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agreeably to the commands of Moham- of his descendants. Jidda was again atmed. I desire that, in the ensuing tacked, but without success, as the Sheyears, you will give orders to the Pa- riffe had received supplies from Egypt. chas of Shaum, Syria, Misr, and E. Yambo fell, but was retaken on the gypt, not to come accompanied by the sea side. The Pacha of Syria forced Mahamel *, trumpets, and drums, his way through the undiscipled troops into Mecca and Medina. For why? of Suud, and the usual ceremonies were religion is not profited by ihese performed by the Faithful at the hothings. Peace be between us, and ly Caaba, probably for the last time; may the blessing of God be unto you! for the numerous hordes of the WahaDated on the 10th day of Moharem.” bee now cover the Desart with their This answers to our third of May. flying squadrons, and render a passage

On the 11th of May, Suud marched too dangerous to be attempted. against Jidda; but the delay at Mecca The Johassen Arabs, who acknowhad given time to the Sheriffe to pre- ledge the religious supremacy of Suud, pare for his reception, by bringing on have occasionally entered the Red shore all the cannon from the vessels Sea, and should they obey his call, in the harbour, and planting them on and appear with their powerful naval the walls. ; An attempt was made force before Jidda, resistance would be by the Wahabee to storin the town, unavailing, and the descendants of the but it failed: Suud, however, contri- Prophet would cease to reign in Araved to cut off all supplies, even of wa- bia, The Imaum of Muscat has in consequence of which, num

perished in battle, and his son is said bers perished by thirst, in the nine to be under the controul of a Wahabee days that the blockade continued; and guardian. Yemen has no natural at length the Sheriffe was forced by means of resisting the vast power

of the inhabitants to offer a sum of mo- her opponent, and must sink under the ney to Suud, on condition of his a- imbecility of her government. In the bandoning the siege. The arrange- vast peninsula of Arabia, the little ments were actually made for the pay- state of Aden alone offers any rational ment of a lac and thirty thousand means of resistance to the power of dollars, when the intelligence arrived the Wahabee, by the wisdom of her of the death of Abduluziz, which in- sovereign, and the bravery of his litduced Suud to return instantly to Da- tle army. Gratitude calls


the raie, lest any rival should dispute the British to prevent his ruin , for to succession. Jidda was thus saved, them he has ever been an attached and and even Mecca fell again under the useful ally. During the expedition to control of the Sheriffe ; but Tayif, the Red Sea, his port was open to them; the most lovely spot in Arabia, a spot and, on General Murray's quitting so unlike the surrounding country, Perim, the British were, with an unthat the Arabs believe it to have been bounded confidence, admitted within a part of Syria, detached and drop- his walls. On the appearance of the ped during the general deluge, still Johassen fleet in his harbour, in 1804, remained in the hands of Mozeifé while a large Surat vessel was lying

In 1804, Medina, with its treasure, there, he sent his soldiers on board to which had accumulated for ages by the protect her from the pirates, and obdonations of the faithful, became a liged them to put to sea, without reprey to the Wahabee : and the tomb ceiving any supplies, though they ofof the Prophet shared the fate of those fered him the half of the plunder they

had already made, if he would permit * The richly ornamented covering them to remain. These repeated acts for the Caaba.

of friendship now call for a return,


which it is perfectly in the British in possession of a Prince who denies power to afford.

to Mohammed that veneration which The Wahabee, conscious of their he has received for twelve hundred want of arms and amn mmunition, and years.

His descendants will soon fully convinced of the benefit they cease to reign; and although the Kowould receive from a trade being o- ran may be revered for a longer peripened between India and their ports, od throughout a portion of Asia, the have made repeated offers to the Bom- mighty fabric of Islamism must be bay government, of granting immu- considered as having passed away, nities and exclusive privileges to the from the moment that Suud entered British merchants, if they would esta- Mecca on the 27th of April 1803. blish a factory at Loheia ; they would therefore willingly comply with any request in favour of the Sultaun of Aden, as an ally of the British, and would, with little regret, give up an

Account of the Caves of Carli and attack on a power, whom they have

KENNARI, near BARBARY, hitherto found capable of resisting

(From the same ) them.

No answer has as yet been given to October 24. 7 IN order to visit the the applications of the Wahabee ; and 1804.

caves of Carli to the Bombay government behold, with- more advantage, we had the tents out concern, a revolution, which is a- pitched at the foot of the hill which gain connecting the disunited Arabs contains these interesting antiquities. under one supreme master. It is a cir. It is nearly opposite to the fort of cumstance well worthy of remark, that Low Ghur, distant about four miles this has, for the first time since the directly across the vale. The chain death of Ali, occurred at a moment, of hills here runs nearly east and west, when the surrounding kingdoms of but this protrudes from them at Asia and Africa are sunk into the right angles. The chief cave fronts same state of imbecility and distrac- due west. There are also a few in a tion to which they were reduced un. bluff point at the southern extremity, der the Romans, when the dissolute and the entrances to which are visible lukewarm Christians were obliged to from the bottom. The whole road yield to the ardent and zealous follow- was covered with small agates, of ers of Mohammed.

which I collected a few. It was a Lowas the power ofthe Turkish em- long stage, and I did not reach the pire is now fallen, I do not expect that ground till eleven. The Killadar of the Wahabee will completely prevail Esapoor paid me a visit, and informagainst it, unless, by a communication ed me that he had received orders to with Europeans, they obtain supplies shew me the fort of Low Ghur. In of arms and ammunition, and, with the evening, Hurry Punt Bow, deputhem, learn a proportion of European ty to Cundeh Row Rastieh, Ser Soodiscipline. I consider Arabia, how- bah of the Cokan, who was on his ever, as lost for ever to the Sultaun; road to the country below the Gauts, and, consequently, that he has ceased came also to wait on me, and brought to be the head of the Mussulmaun re- presents of fruit, &c. Cundeh Row, ligion. The order of Mohammed, being supreme head of Low Ghur, that his followers should, once in their Esapoor, and most other forts in the lives, visit Mecca, can no longer be country, had sent Hurry Punt to reperformed. The sacred city has present him, and receive my visit.. heard the din of hostile arms, and is He was a fine old man with a white


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beard, and smiling countenance. I found at the seven pagodas, and is degave him notice of iny intention to be scribed in the ifth volume of the Athere on the 26th, to breakfast, and siatic Researches. We copied all that desired guides to be sent.

we could discover, and chalked over October 25. Breakfast was sent up the letters, for the benefit of any trato the caves, and we went there be- veller that might come after us. fore the sun became hot. The ascent There may be others concealed under was sieep, but rendered easy by steps the coat of Chunam, which still cowhich had been cut in the rock.

vers a great part of the wall; where The whole brow of the hill was co- it is broken off, the marks of the chisvered with jungle, which concealed sel are perfectly visible. the caves til we came to an open

The ribs on the roof are of wood, space of about one hundred feet, which and are very difficult to be accounted had been levelled by the cutting for. They cannot be supposed to be way of the sloping hill

, till a perpen- of an equal age with the excavation, dicular surface of about 50 feet had yet who would have been at the exbeen found in the solid rock. Here pense of replacing them? The followa line of caverns had been excavated, ers of Boodh no longer worship here: the the principal of which struck me with country is in possession of their great the greatest astonishment, from its size enemies, the Brahmins, and the pagoand the peculiarity of its form. It da itself is considered as haunted by consisted of a vestibule of an oblong evil spirits, in defiance of the vicinity square shape, divided from the temple of the holy goddess Bowannie; so itself, which was arched, and support- much so, that the native draftsman ed by pillars. The length of the who drew the cave at Ellora for Sir whole is one hundred and twenty-six Charles Mallet, could not be induced feet, the breadth forty-six feet. No to accompany us by any persuasion of figures of any deities are to be found Colonel Close, declaring that if he within the pagoda, but the walls of did, the evil spirit would injure him. the vestibule are covered with car. Without the vestibule stands a pilvings in alto-relievo, of elephants, of lar twenty-four feet high and eight human figures of both sexes, and of feet in diameter, on which is a single Boodh, who is represented in some line in the unknown characters. . On places as sitting cross-legged, with his the capital are four lions, much resemisands in the posture common among bling the Chinese. Opposite to it the Cingalese; in others he is erect, was another pillar, but it was removed but in all, he is attended by figures in about forty years ago, to make room the

act of adoration, and in one for the insignificant temple of Bowanplace two figures standing on the lo- nie, which now occupies ils place. tus, are fanning him with chouries, A line of caves extends from about while two others are suspending a rich one hundred and fifty yards to the crown over his head. I think, therc- north of the great one. These are fore, that it is beyond dispute that all flat-roofed, of a square form, and the whole was dedicated to Boodi.- appear to have been destined for the The detail of the different ornaments attendants on the pagoda. In the and figures, with drawings of them, I last is a figure of Boodin, and in anosent to the Bombay Literary Society, ther is an inscription. They evidentin whose works they will appear, it is ly were never finished. therefore, unnecessary to repeat them A veil, at present, is suspended over here. The inscriptions are numerous the relative antiquity of the Boodhists in different parts, and all are in the and the Blaimins, which same unknown character which is ly be hereafter removed ; Lut these

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may possibhopes are lessened by the recollection, the two I have seen, and in the one at that all the learning that has yet been Ellora described by Sir Charles Malfound in India, has been in the posses- let in the Asiatic Researches. In one sion of the Brahmins, who seem to of the large square caves which adjoin have completely triumphed over their that above described are many figures, sivals, the Boodhists, who profanely and one that is very remarkable, as it gave precedence to the Royal Cast, a. shows Vishnou himself in the act of bove the holy race of the priesthood. fanning Boodh with the chouries: a su

perior deity may, however, be suppoNovember 23. Early in the morn. sed to reside in the circular temples, ing we departed for the Caves of for within them is no image, unless KENNARI, the most important in the the circular building, called by the naisland, [of Selsette,] and formed out tives Dhagope, can be considered as of a high knowl, in the middle of the a prodigious lingam. I ought to add, range of hills which divides the island that in the cave of Ellora there does nearly into two equal parts. I soon appear a statue annexed to Dbagope, found, that, limited as I was for time, which, from the manner of holding it would be impossible to investigate the finger of one hand between the the whole of the caves. I therefore finger and thumb of the other, is pro. gave my chief attention to the great bably designed for Boodh. cavem,

which resembles the one at The innumerable caves which have Carli, in being oblong, and having a been formed in every part of the hill, coved roof, though it is inferior to it are square, and flat-roofed. I cannot in size, in elegance of design, and in but consider them as meant for the beauty of execution. It has the same habitations of the attendant Brahmins. singular building at the upper end, A very curious tradition is mentioned and the vestibule is equally adorned by Monsieur Anquetil du Perron, as with figures. Its peculiar ornaments having been recorded by a Jesuit in a are two gigantic figures of Boodh, history of the West Indies, printed in nearly twenty feet high, each filling Portugal ; it is, that the whole of these one side of the vestibule. They are caves were the work of a Gentoo king, exactly alike, and are in perfect pre- some thousand years ago, to secure his servation, in consequence of their ha- only son from the attempts of another ving been christened and painted red nation to gain him over to their reliby the Portuguese, who left them as gion. This must probably refer to an appendage to a Christian church, some disputes between the Brahmins for such this temple of Boodh became and the Boodhists, and might, if it under their transforming hands. I could be traced, throw some light on have given a view of the front of the the relative antiquity of the two relitemple, and an etching of the gigan- gions. The most perplexing circumtic figure of the presiding deity, whose stance, that the character used by the image, in all the umusual attitudes, em- latter is now no longer understood, kellishes several other parts of the ves- while that of the former is in constant tibule ; and one in particular is orna- use, makes it difficult to believe that mented with the conical cap worn by the Brahmins are justified in their the Chinese Fo. The entrance, on claim to superior antiquity. It is a which there are several inscriptions in subject, however, on which I cannot the unknown character, faces the west. presume to give an opinion, It is worthy observation, that these It is not only the numerous caves, two circumstances, and the coved roof, that give an idea of what the populaseem to be peculiar to the temples de- tion of this barren rock must once have sticated to Boodh ; at least it is so in been, but the tanks, the terraces, and


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the flights of steps which lead from Society subsisted for a long series of
one part to another; yet not a human years; and a list of its members may
footstep is to be heard, except when be seen in the appendix to the first vo-
the curiosity of a traveller leads him lume of Lord Woodhouselee's Life of
to pay a hasty visit to the ruined ha- Lord Kames.
bitation of those, whose very name

The mathematics, in their various
has passed away, and whose cultivated branches, occupied much of Mr Wal-
fields are become an almost impassable lace's attention. Such was his profi-
jungle, the liaunt of tigers, and the ciency, that at the age of 23 he was
seat of pestilence and desolation. Af- selected by Professor Gregory, who
ter copying the inscriptions, and ta- had fallen into bad health, to supply
king views of the most interesting ob- his place in teaching the mathematical
jects, we with difficulty made our way classes. This he accordingly did,
through the jungle, to an open space, with much approbation during the
on the verge of the cultivated tracts, session 1720,-21.
where our stents were pitched out of

Mr Wallace's studious habits inclithe way of fever and tigers,

ned him to the church, of which he was admitted a licentiate in 1722. In

the following year he was presented Short Memoirs of Robert WALLACE, shire. Here he remained for teu

to the living of Moffat in Dumfries-
D.D. Author of the Essay on the
Numbers of Mankind, and other years; and in 1733, he was called to

the metropolis, to fill the pulpit of the

New Greyfriars Church.

OBERT WALLACE was born on About two years after this, he be

the 7th January 1697 (O.S.), at came one of the founders and zealous the village of Kincardine in Perth- promoters of the Philosophical Society, shire, where his father, the Rev. Ma- which, in 1783, was superseded by

hew Wallace, was parish-minister, the institution of the Royal Society of
He was an only child, and enjoyed Edinburgh, all the members of the
the undivided attention of his parents, former being considered as fellows
who sedulously watched over his ear- of the new society.
ly culture. After attending the gram- Mr Wallace's conduct as a leading
mar-school of Stirling, he was sent, in member of the Church of Scotland,
1711, to the University of Edinburgh. vas bold, dignified, and consistent.
Here he studied for several years, at- In 1737, he opposed the arbitrary
tracting the attention equally of his injunctions laid on the Scottish clergy
teachers and his fellow students, by to fulminate from their pulpits anathe-
his assiduous application, and his re- mas against all who should conceal or
markable progress.

He was one of succour those persons who had been the original members of the Ranken- in any way concerned in what is calian Club, a literary society instituted led the Porteous mob, and who had, with at Edinburgh about 1716, and which

an unnecessary violence on the part had the honour perhaps of laying the of Government, been proscribed as refoundation of the present literary fame bels. Mr Wallace was henceforth of Scotland ; at least the Rankenians looked upon as an onpositionist during were certainly the first to excite the remaining years of Sir Robert Scotchmen to study accuracy and Walpole's administration. In 1739 taste in their English compositions. he was translated from the Greyfriars The title “ Rankenian" was derived to the New North Church, commonly merely from the name of the tavern. called Haddo's Hold. Upon the keeper in whose house they met. The change of ministry in 1742, when


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