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body as it lay on the strand, concur
in affirming, that these filamentous Sketch of the History of AGRICULTURE
appendages extended in a series along

the whole stretch of the back, while
the Basking Shark has only one large

(Concluded from p. 427. )
dorsal fin, and a small one, occupying,
both together, not above 'a tenth part THE Succession !Var gave a shock

to the prosperity of Scotland, of the back.

from which it had not altogether reIf any additional proof of the two covered, when the whole island was animals being distinct were required, incorporated under one government. the very striking difference in the re- Were there the smallest doubt respeclative proportional thickness of their ting the consequence of the wars bodies might be mentioned. The

which, with short intermissions, preBasking Shark, cast ashore in Dorset- vailed from the end of the thirteenth shire in 1801, the largest, it is believed, to the middle of the fourteenth centuscen for many years past, measured 28 feet in length, and the body, where ry, it might be removed by a refer thickest, was no less than 20 feet in Old and New Extent, wherein full e

ence to the two valuations, called the circumference. A Basking Shark of vidence is disclosed concerning the dedouble the above length, or 56 feet, terioration or waste which had taken (and the Orkney animal, it will be place in North Britain. The old remembered, measured 55 feet, exclu- extent taken in the reign of William sive of the tail,) might reasonably be the Lion, is nearly double the sum expected to have a much thicker body; returned under the new extent made we might presume, that it would be

up in 1369, after the capture of De30 feet in circumference, if the dia- vid Bruce. But this difference of vaineter increased in any reasonable pro- lue will excite no surprise, when it is portion with the length. But every considered the usiness of the account agrees in telling us that the inhabitants had been chiefly restricted body of the Great Sea-snake, where to fighting and destroying one another, thickest

, was only “ equal to the girth and to burning and plundering, inof a horse ;" by which the Orkney stead of meliorating and enriching farmers must, of course, be understood

the country.

The same conduct to mean their own sort of horses, repeated in our day, would lead to which at Edinburgh would be ranked similar consequences; for internal as poneys. The girth of an Orkney improveinent is incompatible with horse may, I believe, be considered as

a state of warfare. Few countries of from 5 to 6 feet at most. I conclude, Europe were more prosperous and therefore, with some confidence, that, bappy than Scotland at the death of if the body of the great Sea snake, Alexander III. ; and few have sufmeasuring about 55 feet in length, fured more calamities than were enno where exceeded 6 feet in circumfer- tailed on that kingdom by his premarence, this animal could not possibly ture decease. The long and inveterbe the Basking Shark of natural his- ate hostilities which followed wasted tory, but must have been a very differ- the opulence of the country,

nt animal, entirely unknown to na- tailed a degree of penury on its inhaturalists.

bitants, which has only of late been completely surmounted.

During the fifteenth and sixteenth

Orcadensis. centuries, rural economy continued to July 11. 1309.

langu'sh, especially upon the estates of


and en

I am, &c.


the barons, where the old trade of cial consequences of withdrawing fighting was regarded of greater im- them were fully understood, or even portance than that of manuring and discerned, in this country. cultivating the ground; but the ec The accession of James to the clesiastical lands were considerably crown of England is understood to improved, and the tenants of them have been unfavourable to the agriwere generally much more comforta- cultural interest of Scotland; inasble and happy than those upon the much as the nobles and gentry, being estates of laymen. The reformation by that event led into great expences, of religion, beneficent as it was in o raised the rents of the tenantry consither respects, rather checked than derably, whilst the very circumstance promoted agricultural improvement; which occasioned the rise, contribubecause the change of property, which ted to lessen the means of the tenthen occurred, occasioned a similar ant for making good his change of tenantry, and almost took gagements. Scotland, however, was husbandry out of the hands of the on much benefited by the soldiers of ly class of people by whom it was Cromwell, who were chiefly English practised upon correct principles. - yeomen, not only well acquainted The dissolution of the monasteries, with husbandry, but, like the Romans and other religious houses, was also at a former period, studious also to attended by injurious consequences improve and enlighten the nation in the first instance ; though latterly which they had subdued. The solthe greatest benefit has been derived diers of Cromwell's army were regufrom tythes and church lands having larly paid at the rate of 8d. per day, come into the hands of laymen. It a sum equal at least to the money vais probable, had not these circumstan- lue of two shillings of our currency:ces occurred, that the tythe system And as this army lay in Scotland for would have still remained in force, a great many years, a flux of money and Scottish husbandry have continu- thereby found its way into the country. ed under a burthen, which sinks and Perhaps the Low-country districts oppresses the cultivator of the sister

were at that time in a higher state of country. But tythes having got into improvement than at any period since the hands of lay titulars, or impropria- the demise of Alexander III. This tors, were in general collected or far- improvement does not altogether rest med with such severity, as to occasion upon conjecture, but is supported by the most grievous complaints, not on- many facts. In the counties of Laly from the tenantry, but also from nark, Renfrew, Ayrand Kirkcudbright, the numerous class of proprietors, who the rentals of various estates were had not been so fortunate as to procure greater in 1660 than they were 70 a share of the general spulzie. This years afterwards; and the causes added to the desire shown by the which brought about a declension in crown to resume the grants made value are ascertained without difficulwhen its power was comparatively ty. For instance, the large fines enfeeble, occasioned the celebrated sub- acted from country gentlemen and mission to Charles I., which ended in tenants in these counties, during the a settlement, that in modern times reigns of Charles II. and his brother has proved highly beneficial, not on- James, were almost sufficient to imly to the interest of proprietors, but poverish both proprietors and cullikewise to the improvement of the tivators, had they even been nation. Tythes, in fact, are a burthen, wealthy as they are at the present which, to all intents and purposes, day. Added to those fines, the operate as a tax upon industry, though dreadful imprisonments and other opwas a long time before the benefi pressive measures pursued by those in



and many

power, equally contrary to sound po- a judicious pattern for the imitation licy as to justice and humanity, deso- of our Southern neighbours, who are lated large tracts,--drove the oppres- confessedly behind in every one of sed gentry,

of their weal- them, and, in fact, cannot move an thy tenants, into foreign countries, inch without the aid of the legislature.

- and extinguished the spirit of in- Want of capital stock was the greatdustry and improvement in the breasts est impediment to Scottish agriculture; of those who were left behind. A but this was partly removed by the succession of bad seasons soon after rebellion of 1745, when vast sums of the Revolution, heightened these cala- money were poured into the country; mities, and in short, completed the and, since that period, the husbandry ruin of the tenantry.

It is well of Scotland has progressively impro. known, that innumerable farms at ved in such a manner as to bear comthat period remained unoccupied; pro- parison, local circumstances considerprietors having to search after ten- ed, with that of any country in Euants, who were able to stock and rope. Even the abrogation of the cultivate the ground, with almost the feudal system, by passing the Jurisdicsame assiduity that must now be dis- tion Act, was of material advantage, played by tenants who are out of pos. inasmuch as the security of cultivators session.

was thereby increased, and their situIt would be unpardonable to omit ation rendered infinitely more indenoticing the active efforts of a Society, pendent, than in former times. Since formed in 1723 for the improvement the conclusion of the American war of agriculture, consisting of the prin- in 1782, improvement has proceeded cipal noblemen and gentlemen of with singular rapidity in every disScotland, who continued their labours trict; and while the rent rolls of for more than 20 years, greatly to proprietors have been doubled, tripled, their own credit, and to the public and quadrupled, the condition of the benefit. Of this we have sufficient tenantry, and of the lower ranks, has evidence from a volume of their Tran- been ameliorated almost in a proporsactions, published in 1743 by Mr tional degree. These circumstances Maxwell of Arkland, under the aus are sure tokens of agricultural prospepices of the celebrated Mr Hope of rity; demonstrating, in the most forRankeillor, one of the most intelligent cible terms, that husbandry is a main gentlemen of that period,

pillar of the state, and that the hapSeveral enactments of legislature, piness and welfare of the community however, had been made in the seven- depends greatly upon the manner in teenth century, which latterly have which the art is executed. No nation, produced much benefit to agriculture. whose husbandry is feeble and imperIndependent of the regulation of fect, can be considered as really prostithes, a measure of primary import- perous, notwithstanding that considerance to husbandmen, the laws rela- able advances may be made in other tive to the enclosing of land, and di- arts ; because when the art of raising viding of mixed possessions, may be food is neglected, all others must ul. ranked as peculiarly calculated to ex- timately be forsaken. In a word, to cite improvement, in so far as the promote and encourage husbandry, to trouble of accomplishing these objects remove every obstacle that stands in was greatly lessened, whilst precise the way of exercising it, and to serules were laid down, by which these cure those concerned in carrying on improvements might be carried into the art, are duties obligatory upon effect. In these branches of rural le- the government of every country; gislation, Scottish practice holds out and according as these duties are dis


charged, so will the wisdom of such a ments and gain experience; then algovernment be estimated by every ter and try again till he succeeded to man who feels for the prosperity of his mind; an advantage which he the state, or is attentive to the sour could not, perhaps, enjoy in his own ces whence that prosperity proceeds. house, for want of instruments of


and leisure to make

the necessary computations. A book Msemoirs of the Progress of MANU- containing the rate of each time-keep

FACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, er might be kept always ready for and the FINE ARTS.

the use of the owner, and, if he

thought proper, for the inspection of MR Joseph Hume has discovered a the public,

by which he would be enew method of detecting arse

nabled to fix a price on the machine, nic. The test which he proposes as proportioned to the excellence of its a substitute for those hitherto used, ap- going. From this place captains of pears to be more efficacious, inasmuch ships and others might always be furas it produces a more copious precipi- nished with time-keepers, suitable to tate from a given quantity of that sub- the price they could afford, or adaptstance. It is composed in the follow- ed, with respect to accuracy of going, ing manner :- Let one grain of white to the purposes for which they might oxide of arsenic, and the same quantity be required. The writer expresses of carbonate of soda, be dissolved by his surprise that, considering the many boiling in ten or twelve ounces of dis- evident advantages of such an institutilled water, which ought to be done tion, the watch-makers have not alin a glass vessel; to this let a sinall ready established one at their own exquantity of the nitrate of silver be ad- pense. ded, and a bright yellow precipitate M Vauquelin has examined the will instantly appear. This is a more root of a species of polypody, known decisive test than sulphate of copper, by the appellation of Calaguala. Of which forms Scheele’s green, (arse the substances which compose it, onniate of copper) and though the ly those soluble in alcohol and water process answers very well with potash are capable of producing any effect on or lime-water, yet Mr Hume is incli- the animal economy. These are sacned to prefer the common sub-carbo- charine matter, mucilage, muriate of nate of soda.

potash and resin, which last he conjecA correspondent of the Philosophi- tures would be found to destroy the cal Magazine, taking into considera- tape-worm. He has likewise made tion the present imperfect mode of similar experiments on the roots of the finding the rates of time-keepers, sug common polypody and male fern, and gests the establishment of a public ob- obtained from them precisely similar servatory for trying time-keepers and principles and nearly in the same prokeeping their rates, to which every portions as from the calaguala. The maker, if he thought proper, might former roots, however, contain a sviall have access at stated hours, and where quantity of tannin. Thus the analohe might be allowed always to keep a gy of organization, which led Jussieu certain limited number of pieces. Here and Richard to conclude, that the mehe might try the effect of improve. dicinal virtues of the calaguala-root

must be similar to those of other * In our last, we referred for this ai.

ferns, is fully confirmed by chemical ticle to the Farmer's Magazine; we

analysis. now find, that it appeared first in the The folloring method of making Edinburgh Encyclopædia.

artificial stone in the vicinity of Dun

kirk has been published by M. Ber According to a report made to the trand :- The materials employed for National Institute, M. Doufourgerais, this purpose are the ruins of the cita- optician to the Emperor Napoleon, del, consisting of lime, bricks, and has produced a ponderous flint glass, insand. These are broken to pieces by tended for the manufacture of achromeans of a mill formed of two stone

matic glasses, in which he has attainwheels, following each other, and ed the highest degree of perfection edrawn by a horse Water is added, ver attained by those of English maand the matter well ground is reddish. nufacture. The glass made by him is This is put into a trough, and kept heavier than flint-glass ; its specific soft by means of water. When the gravity being 3,588, while the heatrough is full, some lime is burned viest flint-glass is only 3,329. and slaked by leaving it exposed to the air, and this is mixed in the proportion of one-eighth with the above

On the Construction of THEATRES. cement. A wooden mould is laid on

(As it is understood to be in contem. the stone, and after a thin layer of sand has been thrown on the latter, to plation to erect a new Theatre in this

Town, the following remarks, by R. L. prevent the adhesion of the cement, a

EDGEWORTH, Esq. which have recently layer of cement is poured in, and on

appeared in NICHOLSON's Philosophical this a layer of bricks broken into acute. Journal (June 1809.) are likely to be angled fragments. Thus two other interesting. Though written with a strata are put in before the last, which view to the London Theatres, the is of pure cement. The mould being greater part of them will be capable of removed, the stones thus formed are

general application.) laid in heaps to dry. The lime being in building a theatre, very greedy of water, and quickly be 1. Security to the audience is the coming solid, these stones are not first and most necessary object. long in forming a hard body fit for 2. Facility of ingress and egress. building.

3. Facility of seeing and hearing. M. Braconnot has analysed some 4. Convenience to performers. fossil horns of an extraordinary size 5. Space for scenes, with proper found in an excavation at St Martin, penings for the machinery: near Commercy. He

6. And lastly, expence. to have been the horns of the great 1. To ensure safety, .common sense wild ox, the urus of the ancients, and points out, that as little timber, and as aurochs of the Germans. From one small a portion as possible of combushundred parts he obtained phosphate tible materials should be employed.of lime, composed of

The outside walls should be construcLime


ted of stone-the coins of large Phosphoric Acid 28.3

blocks of stone closely jointed, deWater


pending upon their own bearings and Solid Gelatine

4.6 not made apparently compact by morCarbonate of Lime

4.5 tar. Bricks for the internal structure Bituminous Matter

4.4 should be made under proper inspecFerriferous Quartz Sand 4. tion and not worked hastily up to fulPhosphate of Magnesia 1. fil a contract. All the joists, rafters, Alumine

0.7 and principals, and the framework of Oxide of Iron

0.5 the partitions, should be iron. The

framework of the roof should be of 100. the same metal, with a covering of

copper. No plumber should be perJuly 1809.

He supposes them



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