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however, in some experiments, a large General Pragnosticks of the WEATHER. paper exploded, and tore off his left arm, also most of the fingers of his

“ The sov'reign of the heavens hath set og right hand, and otherwise wounded

high him so severely that his life is despair “ The moon, to mark the changes in the ed of.

sky.' M. Pully, a Neapolitan chemist, has

To the Editor. recently analized the celebrated Dr James's powder, and from his experiments on 29 grs. he states that he has I Take the liberty of handing to you

some observations which I found in found it to be composed of

an anonymous work published in 1701, Oxide of antimony, at a maxi-parts. relative to the general prognosticks of mum of oxidation


the weather, and stated to have been Phosphate of lime

4. “ formed on twenty years experience." Sulphate of potash

Some of your correspondents, curious Free pot-ash, holding oxide of


on this subject, may feel pleasure in antimony at a minimum

investigating it; and perhaps may

take the trouble of submitting to your 19.. readers the result of their observatory.

Much has been written on this branch, To recompose this powder, it is ne- but as I am impressed with the belief cessary, according to M. 'Pully, to that more is known to people resident take

in the country, and particularly to

those who follow a sea-faring life, I Sulpharet of antimony

shall feel gratified by your Magazine Calcined phosphate of lime 9.

for information from those who may Nitrate of pot-ash


have it in their power to supply it, and These being powdered, mixed, and I am, &c. triturated together, are put into a crucible, which is to be covered, and ex


ΤΙΜΟΝ. . posed to a strong heat. During this 20th May 1809. operation, the oxigen of the nitric a

1. You may give a probable guess cid, attacking the sulphur of the antimonial sulphuret, converts it into sul- prime days of every change of the

at the weather all the year, by the phuric acid, which unites with a portion of the pot-ash, and forms sulphate Sunday, that is the prime day, and

moon, viz. if the moon change on of pot-ash. The remainder of the free from thence the weather will be gene, pot-ash retains some antimony oxi- rally fair till next exchange, &c. and ded to a minimum. The white pow

may der is the same that is sold by the name of Dr James's. M. Pully as Sunday-prime, dry weather. serts, that he has analized his powder Monday-prime, wet weather. to compare it with the other, and has .. Tuesday-prime, cold and windy. found it to contain the same principles, Wednesday prime, marvellous wea. and in the same proportions.

ther. Mr Sheldrake has invented an ar Thursday prime, fair and clear. ticle of female dress, which he calls Friday-prime, fair and foul. the Invisible Grecian Zone, for, pre Saturday-prime, rainy. serving the shapes of children or young 2. Great store of snow and water in persons who are approaching to ma winter, foretell the spring and sumturity.

mer following will be generally fair



exprest thus :

that quarter.

3. As the weather is on the third ries. Mr Dalyell, however, with the day after every new and full moon, view of exciting their activity by a such, for the most part, will it be for display of the treasures contained in ten days next after.

this neglected mine, has given an ana4. Look where the sun is the first lysis of one, in the Advocates Library, hour of every quarter of the moon, in which collection there are many o. viz. E. W. N. or S. and there the thers of equal value, and easily acceso wind will be for the greatest part of sible.

This MS. is the Chartulary of the Abbey of Dunfermline, the most cele. brated religious house in Scotland, and

anciently the residence of the Scottish SCOTTISH REVIEW.

Kings. Its foundation is usually as

cribed to Malcolm III. who died in I. A Tract, chiefly relative to Monastic 1093, and was interred within its pre

Antiquities; with some account of cincts; certain it is, that it existed in a recent search for the remains of the eleventh century. It flourished the Scottish kings interred in the in great splendour for several centuAbbey of Dunfermline. By John ries, till the period of the English wars, Graham Dalyell Esq. 8vo. 9s. when it suffered considerably, and at

the time of the reformation, shared the MR 'R Dalyell is already known to fate of similar edifices, and was redu

the public for his intimate ac- ced to a state of ruin. quaintance with Scottish history and The account of the chartulary is antiquities, and as the editor of seve- preceded by a detail of some circumral works which tend to throw light stances, which have at least a local upon these subjects. The present relation to it. This abbey was long tract contains a good deal of curious the place of sepulture for the Scottish information: it is not, however, merely kings, and hence it became an object for the sake of this information itself, of curiosity to examine whether it that Mr Dalyell has drawn it up, but yet contained any remains of them.chiefly with the view of directing the The result of this examination we attention of enquirers to a new source shall give in Mr Dalyell's own of authentic intelligence. This source, words: which Mr Dalyeli considers as by far

In what is now denominated the the most copious and valuable of any, Psalter Churchyard, a space which foris drawn from ancient manuscripts.- merly constituted the floor of the eastHe complains, however, that it has ern part of the abbey, are six flat stones, hitherto been very much neglected; of large dimensions, all adjoining, and

Under and that writers have preferred the disposed in two parallel rows. easier task of copying their predeces- these, according to history, and also sors, to the labour of searching for new

tradition, the bodies of as many kings

were deposited: here, ikewise, the materials, however valuable. Many

great altar is supposed to have stood, causes indeed concur to render this being close to the place of interment. last undertaking difficult and repulsive. But notwithstanding positive assuranThese manuscripts are scattered in di- ces of such facts, which to a certain exverse places, and often of difficult ac tent are confirmed by the chartulary, as cess; they are written in an unusual will afterwards be observed, they have character, with innumerable contrac- which account it was lately considered

sometimes been called in question ; on tions, and ambiguous expressions.- peculiarly interesting, to ascertain wheThese obstacles prove too much for ther any relics of the tombs or repositothe patience of a majority of antiqua- ries of the royal remains might still

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P. 2.

be extant. Therefore, having previous- washed among the rubbish where the ly obtained the acquiescence of those earth was thrown out, a leaden plate who could have opposed the research, was found, with a lion engraved on it, the middle stone of the west row, being surrounded by Robertus Dei Gratia Rex the largest, was removed early on the Srotorum. It is now in the possession of morning of the 28th of July 1807. An the Earl of Elgin. early hour was preferred, on purpose to prevent interruption ; for the walls sur

Mr D. is of opinion that this search rounding the Psalter churchyard were ought to be carried to a considerable insufficient to guard against the intru. farther extent. Inscriptions and other sive curiosity naturally expected on the remains of antiquity might then be occasion.

found, tending to throw light on the The earth immediately below the history of Scotland. He is not of surface, and even to the depth of two opinion, however, that the tombs, or three feet, had the appearance of hav. which were the original objects of ing been dug before, though perhaps at a remote period, and nothing whatever the search, are now to be found; he was found among it, excepting a few conceives them to have been destroyhuman bones, brittle and rotten. Under ed in the general wreck of the abthis, however, about four or five feet bey. from the surface, a coffin, rudely built

Mr D. now proceeds to the Charof small irregular pieces of sand.stone, tulary, of which he gives the following along with a scanty portion of lime, and covered in the same manner with

description : similar materials, was found, containing The chartulary of Dunfermline is a the skeleton of a full-grown person, folio volume, consisting of 169 leaves of pretty entire. Its position was not di- vellum, wrote in an infinite variety of rectly below the large stone, but one hands, from the middle of the thirteenth half of the length further west. It lay down to the middle of the sixteenth among 'soft humid clay, completely fils century. It contains above 6oo deeds, ling the coffin, from which the bones of different descriptions, all arranged in had imbibed so much moisture, that, on the most irregular manner, of which to. lifting a broken one, the water poured wards 160 have been engrossed about from the lower end as on squeezing a the year 1250, or soon afterwards. sponge. The head, or upper part of the These constitute the oldest part of the coffin, towards the west, was contracted chartulary. They are written in a into narrow compass, just admitting the strong distinct character, abounding skull, which was quite fresh, and the with contractions, as may be observed teeth sound..

in the specimen prefixed : the ink is This coffin had certainly never been black, and still retains its shining quali. opened, and I am inclined to ascribe ty. The rubrics, or titles of the char. its structure to a more ancient date than ters, are in red, and there are some let. : the decease of the kings whose bodies ters illuminated. are said to be deposited in the abbey ; The first transcriber's design seems to for I do not conceive that any of them have been dividing this record into three are contained in it. All the bones were principal parts, by classing together the returned to their original-situation, and royal grants, those of dignitaries of the the pieces composing the top of the cof- church, and those of subjects. But other fin put over them.

transcribers have altogether disregarded The morning, by this time, being far the intended order, and included later advanced, the whole excavation was fil- charters among the more ancient ones, led up, and the covering replaced ; merely from finding a vacant space ; which operation, as well as removing it, whence the chartulary exhibits a rude was a matter of considerable difficulty, and uncouth appearance, though it is in as it is above nine feet long, more than general in an entire condition. It beone half as broad, and several inches gins with the form of an appointment of thick.

a justiciar, to hold courts, and adminis. I have since been informed, that some ter the laws within the territories of the time afterwards, when the rain had abbey, which is written ip a hand of the


P. 13.

sixteenth century; and terminates with ability to support divine worship, and
an obligation by the abbot, to prevent discharge the duties of hospitality, fol. 75.
the inhabitants of Kirkaldy from build-
ind wind, water, or " hors milnis" with.'
in a certain district, dated 17 April

How could the patronage of va1557

P. 8.

cant churches improve their reve

nues, or enable them to discharge the The chartulary appears to have duties of hospitality? Is it possible been begun in 1427; the first charter that church livings were thus publicly copied into it is by David I. who died and avowedly the subject of sale ?-1153. There are frequent repetitions, We think this deserves to be enquired as the monks were particularly careful into. to obtain the ratification of their do One of the chief circumstances nations from every successive king, as which raised this abbey to distinction, well as confirmation from the Popes. was its having for its tutelary saint To every grant they were careful to Margaret, Queen of Scotland, who procure the attestation of respectable died 1 203. That lady, in consequence witnesses, who, in earlier times, were of the miracles atchieved by her bones sometimes women.

Two countesses and relics, being considered as fully of Athol, and one Queen of Scotland, entitled to the character of Saint, a are found appearing in this capacity petition to that effect was transmitted at different times.

to the Pope, with a statement of her The privileges and gifts bestowed claims. The Pontiff, however, shews I on the abbey, form of course an im: a singular and amusing scrupulosity as portant article in such a document. to the evidence of these wonders. In Every thing employed for their use 1245, he issued a bull to the bishops was freed from duty; the men belong. of St Andrews, Dunkeld, and Duning to it were exempted from labour- blane, “ commanding them to make ing at all public works, which were strict enquiry into her life, merits, and then performed by compulsory service. miracles, to reduce what was proved Besides the lands which it possessed to writing, attested by their seals, and in property, it held the superiority of to transmit it by a trusty messenger." many others, for which homage was An attestation of the most ample paid to it. Any man on the territo- kind was immediately sent; but the tories of the abbey, who committed a Pope, still unsatisfied, sent over a decrime, could be repledged from the mand for new evidence. Evidence, supreme criminal courts, and brought however, was at last poured in so copibefore that of the abbot. Even ously, accompanied perhaps by arguthese trials, however, seem to have guments still more weighty, as quieted been conducted by jury. One dona- the scruples of his Holiness, and indu tion, for which they at least apply, ced him to grant the canonization reseems of a very singular nature. We quired. shall give it in Mr D's words.

Mr Dalyell has collected some in

teresting particulars relating to the About the year 1231, the abbot and ancient condition of the labouring monks signified to the Pope that there

poor, who were generally bondmen. had formerly been thirty, but, in future, there were to be fifty ; but the revenues Among the most interesting facts preof the monastery being insufficient for 'served by the chartulary are those which the expence of receiving strangers, visi. illustrate the state of the ancient inhabitors, and the poor, they had been oblig., tants of Scotland. From various passa, ed to contract debts; therefore they be- ges, it is evident, that if the lover orsought the patronage of vacant churches, ders of peasantıy were not actual slaves, that the abbey might not suffer from in. they were but one degree remored from


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May 1809.


bondage. A man and his whole poste. tivis, in the thirteenth and fourteenth
rity could be gifted by one to another century. In the year 1278, Sir Ranulph
like so many beasts of burden. There de Strothechyn resigns the lands of
is a charter with the specific title de Ser Beeth Waldef into the king's hands,
vis; and this contains a donation, by the cum omnibus hominibus et cotariis,''
King, of Gillandream Macsuthen and fol. 17.
his children, in perpetuam elemosinam, The right of property in such bond.
to the monks, about the years 1171-1178, men could equally be the subject of le-
fol. 13. David gives Ragewin, Gillepa- gal trial as that in an animal

, in a house, tric and Ulchill for ever to the church of or an estate. There is a memoranduin the Holy Trinity of Dunfermline," entered in the chartulary, that, on the my own men,” fol.7.

12 of May 1340, a jury was empanneled The master, it appears, was entitled on a question of this nature, before the to any acquisition the slave or bondman Sheriff of Fife, in the churchyard of might make, and to the property he en- Crail. ....“ Transiit hæc assisa, inter joyed. David grants that the abbot and “ venerabilem patrem Alexandrum, Dei monks shall have“ omnes homines, cum gratia Abbatem de Dunfermline, et “ omni pecunia eorum (wherever they • Duncanum tunc Comitem de Fiff, su

may be,) that were on the lands on per Alano quondam filio Constantini * that day when they were offered up “ et duobus filiis, vid. Ricardo et Ala" and given to the church of the Holy no, qui se dicebant homines predicti

Trinity." It is certain that such per. " Comitis : sed per fidelem assisam, fide sons could not change their residence, “ dignorum et nobilium, eodem die facti that they were bound to remain on the “ erant homines ligii predicti domini abJands. A charter by David, is entitled “batis," fol. 98.. de fugitivis qui vocantur Cumberlachi, and As bondage was thus transmitted by there is alsó one by William, de fugitivis inheritance, it was important to preserve qui vocantur Cumerlaches. Whether these the lineage of the bondmen; several sinwere a particular description of bond- gular instances of which are found in the men, or acquired that appellation from chartulary. These are genealogies, being fugitives, or whether it was the written in a hand approaching to the surname of a distinct family of bondmen, earlier part of the fourteenth century. if surnames were then generally known, It is difficult to read them both on ac. I shall not presume to decide. In the count of their numerous contractions, latter charter they are denominated Cu- and from the injury which the chartula. merbas and Cumerlachos. In the former, ry has there sustained. the king commands the restoration or One remarkable circumstance attend. all cumerlachi to the church of the Ho. ant on these genealogies, is the apparent dy Trinity, “and all the slaves (servi) alteration of the surname in the course só which my father, and mother, and bro- of succession: at least, it is not clear “thers have given to it; and the cu. that the surname of the ancestor was re

merlache, from the time of king Ed. tained by his posterity. gar

until now, with all their money." With regard to the obligations of the Yol. 7. There are, besides, various o monastery towards its own bondenen, ther writings concerning fugitives. It there is some elucidation contained in is not easily ascertained whether the ho the verdict of a jury, as early as the year mines nativi, servi, ligii homines, were 1320. This jury, which consisted of the same at such an early period, or tight persons, sat in the chapel of Lowhat was the difference characterizing gyn, on a question between the abbey them. In the year 1275, lands are re and the men of Tweddale belonging to signed into the king's hands, “ cum om. it. The latter, in the first place, de“ nibus hominibus et cotariis eodem die mand that the abbot shall appoint a baj. “ in eadem terra manentibus, et cum lie of their own race, who shall repledge “ tota posteritate eorum, in perpetu- them to the court of the monastery ; to

um ;" and the king, by the next char. which it is answered, by the jury, that ter, dispones these lanás to the abbey, such a bailie should be given to them,

cum omnibus ligiis hominibus ad dic not only from feudal right, but from use

tam terram pertinentibus," fol. 17. and wont. Secondly, they require, that Lando are irequently conveyed cum na if any of their race shall be verging on


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P. 405

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