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circle, and affect not the heart from thirst of power, tarnish his virtues, in: which the whole springs. Nero was fuence all his thoughts, and identify a mild citizen, and Bonaparte was es- themselves with his very existence; he teemed for the playfulness of his dis- loves nothing, wishes for nothing, toils position.--Let us learn to practise the for nothing, but gold; he sets so high great moral precept, to do as we would a value on this metal, though he albe done by.--Let us sow early “in the ready has abundance, that he would breast the seeds of benevolence, and wish the very air he breathes, the nou, the produce thereof shall be charity rishment he takes, and the friends and love."
Z. who visit him, were all composed of
gold: the small portions he has scattered
at Cayenne, are like the acts of geneAccount of Victor Hugues, laté dates, scattering gold upon the plains
rosity of the Parnai, or of MithriCommissioner of CAYENNE. By of Císica, to dazzle and retard the Piton.
conqueror. These great and varyVICT
ICTOR HUGUES, born at Mar- ing passions are sustained by an inde
seilles, in France, is about the mid- fatigable ardour ; a never-ceasing acdle age and size, rather inclining to tivity, by enlightened views, and be fat ; his whole appearance is so ex- means always certain, whatsoever they pressive, that his most intimate and may be. Neither guilt nor virtue best friends cannot accost him with hinder him from employing both one out fear; his round head is covered and the other to serve his purpose, with short thick black hair, which though he well knows the difference stands in all directions, like the ser- between them. Ever fearful of delay, pents of Eumenides; in passion, which he always lays hold of the first favouis habitual to him, his large thick lips, rable means which offer : he appears the seat of ill-humour, make
to honour atheism, which, however, wish that he should open them to he only professes outwardly. speak; his forehead, covered with He has a strong, sound judgement ; wrinkles, raises or lowers his heavy a most retentive memory; he is a good eye-brows upon his large hollow black practical seaman ; a severe administraeyes.--His character is an incompre- tor; an equitable and enlightened judge, hensible mixture of good and evil. when he only listens to his conscience He is brave, but a Lar to excess; and his understanding; an excellent cruel, yet feeling ; politic, inconsis- man in any crisis of danger and of diftent, and indiscreet; rash, but pusil- ficulty, when no great management is lanimous; despotic and cringing ; am- required. The inhabitants of Guadabitious and crafty, sometimes loyal: loupe and Rochefontain reproach him his heart brings no one affection to with abuses of power, and revolumaturity; he carries every thing to tionary excesses, at which decency and excess ; although objects strike upon humanity shudder ; but the English his soul like lightning, yet they leave (and I have been a witness to it) give a strong, marked, terrible impression; the highest credit to his tactics and he recognises merit, even at the very bravery. moment when he oppresses it; he de- From a cabin-boy Hugues became stroys a feeble enemy; he respects, a pilot, and afterwards a baker, at St nay, fears, a courageous adversary, Domingo. At the first insurrection even though he triumphs over him: of that colony he went over to France, yengeance has raised him many enes, and was elected a member of the Pomies; he easily foresees, and provides palar Society, and of the Revolutionafor emergencies; anbition, avarice, the ry Tribunal at Rochefort; got him
self appointed Agent to Guadaloupe ; He paid off the debts of the colony, Te-took that Island from the English, and corrected the errors of bis predeand, in all the Antilles, acquired the cessor. He gave balls and splendid esteem of that people, and the exe- entertainments. The troops which cration of the colonists. The stormy had disembarked along with him and unsettled times, amid which he were a mixture of deserters' from all lived, have completely revolutionized nations--men ready to undertake any his spirit, and a life of peace and tran- thing, if the thermometer of politics quillity is to him a sort of anticipa- should again descend to anarchy.ted death.
Whenever prizes were brought in, he His very name was dreaded through caused their produce to be shared the colony; his arrival was looked up- most equitably. He put the black on as the coring of a wild beast; the soldiers on the same footing as the sounds of joy gave place to those of white; new-modelled their discipline, terror and dismay. He was so well and brought them to perfection : yet, convinced of the odium which attend. notwithstanding all this, for the first ed him, that when he was appointed six months he could gain no friends ; to the command of Cayenne, he got a he had even the precaution to get himletter of recommendation from Jeanette, self praised in some of the Paris jourwho succeeded him at Guadaloupe, of nals, that the colonists might see how which, on his arrival, he caused copies he was respected in France. to be circulated in every district. It would appear
difficult to reconThe following is a copy of it :- cile the rigorous measures he adopted
“ Worthy Inhabitants of Cayenne, with the good he has done to the cololay aside
fears. I know that ny; and still less, with the praises Citizen Hugues appears terrible in which certain journals bestow upon your eyes ; but he will restore happi- him. He revived trade and commerce, ness to your colony; he asks no more by making himself a merchant.
He of Fortune: he will cause you, by his opened, in his own name, a mercantile : clemency, to forget the miseries which concern, in which he sometimes figuGuadaloupe experienced under his go- red as a merchant, and sometimes as vernment. It will be his chief ambi- an agent, to set what value he thought tion to deserve your confidence and proper on the different articles. esteem."
In the course of his long residence at Most people took this letter for a Guadaloupe, he has amassed a, consipiece of sarcastic irony, and very few derable fortune. Some say he is not indeed gave credit to it.
worth less than eighty, or a hundred. His policy began to manifest itself thousand pounds sterl. most of which,
his arrival. He permitted the ba- it is said, he has well secured in Amenished Deputies to visit the island of rica ; dreading, perhaps, that were he Cayenne, with proper passports- to place it in France, some pretext which never had been done by former would soon be found to make him disagents. He even visited their hospi- gorge some of his ill-gotten wealth. tal. The government, he said, had Yet, in spite of his activity, he has ordered him to treat them with atten- experienced several losses. Famine tion. He praised those inhabitants visited the colony no less than three who had done acts of kindness to them, times during his agency.
He He wished, he said, to restore peace ver disconcerted : he caused the police and order. He made no change in to be observed with the utmost sevethe system of police, as left by Burnel; rity, and kept the negroes in subjecbecause the Consúlar Government had tion, more by the terror of his name, only appointed him provisionally. than by his proclamations.
Account of the Rise and Progress of God on the Prophet, oftener than the WAHABEE Power.
your life. You are not to in(From Lord Valentia's Travels. 3 vols. 4to. -voke the Prophet to intercede with London 1809.)
God in your behalf, for his intercesIT T is now above forty years since a sion will be of no avail. At the day new sect started up in Arabia, which of judgement it will avail you.
Do has rapidly increased, and is likely to not call on the Prophet ; call on God cause a greater change, in the politi- alone.” cal situation of that country, than
any These doctrines rapidly spread aevent since the time of Mohammed. mong the different tribes, whose power Abdul Waheb, a private individual, was nearly equal, and tended gradualborn, according to Niebuhr, in Elly to the recognition of a supremely Aiane, a town of the district of Dar- controlling power in the person of the ale, in the province of Nedjed-el-Ared, reformer, which completely destroy. has given his name to his followers, ed the former balance of power, and who are from him cailed Wahabee. gave to Abdul Waheb a preponderaThis extraordinary man for many years ting influence in the north-east part studied the sciences in Arabia ; and, of Arabia. The Sheiks, who did not after travelling through Persia, and acknowledge either his spiritual or residing for some time at Basra, re- temporal power, at length united aturned to his native country, and pro- gainst him, and under the command claimed himself the reformer of the of the Sheik of Lachsa, who was aMussulmaun religion. The province larmed for his own safety, attacked of Nedjed was at this time divided in- him in his native city. Abdul Waheb to a multitude of smaller tribes, each defended himself successfully on this governed by its own Sheik. To these, occasion ; and on another, when his
; Abdul Waheb pointed out the abuses enemies marched against him with four which had crept into the Mussulmaun thousand men. Abdul Waheb from religion, particularly the worshipping this time gradually extended his terriof saints, and the use of spirituous li. tories, and his faith. Sheik Mekraquors and other exhilarating articles. mi, of Nedjeran, was one of his most He reprobated the doctrine of the two powerfal followers, and according to sects of the Sunnis, with respect to the the conjecture of Mr Niebuhr, contridenying that the Koran was either buted greatly to his prosperity : a circreated, or existing from all eternity, cumstance that was confirmed by but admitting that it was inspired by Hadje Abdallah, who met the Sheik God, as a guide for the conduct of twenty-seven years ago at Mecca, and mankind. However, as the greater had much conversation with him. part of the Sheiks were Sunnis, he Abdul Waheb was too able a man conciliated them, by acknowledging to leave neglected any means of inthe authority of the sayings of Mo- creasing the activity of his followers: hammed. My good friend the Hadje following, therefore, the example of Abdallah, who was avowedly a Waha. Mohammed, and fully aware of the bee, and was in Mecca at the time it influence which self-interest has over was taken by Suud, gave me their pro- the human mind, he added to the infession of faith, which is as follows :- ducements of religious zeal, the temp
“ There is only one God. He is tation of plunder, by declaring, that God; and Mohanimed is his Prophet. all the property belonging to those Act according to the Koran, and the who were unconverted, was unholy, sayings of Mohammed. It is unneces- and to be confiscated for the use of sary for you to pray for the blessing of their conquerors. Numbers, there
fore, to save their property, professed Yemen under a kind of feudal tenure, themselves Wahabee before he march- which admitted the right of the soil ed against them, and immediately be- to be in the Imaum, but who hardly gan to attack their neighbours, in or- paid him any thing for it, were encouder to oblige them to change their re- raged by the success of the Sheriffe of ligion, and give up
their property. Abou Arish, and threw off even the By these means Abdul Waheb secu- appearance of obedience. The Imaum red to himself the supreme power was too weak to conquer them ; but ver the whole province of Nedjed; they had a more powerful opponent in while, by his most powerful servant, the Wababee, who soon reduced the Sheik Mekrami, he carried his hosti- Sheriffe of Abou Arish to obedience, lities into Yemen. On his death, he and to the necessity of adopting their was peaceably succeeded in his spiritual religion, plundered him of his whole and temporal power by his son Abdu- property, and then told him to go and luziz.
indemnify himself in Yemen. He folI have not been able to learn the lowed their advice, or rather orders ; date of Abduluziz's accession, but he ard recognising Suud as his sovereign, reigned till May 1803, when he was carried devastation, in his name, to the assassinated, while at prayers in a gates of Mocha. Beit-al-Fakih, and mosque at Darail, his capital, by an the greater proportion of the coffee Arab, whose daughter he had forci. country, are his, and Hodeida alone bly carried away from her home ma- prevents him from securing the Tehany years before. The Arab imme- ma from Loheia to the straits of Babdiately sold all his property, and with el-mandeb. Altho’ this place remain a patient perseverance followed the to the Imaum as a possession, it is usefootsteps of his oppressor, whom, at less ; since the Dola was obliged to length, though his spiritual and tem- burn the town, to prevent the houses poral sovereign, he sacrificed to his from being occupied in the attack on private revenge.
the forts. In the latter his soldiers During the reign of Abduluziz, the remained perfectly safe, as the Wahareligion of his father was extended bee had no cannon ; but he will proover the greater part of the peninsula bably soon be obliged to embark, and of Arabia, either by the arms of his fly to Mocha in search of food, when son Suud, or by his followers. Many Mocha itself must expect to be atArab tribes of the Great Desert also tacked. recognised him as their religious head; Mecca and Medina have been so and even in temporal concerns, indi- long recognized as the two principal rectly admitted his authority, by remit- cities of Arabia, that the Wahabee, ting hiin a proportion of their plunder, who aspired to the sovereignty of the for charitable purposes, when they whole country, were particularly antook possession of the celebrated bu- xious to secure them. Galib, the prerying place of Hossein at Arbela, and, sent Sheriffe, is a monster of iniquity,
, according to their invariable practice, having scrupled no ineans to accumudestroyed his magnificent tomb, so late treasure, and having poisoned two highly venerated by the Persians, and Pachas, and a young prince of the the other followers of Ali.
Maladives, who came in a vessel of The Sheriffe of Abou Arish had, his own to Jidda on his way to Niecca. as I have formely mentioned, been ap- He was of course unpopular, and his pointed by the Imaum of Sana, Dola' subjects by no means inclined to de. of Loheia, where he soon became in. fend him. Even his brother-in-law dependent. The different Sheiks, Mozeife, had so little confidence in who held many of the districts of him, that on being sent on a mission August 1809.
to Daraie, he quitted his own party, Mecca, for the first time since Ma and became a Wahabee. Abduluziz, hommed entered it in 629, was obconceiving this a good opportunity to liged to submit to a hostile invader, attack the holy cities, early in Janu- who, however, strictly conformed to ary 1803, intrusted Mozeifé with the the terms of capitulation, and neither command of twelve thousand men, plundered nor injured the inhabitants. who fought several battles with his The religious prejudices of the Wabrother-in-law, and constantly defeat. habee were greatly offended by above ed him. In February of the same year eighty splendid tombs, which covered he laid siege to Tayif.
the remains of the descendants of Ma. Galib, who had here his finest pa- hommed, and formed the great omalaces, and most flourishing gardens, ment of Mecca. These were levelhastened to its relief, and defended led with the ground, as was also the it for several days, till his nephew Ab- monument of the venerable and redullah secretly retired in the night spected wife of the prophet, Kadija. to Mecca, when, conscious of the de. The coffee houses next felt the desotestation in which he was held by his lating zeal of the reformers. The subjects, and dreading lest they should hookahs were piled in a heap, and place Abdullah in his stead, he aban- burned; and the use of tobacco and doned Tayif, having set his palaces on coffee prohibited under severe penal- . fire. Mózeife immediately entered, ties. The holy places were plunderand his followers commenced their u- ed of their valuable articles, but the sual devastations. Eight hundred Caaba romained uninjured. The Wamales were put to the sword, but the habee have asserted, that the veneraharems were respected. Many houses tion paid to the black stone was idowere burned, and the whole were latrous; and disapproved of the cereplundered, but the treasure of the monies practised by the pilgrims at Sheriffe had been conveyed to Mecca the stone of Abraham, which is placed with his wives and followers. All near the well of Zemzem, and is supthe holy tombs were destroyed, and a- posed to have on it the mark of the mong them that of Abdullah Ebn Patriarch's foot, formed while he Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet, an stood there to build the Caaba. Inedifice celebrated throughout Arabia to this mark the water is poured from for its pre-eminent beauty and sanctity. the well for the pilgrims to drink.-The grave itself, and the stone which Suud seems to have justly estimated covered it, were not disturbed. Mo- the benefits which Mecca enjoyed zeifé, as a reward for his treachery, from the annual influx of pilgrims; was appointed Governor. Abdulu- he therefore acted with moderation, ziz had no intention that Mecca, Me- and confirmed the Cadi whom the dina, and their sea ports of Jidda and Grand Seignior had appointed. He Yambo, should be held by any de- also wrote to him the following letscendant of the Prophet as a viceroy ter:under him; he therefore sent his eldest
SUUD TO SELIM. son Suud to command the victorious “ I entered Mecca on the 4th day army at Tayif, which marched so un- of Moharam, in the 1218th year of expectedly against Mecca, on the 26 the Hejira. I kept peace towards the April 1803, that the Sheriffe, panic- inhabitants. I destroyed all the tombs struck, determined to retire, with all which they idolatrously worshipped. his treasures, to Jidda. He effected abolished the levying of all customs this in the night, leaving his brother above two and a half per cent. I to make the best terms he could with confirmed the Cadi whom
had the enemy. On the following day appointed to govern in the place