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John, Marquis of Tweeddale, was ap- rior populousness of ancient states.--pointed one of the Principal Secreta- Mr Wallace did not hesitate to entet ries of State, Mr Wallace immediately the lists with his able antagonist, with came into favour; and he was for se- whom, however, he still continued to veral
years after exclusively intrusted to live in the strictest habits of friend- with the couduct of the ecclesiastical ship. In 1753 he sent his “ Essay on affairs of Scotland.
the Numbers of Mankind" to the press, He was one of the founders and together with an Appendix, equai principal promoters of the Fund for in length to the body of the work, Annuities to the Widows and Chil- containing answers to Mr Hume's dren of the Clergy of Scotland. In principal arguments. In this appen1743 he was chosen Moderator of the dix he mentions, in language of resGeneral Assembly; and in this meet- pectful gratitude, the assistance he had ing the scheme for the fund was a. received while treating of subjects greed to. In the end of the same connected with Roman law, from a year he went to London, to solicit the friend versed in that department. This sanction of Parliament, which he friend was his second son George, succeeded in obtaining.
then an advocate at the Scottish bar, In 1744 he was appointed one of and afterwards distinguished as the his Majesty's chaplains for Scotland, author of various literary pieces. an office which he held till his death. It may here be worthy of remark,
Upon the resignation, in 1746, of, that Mr Hume, in a very long note, the Marquis of Tweeddale, who had in an early edition of his Essays, been the patron and friend of Mr Wal- published during his own life, paid a lace, the management of the Church af- very high compliment to Mr Wallace, fairs of Scotland was committed to other and admitted that he had derived hands. The additional leisure thus much information from his work. afforded him, Mr Wallace devoted In 1756 the University of Edinchiefly to literary pursuits. Among burgh spontaneously conferred the other things, he carefully revised an degree of D.D. on Mr Wallace, Mr Essay on the Numbers of Mankind, Wishart, Mr M‘Night, and some owhich he had read, several years be ther distinguished clergymen. fore, to the Philosophical Society. In In 1758 Dr Wallace published a this Essay he maintained the superior volume, intituled, “ Characteristics of populousness of ancient nations, on the present political State of Great the simple principle, That most food Britain," in which, with a patriotic must produce most people ; at the feeling of exultation, he cherished the same time proving that the ancients drooping spirits of his countrymen, bestowed the greatest possible atten- and with an almost prophetic eye, detion on agriculture, and on the produc- picted the prospects of greatness and tion of provisions of every kind. It happiness which awaited Britain, and seems highly probable that the reading which have since been realized even of this Essay before the Philosophical amidst the “ crash” of the nations of Society, incited Mr David Hume, one Europe. of its members, to write his well- In 1761 he published another voknown Discourse on the Populousness lume, intituled, “ Various Prospects of of Ancient Nations, which was pub- Mankind, Nature, and Providence," lished
among his “ Essays” in 1752. -a work less known perhaps than his In this discourse, that celebrated other writings, but which equally dewriter adopted the other side of the serves to be read. It is now, howquestion, and argued, with great learn. ever, but rarely to be met with. ing and acuteness, against the supe- He prepared for the press several
other pieces, which it is unnecessary
proper, before conclud. here to specify. He was in the prac- ing, to remark, that Mr Malthus, in tice of corresponding with all the hiscelebratedEssay on Population," learned men of his day in Europe, first published in 1793, has derived and his house was frequented by the from Dr Wallace's work “ On the literary characters of the country.- Numbers of Mankind," some of those It may be added, that in the celebra- important principles, by means of ied controversy concerning the cha- which he has so successfully assailed racter of Mary Queen of Scots, he the systems of Condorcet and Goddissented from the opinions of Princi- win, and shewn the absurdity of expal Robertson, and warmly espoused pecting the perfectibility and immorthose of Dr Stuart and Mr Tytler, tality of man in this world, or such a the vindicators of the unfortunate
state of equality in society as should Queen.
banish vice and misery from the earth. He died, 29th July 1771, at his Mr Malthus has shewn, that the powcountry lodgings at Broughton Loan, er of population is indefinitely greater (a spot now occupied by the east end than the power of the earth, to proof York Place and Albany Row.) duce subsistence for man: that in conHe was then in his 75th year*. sequence of the law of our nature
Dr Wallace had married Helen, which makes food indispensable to life, daughter of the Rev. George Turn- the effects of these two unequal powers bull of Tynningham ; and he left, by must by some means be kept equal : her, three children : Mathew, who and that some strong checks on popuwas preceptor to the present Duke of lation are therefore necessary; these, Gordon, and afterwards vicar of Ten- he observes, are to be found in scarciterden in Kent ; George, an advocate, ty of food and in vicious habits ;-a already mentioned; and a daughter sort of necessary evils, which, by the named Elizabeth. These all died the constitution of human nature, and unmarried. It will be recollected human society, must always more or that we mentioned in the outset that less prevail. It may be proper to Dr Wallace was an only child : his mention, that as far as Mr Malthus father, it may be added, was an only touches on religious topics, his sen
This accounts for the total fai- timents are widely different from lure of heirs-male in the family. those of Dr Wallace, which, from
A striking likeness, and beautiful his various moral and theological portrait of Dr Wallace, done in 1764, writings, appear to have been of the by Millar, the Reynolds of his day, Calvinistic school. has been presented by his representa- The attention of the public having, tives to the Trustees for the Widows of late years, been much directed tothe Fund, to be placed in their hall. It subject of population, especially by the has already been mentioned how much very generalcirculation of the book jusč this excellent scheme owed, in its referred to, Dr Wallace's Dissertation formation and developement, to the on the Numbers of Mankind, (which Doctor's genius and exertions.
was once very popular, and was trans
lated into several languages on the * See Scots Magazine for 1771, vol. Continent,) has naturally come to be xxxiii, p. 340, et sey, where several again in request. It has long been particulars concerning Dr Wallace are collected. From these, and from addis considered as a scarce book; and we tional information politely furnished by understand that a new edition has the Doctor's representatives, this ac just come from the press, possessing count has been drawn up.
the advantage of having been printed August 1869.
from a copy containing the last cor- poured some water, in which had rections of the author, and some far- been dissolved 746 of its weight of ther emendations by bis son, the late salt; and after placing it upon a George Wallace, Esq. advocate. shilling, with the bladder slightly
moistened externally, he bent a wire of zinc, so that while one extre
mity rested on the shilling, the other Memoirs of the Progress of MANU- might be immersed about an inch
FACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, in the water. By successive examiand the FINE ARTS.
nation of the external surface of the A
MINE of zinc ore has been dis- bladder, he found that even this feeble
covered on Lord Ribblesdale's power occasioned soda to be sepaestate, in Craven, Yorkshire, where rated froin the water, and to tranthere were formerly copper mines. sude thro’ the substance of the blad. This ore has been used as a substilute der. The presence of alkali was disin painting for white lead, the colour cernible by the application of redof which it attains by long exposure: dened litmus paper, after two or three it does not blister, is more adhesive, minutes, and was generally manifest and is not decomposed by salt water. even by the test of turmeric before This mineral is found in strata at the five minutes had expired. This exbottom of caverns, about 8 fathoms periment tends to confirm the conjecfrom the surface, in some places 6 feet ture, that similar agents may be inthick. One of the caverns is 104 yards, strumental in effecting the various aanother 84, a third 40 yards in length, nimal secretions which have not yet and above 14 yards wide, It is sup- been otherwise explained. The quaposed to have been sublimed by a vol- lities of each secreted fluid may
herecano, as the stones surrounding it have after instruct us in the species of elecbeen vitrified. About 2000 tons of tricity that prevails in each organ it have been sold at from 51. to 101. to the body. make brass when mixed with copper, Mr James Thompson of Churchexclusive of what has been used for Bridge, near Blackburn, in Lancapainting. If this discovery should be shire, has made various experiments followed by others of a like kind, so on the sulphate of barytes. His anathat there should be a full supply of lysis of that substance confirms with the mineral, and it should be found to trifling variation the results already answer the purposes required, it is pos- obtained by Withering, Kirwan, Clesible that the use of white lead as ment and Desormes, and prove-l. paint, with its deleterious effects, may That carbonate of barytes, both native be in a great degree superseded. and artificial, is composed of carbonic
Dr Wollaston has been led, by acid 21.75, barytes 78.25.–2. That Mr Davy's experiments on the separa- nitrate of barytes is composed of acid tion and transfer of chemical agents and water 40.7, barytes 59.3.--3. That by means of the Voltaic apparatus, to calcined sulphate of lime contains imagine it probable, that animal se- sulphuric acid 58, lime 42.-4, and cretions are effected by the agency of lastly, That calcined sulphate of baa similar electric power. In this opi- rytes is composed of sulphuric acid 33, nion he is supported by the following barytes 67. experiment: He took a piece of From a series of experiments on glass tube, about three quarters of an the germination of seeds instituted by inch in diameter, and nearly two inches Mr J. Acton, of Ipswich, it appears, long, open at both ends; and covered that when germinating seeds are first
them with a piece of clean placed in oxigen gas, a considerable Into this little vessel he absorption takes place ; the quantity
of For this pur
it its name.
42, 8 28, 8
being regulated by the state of the But the case is altered considerably, seeds and the temperature of the at. when the writer of a useless and insimosphere. In one experiment the pid book attempts to ride into public absorption in eleven hours was 1.60 view, on the shoulders of an author, cubic inches, being nearly one third whose understanding and zeal have of the quantity employed.
been exercised in a cause and in a M. Creve, of Wisbaden, has disco- manner, which reflect the highest crevered a method of recovering wine dit upon both. that has turned sour.
The extensive circulation of “ Cæ. pose he employs powdered charcoal. lebs in search of a Wife,” it was naThe inhabitants of the banks of the tural to think, would become an obRhine have presented him with a me- ject of envy to the whole tribe of petdal for this discovery.
ty composers, who live by imposing From an analysis of the kaneelstein, on the corrupted taste of the present which has always been considered as age. Their minds were, no doubt, a species of jacinth, Professor Lampa- early set on edge by its popularity, dius has ascertained the accuracy of and, like the children in the streets, that opinion. Its colour is orange, ap- after the racing season, with caps and proaching that of cinnamon, whence coats inverted, they are all seen streWerner gave
M. Lam- nuously endeavouring to perform an padius obtained from it
exploit, and to gain a glory, similar, Silex.........
as they imagine, to those which have Zircon......
affected their minds with such punAlumina....
8, 6 gent emulation. But we might have Potash.......
6,0 ventured to whisper in the ear of eveLime.........
3, 8 ry one, who thus sought to rival Oxide of iron........
3, 0 the merit, and to participate in the Loss by calcination....... 2, 6 fame of Coelebs,' that he had underLoss........
4, 4 taken a task of no inconsiderable diffi
culty, and that he most probably would place his own performance in a disadvantageous light, by such a com
petition. SCOTTISH REVIEW.
The present author, whoever he is,
has committed a very great error in 1. Nubilia in search of a Husband. this respect. We will not indeed af8vo. 9s. London, 1809. firm, that his work could ever have
been respectable in the eyes of any THIS "HIS is the age of scribbling; and competent judge; but its vices and de
of sentimental scribbling : and fects would certainly have been less the world is already choked full of prominent and perceptible. The per, books, which have any tendency, bụt usal of . Colebs' serves but as a torch to advance either its intellectual or to discover the deformities of Nubilia; moral improvement. Works of this and then, we fear, to lighten her to her kind, it is wise, in general, to let pass 'tomb. The fact is, however,-and without any observation, as the most an extraordinary fact it certainly is, effectual method to render them in---that the only circumstance, from noxious ; which these, and many other which the reader could at all perceive things, would inevitably become, were that this book was suggested by the they not often magnified into mischief publication of Coelebs," is to be found by the notice they receive.
in the nature of its title. And much
| br 25
better had it been, if this circum- too." Charlotte loses something of her stance had likewise been wanting.- gaiety. “ Your skin is quite hot ; and, For Celebs in search of a Wife, is just dear child, you have a pulse like lightquaint enough : but Nubilia in search ning.", Charlotte looks grave. of a Husband is at once indelicate, un
you ill, my dear.” Nature for a mo.
ment prevails, and Charlotte answers, natural, and absurd.
“ Indeed you are, my deas: The substance of the present work is your stomach ill?" Still truth mainconsists, in the first place, of a long tains her empire, and Charlotte still anaddress on the physical, moral, and swers,
46 No.” “ Indeed, my dear, intellectual education of children : sé- something's the matter with you; what
is it?" Charlotte now in a subdued condly, a long tedious letter on marriage, and on the alleged folly of the moaning voice, answers, "Nothing."
“ Poor dear, she speaks as if she were reserve which it commonly imposes ; sick; here, put your head upon mamand, thirdly, a long string of reflections ma’s bosom; is it your head that aches?” on independence of mind. Besides Look at Charlotte now ; her features are these principal articles, we have a dis- relaxed; her head lies languidly upon course on the evils of political disputa- mamma's breast; her mouth falis ; distion ;--another, on the characters of tress is painted upon every feature, and some of the English poets ;-a decla- in a voice scarcely audible, she replies
“ Bless me! but you are very mation on the elegant amusement of sick; you can hardly speak; tell me, cockfighting, and a very violent one
my dear, what it is you feel.” Charagainst the enlightened members of the Joite thinks of caudles and confections, Whip Club ;a few encomiastic ob- nursings, soothings, and indulgencies, servations on Robert Burns, the poet; and answers half weeping, “I feel some -a particular account of Mary of thing; I don't know what.” “Sweet Buttermere ,-a discussion on the jus- bursts into tears, and tells mamma she
lamb, I knew she was ill." Charlotte tifiableness of suicide ;-another on
sick. The bell is rung, the German literature ;--- and, finally, a
bed prepared; all the house put in most phlegmatic chapter on love and commotion, and Miss Charlotte, tutter. friendship
ing on mamma's arm, or carried by pa. The remarks on the management pa, is conveyed to bed, and then begins of children without are,
the usual mummery. This is the pro
controversy, the best part of the book :-the only gress, nine times out of ten, of infantile
diseases. They are absolutely tortured part indeed, which has
P. 121. value: and notwithstanding their tediousness and tautology, these are cer
The letter on the restraints of the tainly, upon the whole, considerably matrimonial state is far from being a above mediocrity. We approve very correct performance. It is replete, in much of that system of decision and correct performance. It is replete, in inflexibility, which is here recom- pinions : -opinions, which the present mended to parents, in the discipline state of society requires rather to be of their families; and shall quote a
put down, than encouraged. passage, where we think the descrip- have nothing for it, therefore, but as tion is very naturally given, acquaint- the friends of strict order and decoing the reader, at the same time, that this paragraph is, perhaps, the chef tion of the work oưr hearty condem
rum, to bestow upon this pord'auvre of the whole.
nation. “ Such a dialogue as the following I have heard, I cannot tell you how often the remarks on independence of cha
Nor can we speak in high terms of " Come here, my dear Charlotte, you "look very pale to-day.” Charloire racter. There are, we are ready to seniles with all the gaiety of health.
admit, some traits of manly and vigodeed you do : your eyes are heavy rous thought to be found among them ;