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Account of the Russian Military Establishment.
Expences in roubles.
290,476 219,811 of Infantry,
5,824,340 51,730 of Cavalry,
2,265,596 62,423 of Militia,
181,608 295,764 of Cossacs, Calmucks, &c.
184,608 250 Fortresses, their support, ... 1,500,000
10,249,628 Here is a military establishment of Smolensko, composed of peasants really formidable, yet scarcely suffi- and the servants of Polish gentlemen, cient for Russia, if she were seriously is not an army which can be made to attacked on different sides, or if she act far beyond the limits of the counshould wish to act offensively a try which furnishes it, and in which gainst any one of the great powors of it is, besides, occupied in the service Europe. Of the 219,000, who com- performed elsewhere by garrison troops. pose her real force, supposing the It may be good for defence, but yields corps complete, we must retrench not above 12 or 15,000 hussars to 65,000 employed in the interior, in employ abroad. forming garrisons, or in other servi The Cossacs, the Calmucks, the ces which cannot be neglected. This Bashkirs, and other such hordes of force of 219,000 is thus reduced to Tartars, are more formidable, since 154,000 and of these we must deduct the number of light troops which still a fifth for those who do not fight, Russia can draw from them is estimasurgeons, musicians, and persons at- ted at 29.5,754. This may, strictly tached to chapels, to boards, to di- speaking, be the number of Cossacs, verse trades, and to the baggage of Calmucks, and others, who are in a each regiment.
condition to serve ; but it never was, Her force in cavalry is more real; and never could be, the number emit consists of 51,730 men, to which ployed. In peace they have neither we may add, the two new companies uniform nor pay; but to make use of of horse guards, who consist of 60 them in time of war, it would be nezuen each. Thus the regular army cessary to support them while they consists of 205,850 men.
could not live by plunder ; a burden The Ukraine, it is true, supplies them which the finances of Russia could besides with a provincial militia of not sustain. . Accordingly this force, 29,000 infantry, and the Dutchy of has never hitherto been raised above Smolensko supplies 32,000 Hussars, 60,000 men. the remains of the ancient Pospolite It is with fortifications as with of this part of Poland ; this forms a. troops ; they are good when they annother army of 62,423 men. But
swer the purpose they are intended for. this army, without uniform and with
in Flanders or on the Rhine, out pay, composed in the Ukraine, of the best fortified places of Russia, they persons attached to the lands which would signify nothing ; because it is they enjoy freely, with the mere obli- easy, though expensive, to transport gation of defending the country in into a fine country whatever is nécescase of invasion, and in the duchy sary to form a siege ; and because in
this part of Europe the attack of
(From the same.)
and are not so nuvinces that must be traversed, we
inerous as yours. A president, one shall see that an obstacle of three
or two counsellors, and an assessor, weeks elsewhere, becomes here one of form the judges, and, with one or two three months, and that during this secretaries, compose all our tribunals. time the climate, making war in fa- These five or six personages assemble vour of the natives, soon brings them
on fixed days, between ten and eleven
in the morning. The judges sit round On the side of the Tartars, of the
a table covered with green cloth, the Circassians, of the Bashkirs, of the president at the head, in an elbow Kirguises, and of other half chair ; the two counsellors at the side,
savage people, who surround Russia armed with the assessors, on chairs; the and on horseback, a great number of secretaries, at one or two tables, in a forts are necessary; but, in return; corner of the room.
An old soldier, it is enough that these forts should be armed with a staff, guards the door, barracks palisaded with any sort of which is besieged by the crowd of hillock of earth to serve as a battery. clients, or advocates, not seeking to It is true that a bomb only is neces
enter, for it is not allowed to every sary to set on fire those great barracks, one to penetrate into this sanctuary'; but they are raised against people whó but, by a million of the lowest bows, have no bombs; they fulfil their
to attract the eye of the divinities, pur
whenever the doors are half opened ; pose.
However indifferent these fortifica- which often happens, because the as tions may be, yet as, besides the 50 semblage is made in a room, where strong places which are known to be scribes in rags, and covered with verin Russia, there are more than 200 forts, min, seated on trembling benches, afortlets, redoubts, or entrenched posts, round trembling tables, deliver the the reader will be surprised to see only oracles of Themis, or forge her instru775,950 rubles (about 155,0001.) employed in their maintenance. This e
Thus, when one of our magistrates conomy seems stupendous, and to ad- has need of any instrument or assistmit it, we must recollect there are 84 ance, he calls to the old soldier, who, companies of 100 men devoted spe
on receiving orders, goes to seek the cially and continually to the repara. scribe, or to get from him what is tion of the fortresses of the empire. wanted. Sometimes a secretary comes The materials in wood and brick cost in person to enquire what the council ing nothing, one would suppose that wishes ; then he receives, as he passes, the fortifications of Russia should be the homage of the assembly ; he claps always in the best condition ; yet this the shoulder of one, he kisses another, is not the case; because it is not in he embraces a third. Some, on the the disposition of the Russians to take contrary, he brushes by, others he preconstant care of any thing; or be
tends cause people in office find their account better in building new fortifications than in repairing the old. * The writer is a resident in Russian.
tends not to see, he spits on the face not informed of the step I have taken, of him who cořplains, he returns in- and has taken none, the petition is to the sanctuary, then comes out and commonly received, and some days afrepeats the same part.
ter, the college to which I addressed It is said that Peter I. when about myself, fixes a day for my man, and to die, regretted that he had not been cites him to appear. able to establish Turkish forms of law My party, thus informed of the proin his states. This idea, which may secution begun against him, seeks al. appear to you quite extravagant, has so an advocate, and finds one ; but, as passed through many European heads; his affair is supposed not so good as and if they had been listened to, Eu- mine, my adversary pays in advance, rope would at this moment have been to his advocate, six per cent. of the treated in the Turkish style. I am sum which he wishes to keep. But convinced of the extravagance of this as six per cent., once paid, would be project, and yet I should be tempted very little in comparison of the capito adopt it in regard to Russia. Al. tal, the advocate makes his client unready, as much as is possible under derstand, that he must throw in alse our sky, we have the manners and something corresponding to the imporcustoms of Byzantium ; we are alrea- tance of the cause and the dignity of the dy fashioned to grimaces ; we are ac- judge, or of the secretary, or of those customed, at all times, to present our protected by both, or of all those perselves before men in power, only with sons. By offerings thus distributed, our head bent, and our hands fuil. It my affair is retarded, and never gets is only introducing some blows with a beyond the first citation ; yet three cane instead of writing ; and I believe, are necessary before a process can be if Peter had lived, he would have entered upon. My advocate, who made this reform. It was, doubtless, knows by experience how the second to supply its place, that this prince, on citation is to be brought about, comes his death-bed, passed the edict, which and informs me that it is now my turn fixes the time during which a process to give, represents eloquently that it is to be begun and ended, at eleven is the custom, and that we must sadays. I do not believe that, since the crifice something not to lose the whole death of Peter, his will has been fol. by sleeping over our right. Well, I lowed eleven times.
give, and the second citation is made. If you are surprised at the little Then begins, between my adversaeffect of this edict, admirable in ry and me, a combat of generosity, speculation and in books, you will which turns all to the benefit of these cease to be so when you know the worthy magistrates; for if my party forms of procedure used in the coun- gives less than I, he is condemned, and tries for which it was made. Suppose if I do not give more than him, I do that I have a just law-suit, that I wish, not obtain justice. At last, after sevefor instance, to recover my property ral months of hurry and impatience, out of the hands of a man who wishes after having exhausted my purse, I am to keep it. In order to spare myself quite surprised to hear that the tributhe odious and disgusting view of law nal which has received my complaints proceedings, to rescue myself from begins to doubt its own competence, the insolence of those judges, I take or that another tribunal claims it.an advocate, who should rather be Here then am I, pleading before a tricalled a solicitor. I engage to pay bunal which will not judge me, or six per cent. of the sum which I sue waiting the end of a plea between two for; I give him my papers, and he tribunals, who wish each to judge, and presents a petition. If my party is are quarrelling about my spoils. This
odd accident, which is yet very com and Trustees for High Roads in those mon, happens because a man here de- counties of Scotland through which pends always on one tribunal by his the Royal Mail Coaches travel, with class, and often on another by his ac the view of obtaining a-repeal of the tions ; that the distribution of classes exemption enjoyed by those coaches and subjects is not clearly made, and from payment of toll.
In a statement that the kind of right of committimus published by those Gentlemen, it is which every individual enjoys, is nei- observed, that it is not from a view ther fixed nor understood.
of the aggregate loss, that the extent My process, however, is not yet be- of the evil is to be estimated. The gun. Suppose it begun; my advocate great weight of those carriages, and makes my papers be transcribed or the velocity with which they travel, intranslated; the advocate who opposes jure the roads to an extent which the me does the same : if there is any toll chargeable for them, though paid, thing to add, they write, and write a- would not compensate. A mail coach, gain : both give their writings to one with its passengers and other loading, of the secretaries, who, after reading, will weigh two tons, and it must travel makes his report in writing to the from eight to nine miles in the hour, judges, who give sentence also in whereby the road suffers infinitely more writing. But the decision of a pro- than by the slow steady pace of a carg cess, however important, is never pub- or waggon of the same burden." lic; the decree which terminates it, is Next follows an estimate of the loss thought to exist only for the persons sustained by the exemption from toll, interested; no other is supposed to and also the weight of the mail have any concern with it.
coaches. All is not lost, however, when we
6 Mode in which the Loss affects the are condemned in one tribunal ; we
Counties through which the Mails can appeal to that department of the
1 Edinburgh, L.655 14 6 however, there is no difference, except
2 Haddington, :
191 12 6 that the senators being great lords,
146 0 0 the secretaries more important gen
4 Selkirk, .
218 18 0 tlemen, and the scribes less ragged,
5 Roxburgh & Dumfries,511 OO
6 Dumfries alone, . 611 7 6 we must employ more bows, more humility, more patience, and richer offer 7 Kirkcudbright, 584 0 0 ings. Here end the hopes of inno
. 365 0 After the condemnation of
198 17 4 10 Linlithgow,
243 the senate, nothing remains but an ap
6 8 peal to the prince ; but Peter I. at
547 10 0 tached such hard conditions to this re
817 16 0
346 15 0 source, that it is in a manner prohibit- 13 Ayr, ed, by the punishment of death pro
10 0 0
146 0 0 nounced against any one who should 15 Stirling, wrongfully appeal from a decision of 16 Fife,
203 10 0 the senate.
182 10 0 19 Forfar,
666 2 6 High Roads and Mail Coaches.
. 219 00
21 Aberdeen - no Bar on
0 0 0 lately, both in Edinburgh and
• Extract from the Examination of tages the mail contractors are enabled
Mr Thomas Hasker, Superintend to keep down all competition, and ant of Mail Coaches, before a Com- to make fortunes.” mittee of the House of Commons, The Report thus concludes :-in 1808.
“ By Mr Palmer's plan of Mail Weight of Mail Coaches. Cwt. Coaches, the commercial interest have 1 The Coach itself,
18 attained dispatch and security to their 2 The Mail,
3 correspondence ; Government have 3 The Luggage,
4 more than doubled their old revenue ; 4 The Passengers at 12 Stones the contractors have made fortunes each,
Cwt. by the conveyance; and the trustees 4. Inside,
6 for the roads have lost a large propor2 Outside,
3 tion of their tolls, and are in many 2 more Outside in the Coun
instances reduced to a state of bank. try, ..
3 ruptcy. For this they have got no
-12 equivalent, unless it shall be said, that 5 The Coachman and Guard, in common with the merchants, they 12 Stones each,
3 have obtained dispatch to their cor
respondence. But what advantage is Average weight of the Coach and this to a plain country gentleman ?-Loading,
..40 He gets few letters, and it is of very After shewing in a most satisfac- little moment to him whether they are tory manner that Government, so far hurried forward at the rate of eight from requiring any assistance of the miles an hour by the mail coach, or kind, have greatly improved the re come at the more leisurely pace of the venue by the establishment of Mail old saddled horse. The main objects Coaches, - the statement then pro- with the trustees are, to afford good ceeds : “ Have then the contractors roads to all species of travellers, and suffered by those bargains, which have to keep their families free from loss, been so favourable to the public? The by redeeming from the revenue of answer is undeniable, that they have these roads the money they have adnot. Whatever différence may have vanced, and the engagements they at first existed, it is notorious, that now have personally come under for makto obtain the contract for a mail coach, ing them; but they cannot keep even for a single stage, is the first faith with the public, or do justice to wish of every post-master; there are their own families, unless they obtain even in Scotland many instances of redress from the innovation introduced the lessees, or proprietors of well.fre- by the establishment of mail coaches.” quented inns, retiring from business, and retaining the mail; and when they transfer their contract, it is for a handsome premium. The seeming
Physiognomical Observations, smallness of the Government ailow.
“ Aninum sæpe indicat vultus.” ance is compensated by the preference
To the Editor. given to the mail coach for passen
SIR, gers, luggage, parcels, &c. none of PHYSIOGNOMY is a subject which, which are regulated or restrained by in every age, has engaged the ata statute, and but partially even by tention of speculative men, and it will the post-office, who, besides four in- continue to be the source from ich side
passengers, have, out of London, we derive our first opinions of characconfessedly tolerated four outside pas. ter, while the expression of the counsengers, and for luggage, &c. there tenance is supposed to harmonize with is no limitation. With these advan- the feelings of the mind.