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rities. The authorities cited by Mr whom he distributed extensive landed Chalmers are numerous and decisive. possessions, and otherwise afforded proWithout trusting to former writers, tection and encouragement. In fact, who rarely took the trouble to ascer a change then took place in the Lowtain the truth of what was asserted, country districts of Scotland, somethis gentleman sedulously consulted thing similar to what is now going the ancient records, both of public forward in the Northern or Highland bodies and private individuals, and has districts. thereby thrown a light upon the an Numerous colonies of Flemings al. tient history of this country, sufficient so settled in Scotlapd, and from this ly bright to illuminate the dark pe- stock several of the first families of the riods which he treated of, and enlight country have sprung. The Celtic en the people of the present day, re- people had their bamlets, to which specting the former state of their na- , they gave descriptive names in their tive country, and the progress of agri- own language ; but when the Angloculture, and other useful arts. Normans were introduced, their first

From the interesting particulars object was to build a strong-hold or communicated by Mr Chalmers, am- castle, around which the followers of ple information is received concerning the chief settled, and thus formed a the favourable condition of rural eco- village, and in some cases, a town; in nomy in Scotland, at the end of the which practice they were much encou13th century; whence it may be in- raged by the several sovereigns, who ferred, that the Low-country districts, wished to bridle and restrain the feroespecially those south of the Forth, city of the natives. The policy of the were in a rapid state of improvement. Scotch kings, during the Saxon ds. It must, however, be remarked, thatnasty, prompted the building of castles little of that improvement was owing in every place where a convenient site to the Celtic natives, nearly the whole occurred; and it was under the proof it being attributable to the foreign- tection of these strong-holds, that ers introduced by the Scoto-Saxon towns arose and industry began her kings. From the reign of Edgar to

Such a system of policy, the conclusion of the Saxon dynasty, however, was viewed by the Aborinumerous bodies of Anglo-Saxons, gines with indignation. Insurrections Anglo-Normans and Flemings, settled were often raised, and attempts made in Scotland, and, by favour of the se to burn and destroy the towns so everal monarchs, acquired vast posses- rected, and to lay waste the lands sions in many districts. Edgar, the which belonged to the inhabitants first of the Saxon dynasty, forced his of these towns. After the capture of way to the throne by the decisive aid King William, 1174, when anarchy of an English army; and afterwards prevailed for some time, the new set. gradually brought in a new people, tlers fled to the king's castles for shelwhose polity was widely different from ter ; and such liad been the progress that of the aboriginal inbabitants. A. of colonization, that the towns and lexander I., who married an English boroughs of Scotland were, at that princess

, likewise, encouraged settlers period, chiefly inhabited by foreignof that nation ; but the reign of Da- ers, vid I. was most propitious to adven A policy of a different kind, but eturers from foreign countries. That qually beneficial, contributed much to prince, having married an English the improvement of the country. countess, who had numerous vassals, The erecting of such a number of rewas attended to the throne, in 1124, ligious houses, in the twelfth century, by a thousand Anglo-Normans, to was attended with salutary effects; be.

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cause the monks being drawn from Eng It occurred in respect to this student, land and foreign countries, of course as to the present Bishop of Landaff, and brought along with them the arts exer- indeed most of the young men, who re cised in these countries, to the great be- pair thither from the north of England, nefit of the kingdom in which they now carrying with them no other preten. settled. These ecclesiastics had their sions than their talents, that an undedependants, to whom they granted par- viating assiduity and laborious induscels of land on conditions of service; try occupied and distinguished almost and it must be confessed, that the every moment of his life. He was church lands were first improved, and accordingly treated with respect by in such a substantial way, that many his superiors, and, while qualifying of them to this day continue to yield himself for the future duties of the samore productive crops than the lands .cred profession, of which he was one then in the hands of the barons, tho' day to be a shining ornament, a taste at first sight there may appear no dif- for literature and composition was ference in their natural value. The gradually infused into his mind. monks brought along with them many

Mr Porteus obtained his first decraftsmen or artizans from foreign gree as batchelor of arts, in 1752, countries, and in this way the settling when he was only seventeen or eighof every religious house may be consi teen years of age. The same year was dered as the plantation of a new colo- also distinguished by another occurhy of the Tuetonic race amidst the rence, which was calculated to form Celtic inhabitants of North Britain. an epoch, in the life of our Tyro; for (To be continued.)

he gained one of the two gold medals, held out as a tempting remuneration

to those who should produce the best Biographical Sketch of the late Dr classical essays. This well-judged

BEILBY PORTEUs, Lord Bishop of and munificent reward was confer-
LONDON.

red by a former Duke of Newcastle, DR R Beilby Porteus was a native of then Chancellor of the University

Yorkshire, where he was born a as for his competitors, most, if not bout the year 1731; but he himself was all, of them, have been long since accustomed to trace his decent from a dead, with the exception, however, Scottish family; and it is a well-known of Francis Maseres, Esq. F. R. S. fact, that his grandfather had repaired Cursitor Baron of the Exchequer, who to this country at no distant period. was, like himself, a successful candiHis father, a tradesman of little emi- date. nence, resided for many years in the His worth, as well as talents, now north of England ; and it was at the began to be known within the pregrammar-school at Rippon, under the cincts of his Alma Mater, and in 1754 care of the Rev. Mr Hyde, that young Mr Porteus was nominated one of the Porteus commenced his classical ca- Esquire Beadles of the University,

By that gentleman he was qua- which office he held for about 16 lified for the University, having deter- months. mined on the church as a profession, In 1755, the degree of Master of at a time when he little thought that Arts

was conferred

upon
this

respect, one of its richest mitres would encir- able student, who now began to becle his head. With a zeal worthy of hold the dawn of his good fortune ; his future fortune, but an ambition for he was elected a fellow by his cola that did not extend beyond a rural lege, and nearly at the same time apcure, he entered at Christ's College, pointed one of the preachers at WhiteCambridge.

hall chapel. It was not, however, un

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til 1759, that Mr Porteus was known under his own immediate -patronage. beyond his limits of his University, He accordingly was pleased immedifor it was then that he obtained the ately to appoint him one of his doSeatonian prize, for the best composi- mestic chaplains; and soon after pretion on “ Death", which he published sented him, in succession, to two recsoon after, in conformity with the will tories in Kent, and one in Middlesex. of the founder. This was his first A prebendal stall in Peterborough poetical essay, or, at least, the first followed at no great distance. On that ever issued from the press, and it the demise of that eminent and very obtained for him not only a considera- pious prelate in 1768, he, in associable portion of fame, but was also con- tion with Dr Stinton, edited and pub. sidered as the prelude to still greater lished his works in seven volumes 8vo., celebrity,

consisting of sermons, charges, and On the demise of George II. Mr lectures; to which was prefixed a life, Porteus once more invoked the Mu- composed solely by our author, and ses, and, in some verses to the memory which obtained the praise of Johnson. of that Prince, exhibited his propen Previously to this event, Mr P. sity to, and his excellence in poetical who had resolved to settle in life, in composition. But other studies and 1765, married Miss Hodgson, a lady avocations, of a far different nature, of some fortune, whose father had recalled off his attention. In 1761, his sided at Matlock, in Derbyshire.pen was occupied in simple prose, and The ceremony was performed there by on a subject not very pleasing to a his friend, the primate. Two years afman of his placid turn of mind--con- ter this, the degree of D. D. was controversal divinity. A little before ferred on him by his own University, this period there had appeared a work and still greater honours now awaited entitled, “ The History of the Man him. The queen, hearing of Mr P's after God's own heart ;" in which the reputation, and being apprised of the many glaring defects in the character excellence of his private character, of David were artfully exposed and employed him as her private chaplain; heightened, with a degree of boldness and such a high opinion did her Mathat alarmed many good and well- jesty entertain of his piety and endisposed Christians. Mr Porteus, fear- dowments, from what she observed du. ing lest it might produce much mis- ring his attendance in consequence of chief, undertook, as well as many O a short illness, that she determined to thers, to vindicate one of the heroes of complete what Secker had begun.the Old Testament; and he accord. Accordingly, in January, 1777, on ingly preached a sermon, November 29, the translation of Dr Markham to the before the University of Cambridge, archbishopric of York, the royal inwhich had prefixed to it by way of terposition was employed in favour of

“ The character of David Dr Porteus, who was immediately King of Israel, impartially stated.” raised to the episcopal bench, as bi

It is, perhaps, to this little work, shop of Chester. that his future fortunes are to be Dr Porteus, who about this time wholly attributed; for Dr Thomas began to be greatly esteemed, and folSecker, who, in 1758, had been tran- lowed as a popular preacher, now pubslated from the see of Oxford, to the lished several single sermons. Altho' archiepiscopal throne of Canterbury, the popish religion had long ceased having read his discourse, was induced either to give offence, or create uneaby a perusal of this and his other pub- şiness, yet in 1781 he sent forth a lications, to take Mr P. who by this work directly levelled against it, .entime had obtained the degree of M.A. titled " A Brief Confutation of the

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Errors of the Church of Rome.” their object to demonstrate the truth
This was extracted, however, from of the gospel history, and the divinity
Archbishop Secker's works, and in- of Christ's mission. It was on this
tended for general distribution. occasion that, towards the latter end

In 1783, he produced a volume of of his life, he acquired the character his own Sermons on several subjects; of an accomplished orator ; for his it was followed by two more, and language was chaste, his manner imthese have since been considered as pressive, and his eloquence captivating. models. In the course of the same Nor should it be bere omitted, that year, his lorúship preached before the his address was peculiarly impressive, Society for propagating the Gospel in he seemed to speak from conviction, foreign Parts; and he seized that oc- and being fully persuaded himself of casion, to plead the cause of the un- the truth of those doctrines, so earhappy negroes, whose claims have nestly recommended by him, he more been lately advocated with uncom- easily succeeded in persuading others. mon success, and whose sufferings have In point of private character, the been in part vindicated and redressed. late Bishop of London has ever been

Another laudable subject that en- unexceptionable. Affable, amiable, gaged much of his attention, was also easy of access, primitive in respect to promoted by his recommendation, manners, unspotted in regard to moand forwarded by his zeal. Accor- rals, he has been always held up as an dingly with this view, he published a example worthy of the pristine times “ Letter to the Clergy of the Dio- of christianity. Addieted during the cese of Chester, concerning Sunday whole of his long life to literary purSchools.”

suits, and excelling, in the early part . In 1787, a considerable change of it, in poetry, he became the friend took place in his life, and the scene of Mrs Hannah Moore, the corresponhis labours was not a little extended; dent of Mrs Carter, and the patron of for on the death of the amiable, and all those who to a taste for composilearned Bishop Lowth, Dr Porteus tion added a fervent piety, approachwas translated to the see of London. ing to something like evangelical puThis event gave entire satisfaction to rity. every description of christians within

On one subject, we are desirous to the kingdom.

give Dr Porteus great and unqualified Instead of relaxing from his labours, praise : this is the education of the Nehis ļordship now appears to have been groes, on Dr Bell's and Mr Lancaster's.. invigorated in his career ; for after plan. He was always, as has been alreadelivering and publishing a charge to dy noticed, a strenuous advocate for the the clergy of his new diocese, at the abolition of the slave trade; and we primary visitation, he once more turn- only lament that he did not contend ed his attention towards the unhappy openly, and manfully, like Horsly, situation of the oppressed Africans. from the bench of bishops, in favour This good prelate, in 1792, assisted to of that humane measure, as his chafound a society for their conversion. racter and influence would have pow

Meanwhile, lest the inhabitants of erfully assisted in putting an end to his

very populous diocese should re- sucha a diabolical commerce, many lapse into infidelity, he commenced a years before its final extinction. series of lectures, at St James's church,

In regard to style, Dr Porteus' poein the city of Westininster. These tical works exhibit a character of unwere delivered every Friday, to crowd- adorned elegance, and he seems to ed and genteel audiences, composed of have preferred blank verse to rhyme. persons of all persuasions, and had for His prose composition is classically

correct ;'

correct; but he was perhaps too stu- difications of one and the same subdious to avoid the blandishments of stance, or that hydrogen is the base style, and the inspirations of fancy, of charcoal. Should this opinion, the which he doubtless considered as me result of various experiments and obretricious embellishment, unbecoming Servations, be confirmed, an important either the subject or the author. and extensive field will be opened to

In his youth, the person of Porteus the scientific world. The pabulum had been handsome, and until of late of plants, and the origin of that imhe preserved a florid hue, and features mense quantity of carbonaceous matthat bespoke a manly beauty. He had ter, annually produced in the vegitabeen long afficted with one of those ble kingdom, would thus easily and complaints incident to sedentary per- satisfactorily be accounted for, as orisons, which at length produced a ge- ating from water alone. neral debility, and he yielded to the In the late inundations near Loenen, pressure of accumulated disease, near- in the district of the Upper Betuwe, ly at the period when he was about to was discovered the right hip bone of become an octogenarian.

an elephant, incasuring from the os pro During the winter, the bishop usu- lis, to the end of the hip, 34 feet ally spent most of his time in St (Rhynland measure) of which a drawJames's-square : the spring and au- ing was taken on the spot, by the tumn were chiefly passed at Fulham : scientific Mr H. Hoogens. A double a portion of the summer was constant- tooth, together with some other bones, ly dedicated to a rural retreat at Sund- belonging to that species of animal, ridge, in Kent, where he lived like have been found on the same spot. a private gentleman, without ostenta Mr John Russell of Falkirk, Watchtion, and without parade. His lord- maker to his Royal Highness the Prince ship left town but two days before of Wales, who was mentioned in our his death, for the palace on the banks last as the inventor of a new Baroof the Thames, where he died. On meter, has also invented a curious this,'as on all similar occasions, the Watch on a new construction, which great bell of St Paul's, reserved to an beats dead seconds. nounce the demise of the sovereign A curious and genuine specimen of and the diocesan, was tolled.

the labours of Laurens Jansz, comHis remains are to be interred in a monly called Laurens Coster, the orvault, at the chapel at Sundridge, in ginal inventor of the art of printing, Kent, built and endowed by him, more was advertised to be sold by auction majorum, expressly for this purpose. on the 20th of April last, by Haak,

bookseller of Leyden. This valuable

piece of antiquity consists of a wooders Memoirs of the Progress of MANU- printing form, in excellent preserva

FACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, tion. It is about three inches long, and the FINE ARTS.

two inches broad, and three quarters

of an inch thick ; upon which an enTHI

HE perusal of the Report by tire page of a Latin Horarium has

Messrs. Fourcroy, Deyeux, and been cut in inverted characters. At Vauquelin, on a Memoir of M. Ber- the same time was to be disposed of, thollet, jun. entitled, " Inquiries Con a genealogical table, written upon cerning the Reciprocal Action of Sul- very old parchment, but perfectly lephur and Charcoal,” has induced Dr gible, of the progeny of Laurens, by John New to publish an opinion, which whom it seems this document has been he has for some years, entertained: preserved since the 15th century, and that charcoal and hydrogen are mo. handed down to each succeeding ge

neration.

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