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neration. This genealogy commences for their meeting, and prepared for with the daughter of Laurens Coster, their reception. At the upper end of who published the first printed im- this apartment, a chair of state under pression in 1441, and closes with her
a canopy was placed for the sovereign, descendants about the the
for the respective members. Oppo
site the king's chair a small bench Ancient Constkution of the SPANISH richly covered was placed, sufficient Cortes.
for two seats, for the representatives
of Toledo who came in with the king. (As it is understood that this celebra
After the king has entered, and tateà assembly is to be immediately called, ken his seat, the officers who attend we extract the following account of it; him stand on the right hand, uncover(thç best we have been able to meet with) from Dillon's History of Peter ed, with the president, who also rethe Cruel, (London 1988,) a work not remains uncovered, unless he is a pregenerally known.)
late or a grandee, when be is covered THE Cortes, or national parliament of
course. Then the representative of of Spain, consisted of the prelates, Toledo making three obeisances to the dukes, marquisses, counts, and ricos- king, comes forward, and craves his homes, with the masters of the three accustomed privileges.
These are military orders, who represented the granted, by the king ordering the annobility, and seventeen cities on the tient customs to be followed respecto part of the commons who were sum- ing Burgos and Toledo ;
which being moned by the king's writ to attend.- gone through, and certificates given
The representatives sent by the com- thereof, Toledo returns to his place. .
Burgos and Toledo rising, present gistrates (regidores ) as their represen- themselves before the sovereign, who tatives to the Cortes, Seville and Toro says, Let Burgos speak: I know Toleexcepted, who only sent one magis- do will follow my orders. Certificates trate, and a jurat.
of the king's answer being delivered The place of meeting for the Cor- to them, they return to their seats, tes not being sedentary, but moveable and the representatives for Burgos riat the king's pleasure, seemed a mea- sing together, the senior member sure absolutely necessary in a country' makes a speech on the behalf of the so' divided and intersected by the Ma- commons; to which the king answers, hometan states.
46 That he is well informed of the All the parties being arrived at the “ matter under consideration, and conplace appointed, and the day fixed forvinced of the attachment and loyalty holding the Cortes, the representatives“ of his subjects; that the president proceeded on horseback with a splen- will inform them when they may did attendance to the saloon destined “ sit for the dispatch of business, and
* of those weighty concerns relating When a day is set, apart for any * to his service.” Then the king ri- public business, it must be gone
thro sing, departs in the same form in which either in the athirmative or negative, he came.
unless it is deemed absolutely necesWhen the Cortes meet again, the sary for the king's service to postpone saloon is arranged in a different it. No member can leave the Cortes manner. At the upper end of the while sitting, without special licence apartment, a space is left between the from the president; or, in his absence, seats of Burgos and Leon, where ,a the chairman appointed by the king ; chair is occasionally placed for the stating the urgency of the case, with
president, with a table before him out which the member must remain covered with crimson damask, having till the question is decided. a crucifix on it, and the book of the The votes for any resolution are New Testament. Burgos sits on the collected by the secretaries, after which right, and Leon on the left ; the other it is signed by four members chosen members alternately,according to their by ballot, and delivered to the presirank, or places settled by ballot. dent; he presents it to the king, who,
The president now addresses a flo- having accepted of the grant, thanks rid and complimentary speech to the his faithful commons. It is then orCortes ; after which the names of the dered to be engrossed; and on a future commons being read aloud by the se- day the president repeats the king's cretary, they walk up two and two to thanks : to which Burgos answers, in the table; and taking off their hats, the name of the commons; after which lay their hands on the crucifix and the president rings a small bell, that New Testament, when the secretary stands on the table, the doors are openreads them the following oath: “ Youred, and the door-keepers enter. The “ lordships swear to God on this book, secretary reads the
grant in an audible " and on this cross on which you voice ; after which it is carried by the “ lay your hands, that you will keep door-keepers to the members for Bur“ secret all that you hear or say in gos and Leon, who sign the same, and " this assembly relating to the service after them all the members of the “ of God and the king, and that
It is then brought up to “ will not divulge the same to the ci- the president, who makes a short speech “ ties or towns having votes in the in the king's name, which closes the “ Cortes, till the business of the ses- proceedings of that day. 66 sion is finished, unless by express or- If the grant is of a considerable na“ ders from the king or the president;. ture, all the members have the honour 4 and you also swear to defend the im- to kiss the king's hand. They are “ maculate conception of the blessed conducted in form to the king's au“ virgin, the patroness and guardian dience-chamber, where they remain of these kingdoms."
standing and uncovered till the king This ceremony being over, the pre- comes, and takes his seat. The presisident desires the Cortes to fix their dent addresses a speech to the king, days for the dispatch of business. Five declaratory of the motives of their apmembers are balloted for, to attend at pearance. Burgos enters into further the different boards where the public details, in the name of the commons, monies are received, of which four on- and asserts their readiness to assist hiş ly do the business, and the fifth is su- grace on all occasions : after which pernumerary in case of illness. This they all have the honour to kiss the, ballot is renewed every four months, king's hand. but the fifth is stationary, till the Cor- When the grant is a matter of tes are dissolved.
grace, the votes are collected private
ly; if there be only three dissentient posed to pay attention to arly work voices, it cannot pass, nor be brought which undertakes to illustrate it. on for four months to come. But The present author displays considerwhen it is a matter of right, they are able information, though he is often depublic, and a majority carries the ques- ficient in philosophical views. The tion. These resolutions then become facts, however, which he has collectthe law of the land, and are binding ed, are deserving of some attention. on all parties; clergy and gentry, free- Our author draws an animated picholders and others, of what condition ture of the miseries produced by the
use of strong and particularly spiritThe Cortes have also the appoint- uous liquors ; and he pronounces high ment of divers offices of the state, pass panegyrics on those nations, among grants for the erection of monasteries, whom they are unknown. He even and other religious foundations, which betrays Mahometan propensities, so are never enacted by the king without ardently does he admire the prohibithe consent of the Cortes. They also tion of strong liquors imposed on the nominate their own officers, who are votaries of that religion. Yet it is paid by them, and sometimes granted going too far to decide against the in survivorship to certain families.-- use of any thing from its abuse. All There are two treasurers, an attorney- nations have sought more or less the general, an accountant-general, an his- exhilaration produced by this species toriographer, four advocates, two phy- of stimulus, and there seems no reason sicians, and two surgeons.
for excluding them from the innocent On public festivals the Cortes had use of it, because some, or even many a balcony next to that of the king, on carry it to excess.
AH that seems the left hand, and in the same form; to be required from government is, and when they are dissolved, they ap- that, by heavy duties, it should prevent point a deputation to represent them. the too great cheapness of these liWhen this happens, it is done with quors from becoming a temptation to their consent, and the act drawn up their immoderate use; and this moral by themselves. The president then regulation affords her at the same time closes the books of the Cortes, and the means of raising a large revenue eight deputies are chosen by ballot to without exciting discontent, but with represent them, four of which only the general approbation of the countransact the business of their office, try. and the other four to serve in case of In considering the materials of ferillness; and they generally sit twicemented and spirituous liquors, grain a week at the public offices where the seems to be entitled to an evident prebusiness of the national revenue is ference over the vine, since it is capa. transacted.
ble, in times of scarcity, of being conyerted into food, and thus made, by a
legislative prohibition, to relieve the SCOTTISH REVIEW. pressure arising from other causes.
A permanent prohibition might enI. An Address to the Landed Inte- crease the population of the country,
rest of Scotland, on the subject of but it would greatly augment the danDistillation : By a Scotch Farmer. ger of famine, by withdrawing this Hill. Edinburgh. 1808. important resource.
Our author gives some important DISTILLATION is a subject of particulars respecting the origin and
unquestionable importance to progress of Scotch® distillation. It this country, and we are therefore dis- appears that down to the reign of
James 'V. no spirituous liquor was Lothian Farmer, on the subject of the known in this country, The statutes Scotch distilleries, published at Edinmake mention only of wine, and beer burgh in the year 1797, the author es,
timates the duties paid to the revenue mentioned, and its importation permit- by the Scotch distillers, in their late
augmented state, at 1,650,00ol.annually; ted on payment of a trifling duty. and he supposes the cost of the grain to Prior to this time, however, in 1661, be equal to the duties, and the expence a duty was imposed on aquavitæ both of manufacture to be equal to a third of foreign and home-made, which last is the value of the grain, forming an aggre. distinguished by the description, not gate of 3,850,0001., exclusive of the distilfrom mall, and the saine qualification lers' profit, and of course, exclusive also occurs in all subsequent statutes down which may be reckoned at 25 per cent.
of the merchants and retailers' profits, to the union. Thus we find that a
more, or a fourth of the average amount, spirit made from malt was known, yet Nay, the retailer alone, with the help of no duty imposed upon it; a singular a little salutary adulteration, frequent. circumstance, which must have arisen ly draws more than 25 per cent. profit either from a desire to encourage the
on the prime cost; so that the general manufacture, or from its being prohibit- average of the profits, may be, perhaps
10 ed by other statutes. In either case,
higher, before the article comes to the it seems probable, that it was not car
consumer. If, therefore, the calcula. ried on to any considerable extent. tions of the Mid-Lothian farmer are In 1681, malt is alluded to as the nearly accurate, it will be found that material only of beer or ale, not of spi- the value of the produce of the licen. rit.
sed distillation, as paid by the consum. The author being now deserted by
ers, exceeds 5,000,000l. annnally. The
produce of ihe private or unlicensed positive information, is obliged to
distillation, which is carried on to an inhave recourse to conjecture ; and we credible extent in every corner, may must own that his conjectures are be safely estimated at one third of the both ingenious and probable. He licensed distillation; and the value of supposes that to Inverness, as the prin- ale and porter, foreign spirits, and wines, cipal sea port of the North, foreign consumed annually, may be reckoned spirits would be first imported ; and
equal to that of all the home made spi. these being found singularly agreeable
rits, nay probably it is much higher.-
This will give an aggregate of about 14 to Highland palates, the abundance millions,
millions, as the amount of the national and cheapness of malt would natural. expenditure for drink alone; to which ly tempt the neighbouring inhabitants may he added, perhaps, above three to employ it in the production of a si
millons expended in tea and sugar, on milar liquor. The village of Ferin
the moderate calculation, that the avetosh near Inverness, as it is still the
rage consumpt of these articles is about
21. yearly per head, inclusive of the best, may be supposed to have been
great expenditure of sugar, in other arthe first, which addicted itself to this ticles of diet and drink. manufacture. The practice, once be- Thus we shall find, that Scotland exgun, would soon spread, and it is sup- pends yearly, in articles of drink alone, posed by our author to have descend- 17 millions, or above il. a.head, on ed from the Highlands into the Low- its average population; a most increlands, where it was later of being in
dible sum, considering that the greatest
part of it is consumed in articles of untroduced. Our author has collected some cu
necessary luxury; and that above one
half of it is expended on foreign and rious facts as to the amount of this imported commodities.
P. 68. manufacture. He says,
From another quarter he draws the In a letter to Mp Pitt from a Mid, following information:
In the Edinburgh Farmers Magazine, Whether there is any thing in the lofor the month of April 1801, the annual cal circumstances of the country, and average consumpt of grain in Britain is in the insuperable aversion of its inhaestimated-at 30 millions of quarters: bitants to sugar-whisky, which may The proportion consumed by all the members of the community, not dis entitle them to be exempted from the rectly employed in agriculture, is sta. general prohibition of malt, we shall red at about seven and a-half mile not pretend to say ; but we certainly hons of quarters, or about one fourth of conceive that the exemption, if it be the total consumpt; while the quantity given, ought to be full and free, and consumed in brewing, distilling, and not to consist in a weak connivance at for horses not employed in agriculture, irregular proceedings equally hurtful is teckoned at nearly 11 millions of quaiters; or above one third part of to the revenue and the subject. the total consumpt.
This is certainly astonishing ; nor had we any idea of so
II. Cælebs in search of a Wife; comAt the same time we
prehending Observations on Domesmay observe, that even supposing no tic Habits and Manners, Religion error in the calculation, the beer and and Morals. 2 volumes. London. ale, in the production of which at least Cadell and Davies ; 1809. half the malt is probably employed, forms, from its nutritive quality, an THE narrative contained in this important addition to the national engaging book is shortly this: food. When we deduct it, not more A young gentleman of four-andthan a sixth part of the annual pro
possesses a handsome forduce will be found to go to the pro- tune, and whese property lies in duction of whisky, which, however, is the county of Westmoreland, after doubtless a very liberal allowance. being deprived of his parents, who
After these remarks on the subject seem to have been persons of great exof distillation in general, we shall say cellence and worth, naturally finds a few words on the circumstance his situation to be solitary, and therewhich first led our author into the fore sets himself to look about for a present train of speculation. This he person, who may become a fit compastates to be a resolution of the county nion for him through life. Keeping of Aberdeen to exert their utmost ef- steadily in his mind certain important forts to procure the repeal of an act rules, which he had received from his passed for the prevention of private parents for his direction in the proper distillation. This resolution is under- choice of a wife, and resolving to astood to express the sentiments, not of bide by a request which his father had the county of Aberdeen only, but of made before his death, that he would most gentlemen of landed property in delay fixing his affections until he had the north of Scotland. Private, we un- consulted his most intimate friend, Mr derstand to be only another word for Stanley of Stanley Grove, in Hampillegal andsmuggled distillation. Now shire, Celebs sets off from the Priowe decidedly agree with our author, ry, intending, after seeing London, to that if any application is to be made, spend some time at the house of this it should be to legalize this trade, and Mr Stanley and his family, a visit, not to protect the offenders in its ille- which he was to have made in compaa gal exercise ; and that it must have a his father, had not the hand. bad effect, that the leading men in the of disease and of death interposed. county should thus hold themselves out After remaining for a considerable the supporters of an illicit traffic. time in London, in the house of Sis