peasant can neither be the name of caput familia. The re- acquainted with nor appreciate ; but gulations drawn up by Gustavus A- there are many discussed also, which dolphus, and ķnown under the title of concern him in a peculiar manner, and Regulations for the Hotel of the Nobi- for the explanation of which, his senlity, serve as a guide to this order du- timents may be of the greatest utility. ring the sitting of the states. A In discussions even which appear to be marshat appointed by the King pre- beyond his knowledge, he inay catch sides over their deliberations, and in some luminous points of view, if the his absence the oldest


subject be presented to him in a proThe fourteen prelates of the king, per light, without any false colouring: domr, that is to say, the archbishop of Plain good sense and natural logic

Upsal and the thirteen bishops, have judge often as soundly, as the mind a right, by their offices, to assist at cultivated by application and study.

the diet, and each archdeaconry de- Each bailliwick appoints a deputy, putes one or two representatives, elec- and defrays his expences. The orted by a plurality of votes. Every "der of the peasants, and that of beneficed clergyman whatever has a the citizens, have a speaker named right of voting at these elections; but by the King, who also appoints a those generally chosen are archdea secretary to the peasants : his office

or rectors. The expences of is a civil employment, and he these' deputies are defrayed by their has always a great deal of influ* constituents. The archbishop of Up- ence. The army may be represented sal is speaker of the order, and failing in the states when summoned to athim, the bishop of Linkæping. tend by letters of convocation; the The citizens are represented by colonels of the different regiments,




and a certain number of commisioned Memoirs of the Progress of MANUofficers, are its deputies. There are in Sweden several proprietors of land,


and the FINE ARTS. mines, and forges, who belong to none of the four orders of the kingdom: MR Parkinson has discovered in when the states were organised, they he treated with muriatic or nitric acid, are not at present represented.

membraneous substances, which hung The opening and closing of the diet from the marble in light, flocculent, exhibits a grand and beautiful spectacle. elastic membranes. These marbles The king, in all the insignia of royal were of a species formed by tubipores, majesty, goes from the castle to the ca- madrepores, and corallites. In Kilthedral, followed by the states in pro- kenny marble, the structure of the cession, and divine service is perform- madrepores, and other testaceous subed as usual, except that the sermon is stances which enter into its composialways preached by a bishop. From tion, is beautifully conspicuous, from the cathedral his majesty repairs the ground of the marble in which to a hall in the castle, destined for they are imbedded being of a deep receiving the representatives of the black. This circumstance, in Mr nation; the assembly is then formed, Parkinson's opinion, proves that two and the monarch, seated on his thrones distinct lapidifying processes must have delivers a discourse, to which the mar- occurred in the formation of this marshal and the speakers return an an- ble; and that its coraline or testaceous

If there are any petitions to be part had acquired a strong concretion laid before the states, they are read previous to its being imbedded in the by the chancellor of the court. E- including mass of calcareous matter. very thing engages the attention of A specimen of this marble, which Mr the spectator, in this august scene ; Parkinson examined, in conformity but nothing strikes him so much as with this opinion, exhibited no mem. the part acted by the peasants. How branes when treated with diluted mudelightful to see the labourer, in a riatic acid ; but a black matter was simple and rustic dress, take his seat ' deposited during the solution of the close to other citizens; approach the marble, which being dried and prothrone with confidence, and speak to jected on melted nitre, immediately his sovereign without fear, and with deflagrated; which circumstance shew's out embarrassment !

the curious fact, that charcoal in subWhen the states are assembled, stance entered into the composition they establish, by means of electors, of this marble. Mr Parkinson sup: chosen by a plurality of voices, diffe- poses, that it must have been animal rent committees, charged with the charcoal, from shells and corallines bepreliminary discussion of such objects ing visible in the marble; but this as are to be laid before them. These does not prove the absence of

vegecommittees transmit to their constitu- table coal; nor is it, indeed, easy to ents the result of their enquiries, determine the nature of the coaly subwhich serve as a guide to the four or- stance, since we know that vegetable ders in their decrees.

coal, lying in contadt with animal The nobility sit in their own hotel; substances, acquires all the characters the clergy in the vestry of the cathe- of animal coal sufficiently to be misdral; the citizens in a hall of the taken for it. The composition of cale town-house ; and the peasants in ano- careous cements may derive improvea ther hall of the same building. ment from these discoveries of the real state, in which the component in England ; at least no mention is parts of marbles and limestones exist made of it by any English agricultain them.

ral writer ; but Dr Richardson thinks Dr William Richardson has called it highly probable, that it is the same the attention of the public to the va- grass which has been so much admi. Juable qualities of the fiorin grass, red in the celebrated Orcheston meawhich have long been known to the dow, near Salisbury, which was first common farmers of Ireland, but have noticed by Ray, who says ils shoots hitherto escaped the notice of scienti- were twenty-four feet long, and which fic agriculturists. This grass is indi- so many botanists have visited withgenous in Ireland, and is found in the out making any attempt to cultivate greatest abundance, naturally, in the it. morasses and mountains, because on Mr W. Weldon has analized the rich soil, the other grasses contend water of a mineral spring, two miles with it to advantage, but are not har- to the south of Dudley, in Worcesterdy enough to endure the wet and cold, shire, which has been famous from in which the fiorin grass thrives. It time immemorial, in the surrounding sends out long white strings, after the country, for its efficacy in various manner of the strawberry; these bud scrofulous and cutaneous diseases. In at the points, and produce green scrofula, in particular, it has been conshoots, which soon form a sod com- sidered an almost infallible remedy. pletely impenetrable to weeds and e- The spring flows into a well, about very other species of grass. Some ex- thirty-six feet in depth, and 7; in diaperiments made by Dr Richardson, meter. The bottom is a ferruginous, prove that cold sour bottoms may at argillaceous sandstone, through which a small expence be converted into the is perforated a hole, whence the wamost valuable pasture or meadow, byter issues and rises to about four feet the fiorin grass. On a thin dry soil al- from the surface. The sides of the so, it thrives as well as on a wet one : well near the top, are covered with a it grow's spontaneously very far up the yellowish ochrey substance. When bleakest and wettest mountains of Ire- the water is fresh taken up, it is perland, and this is perhaps the most im- fectly transparent and colourless. It portant fact relating to it. This pro- is little refractive of light, nor can it perty must certainly render it pecu- be said to sparkle ; but after standing liarly applicable to the improvement for a short time, numerous small bubof vast tracts of thin, elevated soil, in bles of air are seen adhering to the the west of England, which are at bottom and sides of the glass. After present little more productive than the a time, it becomes rather turbid, and deserts of Africa. The extensive fo- at length a pale ochreous precipitate rest of Dartmoor is mostly of this de- falls down, leaving the water transpascription, and great part of Exmoor is rent. In large quantity, the water nearly in the same state. There are smells of sulphuretted hidrogen ; but also many cther tracts of land in Eng- if half a pint, or less, be examined, the land, where it would be found benefi- odour is scarcely perceptible. The cial; but in Scotland, of which so taste very much resembles sea-water, largę a portion consists of land of the From a wine-gallon, or 231 cubic inch

above nature, the introduction of the es, were obtained : i fiorin grass see to promise more pro-. Of muriate of soda

483.. portional advantages, than in any o


311. ther division of the United Kingdom.

--magnesia and

145. It appears rather extraordinary that

alumina the fiorin grass should not be known






Of carbonate of iron

9. sheep, as well as those of the flocks of Of silica

.75 Negrete and Escurial, were formerly Of earthy carbonates about 45. withheld from exportation, and retainOf carbonic acid and sul.

ed for the royal manufactory of Gua. phuretted hidrogen, the cub. in, dalaxara. The flock or cavana of latter in small propor

23.735 Paular, consisted of 36,000 sheep. tion

It originally belonged to the rich CarOf azote

12. thusian monastery, of.that name, near

Segovia. Soon after the Prince of the Mr W. Cook, of Birmingham, has Peace rose into power, he purchased published some ingenious observations the flock of the monks, with the land on the benefits that would result from belonging to it, both in Estremadura the employment of an indigenous and Leon. Accordingly, all the sheep material, as a substitute for mahogany are marked with a large M. the mark and other costly woods, used for fur- of Don Manuel. The sheep sent to " niture and the finishing of houses.- England, were selected from eight The substitute which he proposes is subdivisions, in order to choose young, iron. In bedsteads, for instance, the well-shaped, and fine-woolled animals. posts, as well as the frame, might be The total number embarked, was cast hollow; the former might be 2,214. Of these, 214 were prebeautifully wreathed with flowers, fes- sented by the Spaniards to some of his toons, or clusters of fruit, or embossed majesty's ministers, and 4:27 died on with numberless fanciful ornaments, the journey, either at sea, or on the which the workman might touch up way from Portsmouth to Kew. His with his graver and chisel, to clear Majesty was pleased to take upon

him. them from the sand, and to make self the whole of the loss, which rethem sharp and neat before they go duced the royal flock to 1573, and seto the finisher. The painter might veral more have since died. The colour them, so as to give them a more ewes were full of lamb when they emhandsome' and elegant appearance, barked ; several of them cast their than it is possible to give to carved lambs when the weather was bad at vood. This would furnish employ- sea, and are in consequence so weak, 'ment to numberless hands, and afford that it is feared more will die, notwithample scope for ingenuity. Chests of standing the great care that is taken drawers, bookcases and bureaus, might of them. A few have died of the rot, all be made of sheet iron. Such fur- This disease must have been contractniture would be made at a consider- ed, by halting on some swampy disably less price, than articles of maho- trict in their journey from the moungany, it would not be heavier than tains, to the sea at Gijon, where, they wood; it would be more beautiful, were embarked, as one died of it at and exclusive of the convenience for Portsmouth. There is every reason, removal, as it might easily be taken however, to hope, that this distemper to pieces, and all the parts screwed up will not spread, as the land, on which again without injury, it would afford they are now kept, has never been suba great security against fire.

ject to its ravages, being of a light and The sheep lately sent over from sandy nature. Spain, as a present to his Majesty, M. Delhy, a chemist of Amsterare of the flock of Paular, one of the dam, has discovered a composition finest in point of pile, and esteemed which he conceived, from its superior also above all others, for the beauty of strength, would supersede the use of the carcase. The fleeces of these gun-powder. While lately employed,


[ocr errors]
« ZurückWeiter »