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our care.

Maximilian Joseph, king of Bavaria, to all varia shall finally obtain that consolidawhom these presents shall come, health! tion which will place her for ever in se

“ Without a declaration of war, with- curity against the attacks of a jealous out any previous explanation, our terrin neighbour, you will support with your tory was on the gih of this month inva- wishes and your efforts, our arms, and ded, and we were compelled to leave those of our great ally. We shall soon our capital, which is possessed by the return to our capital. At the sight of Austrian troops. This attack on the the illustrious protector of our confede. rights of nations will be punished. The racy, our enemies will fade away, and sovereigns of the Rbenish confederacy, the war which they now again comsupported by their mighty protector, mence, stall, like that in 1805, be care shall maintain their independence, and, ried into their own territories; but mea. by victories, reply to the treacherous sures shall then be taken to prevent proclamation which is circulated in Ba. their any longer disturbing the contivaria, and which endeavours to subvert nent, and making their neighbours the the rights of sovereigns, by exciting e victims of the intrigues of their cabivery where a spirit of disaffection, and


MAXIMILIAN JOSEPH." to produce the destruction of all social Dillengen, April 17. order. People and soldiers of Bavaria, Further on, to the left of Jellachich's you know with what zeal we have lo. division, field-marshal Chastellar, on the ved you. You know that your happi 9th of April, amidst the joyful acclamaness has been the constant object of tions of the Tyrolese, entered the Ty

You know also that since rol at Lienz, through the Pusterthal, the treaty of Presburgh, which confirm and reached Brauneck on the 12th. ed your political existence, you have Every where the Tyrolese flew to arms, already had reason to rejoice at the new and either killed or took prisoners all relations subsisting between us and the the Bavarian soldiers in their territory. powers of Europe. People and soldiers

At Inspruck, on the same day, about of Bavaria, Austria seeks to annihilate

200 infantry and dragoons, with half a yourindependence, reduce yourstrength, battery, were made prisoners, and on the and diminish your possessions, under following day, 49 French officers, 1677 the pretext of freeing you. The peo men, with 451 horses, and two light ple of the allied states are not, how. battalions of Bavarians, surrendered at ever, ignorant of the new and danger- Wildau to the Tyrolese. ous influence which it has endeavoured While these events were transpiring to establish, and the obvious consequence on the left of the Austrian army, geneof which, would be the restoration of ral Bellegarde, on the right, broke up the arbitrary power which the archduken from Bohemia on the roth April with dom of Austria had assumed under the the first corps of the army, and passing title of Head of the German Empire. It by Tieschenrieth, formed a junction at is our throne which is threatened to be Werenberg, on the Nab, on the 12th, overthrown. It is the Bavarian name with the second corps of the army which which is to be extinguished among na had entered the Upper Palatinate by tions. In this attempt it is wished to Rushaupten. Both corps took a posi. make you parties, under the pretext of tion on the Nab, and their vanguard zeal for your property. Your territory occupied the heights of Hirschau, in oris destined to be the reward of your ene. der to watch the road from Bayreuth to mies--for in their ostentation they do Amberg. At Hirschau, an affair of adnot conceal their object. They wish vanced posts took place with the divito dismember your country, and to es sion of Friant, which was approaching, tablish in it Barons dependent on the in order to reach the Danube, by a racourt of Vienna. Their base and sense. pid march through Amberg. The conless purposes shall be defeated : for this sequence of the action was, that the we have the pledge of the fidelity of our French division was driven back to people, of the courage of our soldiers, of Neumarck, and the advanced posts of the genius and protection of our mighty the Austrians occupied Amberg. The ally,

first and second corps then advanced to “ In this great contest, in which jus. Swandorff and Kirn, near Ratisbon. But tic: w !! triumph over the temporary a the corps of Friant, nevertheless, joined Luse of power, and through which Ba the division of D'Avuust shortly after.


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We now return to the army of the rians, which we before stated had taken centre, under the immediate command of a central position at Neustadt, had the Archduke Charles. After passing marched from that place through Abenthe Iser at Landshut, H. I. H. with the sperg, and attacked the Austrians in the 3d, 4th, and 5th corps of the army, and rear. The Austrian division was thus the ist corps of the reserve, advanced driven from its positions, after sustain. by a forced march beyond the river La- ing a very severe battle, leaving, accor. bar, towards the Danube, in the direct ding to the French accounts, several tion of Kelheim and Ratisbon. On hundreds killed and prisoners. At sun. the 19th uit, he passed through Rotten.

set the divisions of Leiebvre and burg, Echmuhl, and Cloisterach. The D'Avoust formed a junction. object of this forced march of the Arch. On the following day, the 20th April, duke was evidently to cut off the corps Buonaparte arrived at Abensperg, and under D'Avoust, before it could form a

there resolved to attack the left wing junction with the division of Oudinot, of the Austrian army, commanded by which was rapidly advancing from Augs: the archduke Lewis and field-marshal burg, and the division of Massena, Hiller. For this purpose, the corps which had quitted Ulm, and had reach of D’Avoust kept the Austrian divied Augsburg. This bold design was

sions of Hohenzollern, of Rosenberg, unhappily frustrated by the celerity of and Lichtenstein, in check, while the the French movements. On the 19th two divisions of Moraud and Guden, an action took place at Pfaffenhoffen, which had formed the right of D’A. between the corps of Oudinot and a bo. voust's army on its march from Ratisdy of Austrians, which led to no great bunne, the Bavarians and Wirtemburconsequence on either side. Tlie day ghers, attacked the army of the archfollowing the division of Massena form- duke Lewis and General Hiller in ed a junction with that of Oudinot at front. Massena marched by Freyberg, Pfaffenhoffen ; and at the same time and thence proceeded to the rear of the D'Avoust left Ratisbon, to advance Austrian army, to cut off their commuto Neustadt, and to draw near to Ingol. nications. The French order of battle stadt. It is impossible to mistake the

was thus formed: The divisions of Mo. object of these rapid movements.

raud and Guden formed, and mancu. While they eluded the archduke's plan vred under the command of the duke of attack against D'Avoust's corps at

of Montebello ; the Bavarian general Ratisbonne, which was well judged, Wrede was stationed at Sigenburgh, and though it was prevented, the three attacked the Austrian division opposed corps of D'Avoust, Oudinot, and Mas to him ; general Vandamme, who comsena, together with the two divisions of manded the Wirtemburghers, attacked Bavarians at Neustadt, were thus ena the Austrians on their right flank. Lebled to concentrate their forces, and febvre, with the division of Bavarians collectively to attack the Austrians, at under the hereditary prince, and the Bathe very moment when they were 'ad. varian division of Deroi, marched tovancing to Ratisbonne, and thought ward the village of Ranezhausen, in orthemselves the assailants. Accordinglyder to reach the high road from Aben. D'Avoust commenced his march from sperg to Landshut. The duke of MonRatisbonne, by break of day, the divi- tebello, with his two French divisions, sions of Moraud and Guden forming forced the extremity of the Austrian his right, and the divisions of St Hilaire left, and advanced to Rohr and Rosem and Friant, bis left. At Presling, the burgh. The French bulletin states, that division of St Hilaire, supported by that these movements so disconcerted the of Friant, came up with the Austrians, Austrians, that they did not fight for whom they compelled to fall back with more than an hour, and then beat a rethe loss, according to the first bullettin, treat; and that 8 standards, 12 pieces of between 6 and 700 prisoners. About of cannon, and 1800 prisoners, were two o'clock in the afternoon, the left the result of this affair, while th y lost of D' Avuust's army, under Moraud, only a few mon. It is certain that the fell in with an Austrian division, near

Austrians were defeated, because we Tann, which was attacked in front, find them on the following day, the 21st, while Lefebvre, with a corps of Baya. in full retreat over the Iser, and Land.


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shut evacuated by them. And though itself to the third and 4th corps of re. the usual exaggeration of the French serve at Echmuhl, where a great battle has magnified the most trißing affairs was obstinately fought on the 22d, acinto great battles ; yet it is clear that cording to both the Austrian and French the Austrians sustained a great defeat statements. in the general action which touk place While the battle near Abensperg was between Abensperg and Landshut. Their taking place, the Archduke defeated the flank was laid open, and their magazines French at Ratisbonne, and took, accord, at Landshut were exposed. According. ing to the French bulletin, 1,000 ingly, the French availed themselves of Frenchmen prisoners; a circumstance their victory to push on to Landshut. which wrought such an, effect upon The Austrian cavalry, who were cover. Bonaparte, that he swore an hellish ing the retreat of their army, engaged oath, that in 24 hours Austrian blood the French under the duke of Istria, in should flow in Ratisbonne, to resent the the plain before Landshut; and the insult which had been offered to his French infantry forced a passage over troops. A thousand Frenchmen lost, the bridge, and penetrated into the city, could not have occasioned such a bloody Driven from their position, the Austri- oath. It is more likely, therefore, that ans were then attacked by the corps of the Austrians took 4 or 5,000 prisoners, Massena, which had advanced by the as is asserted by intelligence, not official, right bank of the Iser; and the conque

in the German papers,

All this while, rors, according to their own account, the corps of D'Avoust, and the Bavapossessed themselves of 30 pieces of can. rians under Lefebvre, held in check the non, 9,000 prisoners, 600 ammunition corps of Rosenberg, Hohenzollern, and waggons, and 3,000 baggage waggons. Lichtenstein, that is, the 4th, 3d, and

The Austrian account of these ac 2d corps. At this critical moment Bo. tions, in their seventh and eight reports, naparte was in a situation of immiconfessedly drawn up in haste, merely nent danger, and had not the communi. states that the Archduke Lewis, after cation between the archdukes Charles the battle of Abensperg, first retreated, and Lewis been cut off, or had the Archwith general Hiller, upon the Iser to duke made a forward movement with cover Landshut; near which the defile celerity with his whole force from Rawas obstructed by several waggons,

tisbonne and Eglofsham, the corps of which rendered the loss of some artillery D'Avoust and Lefebvre would have and several waggons unavoidable. But been utterly exterminated, and he the loss of men was not considerable ; would have taken the French division only one division of the regiment of Ben at Landshut in the reart. Unfortunately jaysk's infantry, suffered severely. The this was not attempted with adequate 5th, 6th, and 2d corps of the army uni promptitude, and Bonaparte, perceiving ted, and took a position near Old Oeting, his danger, made a forced march from to defend the river Inn.

Landshut, with the two divisions of the knowledge that there is not only great Duke of Montebello and Massena, the confusion in these reports, but also con cuirassiers of Nansouti and St Sulpice, tradiction. For in the seventh report, and the Wirtemberg division. If now the ad corps is said to have retreated the division of the archduke Lewis, inby Ratisbonne, and combined with the stead of pursuing its retreat, had sudmain army; whereas, in the eighth re- denly advanced again upon Landshut , port, it is represented as united with the French corps there must have been the sth and 6th at Old Oeting, and pre. sently after, the same report mentions it as having effected a junction with # For on the preceding evening, a the 3d and 4th corps of reserve severe action had taken place with the Ratisbonne. Botlı statements cannot corps of D'Avoust, when the archduke be true, as the French and Iser at that in vain attempted to carry the post of time intercepted the communication be. Abach, of which action the French tween the archduke's army in the vici. make no mention. But it was no nity of Ratisbonne, and the archduke doubt this attack which hurried away Lewis at Old Oeting. The most pro- Bonaparte from Landshut. bable account is, that the ad corps did Which they might have done, accor. not fall back to Old Oeting, but united ding to the 8th Austrian report.

we must ac




exposed, in consequence of this greated, but that they stood their ground subtraction from its force, and the maga- with such inveterate obstinacy as to zines might have been recovered. But have materially weakened the force of the loss of the means of communication the enemy, and to have prevented him is the bane of armies; and unless a from following his successes with that great genius presides, who is capable of galloping impetuosity for which he has hazarding much, great results cannot been heretofore distinguished. We are be expected. To the continued retreat the more inclined to judge in this way, of the archduke Lewis must therefore from the flippant style of the French be ascribed the subsequent successes of bulletins, and from the striking fact, the French. As we have already stated, that no pitched battles have been since Bonaparte, seeing the danger of the fought, though the army of the archcorps of D'Avoust and Lefebvre, advan- duke is still above 100,000 strong. Eced with the rapidity of lightning to ven the subsequent movements are not their support. At two o'clock in the narrated by the French with their usual afternoon of the 22d, he arrived opposite vapouring gaiety. Darkness at length Echmunl, and drew up his army in or compelled them to balt,yet during this der of battle, while the Austrians, ac. same darkness, the archduke defiled his cording to their 8th report, were only army undisturbed through Ratisbonne. preparing to make a general attack on On the ensuing day, the 23d, the French the following day. The Battle of Ech- advanced upon Ratisbonne, which they muhl was fought on the 22d, with una carried, after a severe conflict between common animosity, every Austrian their advanced guard and the Austrian feeling,” says their report, “ the sub- cavalry, which covered the approach lime cause for which he fought." to that city, wherein the French must

The right wing of the Austrians at. have suffered severely, as they repretacked and carried the post of Abach, on sent that several successive charges the Danube, and touk Lakepont. Op- were made, terminating, in more conposed to this wing, Lasnes command- strained . language, “ to their advaned with the division of Guden. The tage." Every one acquainted with iniright wing of the Austrians was com litary affairs must be aware, that it ne. pletely victorious; but the left was not ver was the intention of the Austrian so fortunate. It was turned at Ech: cavalry to attack the enemy, after its muhl, of which the French possessed infantry had passed the Danube. The themselves, and then formed again in only object of their mancuvres was to the woods (near Harting,) which cover cover the retreat of their infantry, Ratisbonne. The French say the Aus. which, by the French accounts, they trians were driven from this position in effected so completely, that they do not to the plain, where their infantry was boast of having made a single prisoner cut off by the French cavalry. On the in this action. And in their represenother hand, the 9th Austrian report tation of the battle of Echmuhl, the states that the archduke restored order, Austrians are stated to have lost only and thus ended a battle which had last- 300 cavalry!

“ In all these battles, ed five days without interruption. The they assert that “ they lost only 1,200 French assert that not half their army killed, and 4.000 wounded,” though in was engaged; with great truth, the different parts of the same bulletin, we Austrians may say the same, as half can reckon more than 7,000 of their their army was at Old Oetting. They, men made prisoners, by their own adalso declare that they took 15 stand. mission. Nor are we told how many ards, and 20,000 prisoners ; the Aus. Bavarians and Wirtemburghers fell; trians, on the other hand, maintain that this was not a consideration to the good the loss on both sides was very great, people of Paris, but was an affair which and that they had taken a great number concerned only the widows and orphans of prisovers.

of Bavaria and Wirtemberg ; yet it It is utterly impossible, in the present must be recollected, that in the battles stage of our information, to reconcile of the 19th, 20th, and 22d, the wretched these flat contradictions; and therefore, troops of those nations were most exthe fairer mode seems to be, to admit posed to slaughter, for “ the emperor that the Austrians were generally worstdetermined to fight that day (the zoth)

at the head of the Bavarians and Wir- . 27th, the tyrant's head-quarters were at temburghers*.

Muhldorf, where we will leave him for The day on which the battle of Ech the present, to review the operations of muhl was fought, Bessieres, with the marshal Jellachich's corps on the left of Bavarian division under Wrede, and the army of archduke Lewis. This geMolitor's division, proceeded to the neral, after having skirted the Tyrol; Inn, in pursuit of the two corps of the where he issued a proclamation*, pusharchduke Lewis, which had retreated ed forward to Munich, which he occufrom Landshut. Istria passed through pied. But, after the disasters of the Welsburg, taking a few prisoners and Austrian army between the Danube and carriages, and arrived at Neumarck, The Iser, he retreated, and the ad and where he was checked by the Austrians, 3d bulletins mention, that he was pur. who having been reinforced, advanced sued by the Bavarian corps under to the latter place, and attacked the Wrede, as far as Lauffen, on the Salza, enemy. Nevertheless, he reached Burg where he had suficient time to cross hausen on the 28th, and on the 30th, the river, and to burn the bridge. On crossed the river with the division of the 29th, Wrede's division reached Saltz. Montebello, who had joined him. The burg, after having a slight affair with corps of Massena set out from Ratis the advanced posts of Jellachich's corps, bonne on the 24th, and passing thro' Straubing, arrived at Passau on the * 26th. Scherding was at the same time * General Jeliachich's proclamation to the occupied by a detachment from his

inhabitants of the Tyrol. corps. On the 25th, Montebeilo march.

Tyrolese ! You are still that which ed with his corps from Ratisbonne to

you were formerly. The time is ap. Muhldorf, on the Inn, and thence pro. proaching in which you will be recallceeded to the river Salza. On the

ed to that state of prosperity, to that

genuine liberty which you were wont * The following proclamation of Buona. to enjoy under the benignant governparte was issued from his bead-quarters at

ment of Austria. If the voice of that Ratisbonne, on the 24th of April. “ Soldiers ! You have justified my ex

general, whom you have honoured by

acknowledging as your countryman, pectations. You have made up for num

and who, in the year 1999, by the vicbers by your bravery. You have glo. tory of Feldkirch, saved you from imriously marked the difference that ex.

minent danger, and in the following ists between the soldiers of Cæsar, and the armed cohorts of Xerxes. In a few resberg to the valley of Karabendel, ima

year rendered your frontiers, from Al. days we have triumphed in the three penetrable to the attacks of the enemy; battles of Tann, Abersperg, and Ech- if this is not effaced from your recollecmuhl, and in the actions of Peising, tion, listen to my words ; listen, my Landshut, and Ratisbonne. One hun- countrymen, and be convinced. Your dred pieces of cannon, 49 standards, 50.000 prisoners, 300 waggons harnes. rather to say, seeks you; place your

lawful sovereign,-your father, I ought sed for baggage, all the chests of the re.

selves under his banners ; his heart giments—such is the result of the rapi. bleeds to see you under the dominion dity of your march and your courage. of a stranger. You, his children, beThe enemy, besotted by a perjured ca

come again the sons of Austria, do not binet, seemed no longer to preserve any undervalue that glorious appellation. recollection of us ; their waking has been

The Austrian army, more numerous prompt; you have appeared to them

than ever, more inspired, more patrio. more terrible than ever. Lately they tic, on entering your frontiers, receive crossed the Inn, and invaded the territory of our allies; lately they presumed of the same father ; rally round their

them as your brothers, as the children to carry the war into the heart of our

standards, follow the glories of all the country. Now, defeated and dismay. ed, they fly in disorder ; already my ad subjects of the throne of Austria.

God protect you. vanced guard has passed the inn-be.

" DE BUZIN, fore a month is elapsed we shall be in Vienna. " NAPOLEON,"

Lieut. Fielit. Marshal, &c.'' June 1809,

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