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but the independence which Nubilia In such vapid and unavailing senti-
recommends is quite independent of re- ments as these does Nubilia's piety
ligion. It is the unassisted effort of consist ; nor is she even ashamed to a-
human sagacity and power. It is en- vow, that the feelings which are thus
tirely a prudential quality, assumed excited in her breast, constitute in her
for secular purposes, without being at opinion, a much more rational and ac-
all inspired by a strong and habitual ceptable system of devotion, than all
reverence for Truth, and without any the exercises of social and public wor-
regard to the divine will. “The man ship-stamped as they are with di-
who can lay his hand upon his heart, vine authority. We cannot help de-
says Nubilia, “ and exclaim with con- ' ploring the ignorance, to speak of no-
scious rectitude, ' I have never forgot- thing else, which the expression of
ten the dignity of human nature, is a such opinions palpably betrays.
man more to be envied, in my 'estima The story on which all this ver-
tion, than any other human being." biage (for honestly, as a whole, it is
Now what is this, we would ask, but to little else) is suspended, is meagre in
erect a false and spurious standard of the extreme. It is not worth the epi-
morality ? What is it, but to exalt the tomizing. The characters are all un-
pride of man ; to make his own self- finished. Many of them are unnatu-
love, in fact, the umpire of his con- ral. To quote a single example, what
duct; to place individual opinion in think you, reader, of a fine laboured
the chair of divine revelation; and to piece of rhetoric, with an oath or two
refer us, in short, to a criterion, which to boot, made to proceed from the
has no existence but in the perverted lips of a man in the pains of death,
imagination of man, and which is en and already within the threshold of
tirely excluded by every idea of reli- eternity? Such, however, was the
gion which we derive from the scrip- case with the father of Nubilia!
tures?

But Nubilia has no religion : With regard to the style of this no, not a particle; unless those shal- work, its author informs us, in the low and evanescent emotions can be preface, that " he has attempted to denominated religion, which even the construct the language with a greater most, abandoned minds fail not fre- latitude of rhetorical embellishment, quently to experience, whilst contem- than is usually thought consistent with plating the beauties of external nature, English prose.” And again, that or listening to the melodious sounds " the aim has been, in particular pasof the Æolian harp !--No :-we are sages, to try how elevated English willing to enlarge the exception: we prose might be made, without becomshall readily allow greater latitude to ing turgid." The reader shall judge Nubilia ; and if any one can find the for himself of the success of this tickevidences of genuine religion in the fol- lish experiment, and, for this end, we lowing declaration, let the young lady shall select one particular paragraph, have the praise of it:

as we conceive, that our author has

therein put forth all the skill of which " I love to follow a funeral, and he was master, in the art of composipouse at every step, and lay each accent that it speaks, close upon my there ever was such a mass of English

tion. For our own part we inquire if heart. I love to hold some mouldering bone within my hand, and knit it with syllables and sentences conglomerated its brethren, and dress them up, in fan- together as in the following most excy, with mortal, perishable beauty ; to traordinary passage : invest the loathsome ruin with grace and charms; to give it dignity, and ex At other times softer and more ecellence, and love." P. 164. thereal images arise. When I have be

held!

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P. 326.

held distant clouds strongly tinged with dom, “fitful breeze," "club-wara the sun's rays, and fioating, as it were, riors," &c. We meet besides with a in the whiteness of surrounding ether, few words which are raiher unusual, as steadily I have fixed my eyes upon them,

congenerous, “inhumation," and imagined, that resting on their fiuid borders, or rolied within their fleecy blenched,” « lucre-gifted,” &c. But folds, angels sit hymning to the great

we hasten to close our extracts, by inCreator; and, with heavenly voices, join. dulging our female readers, (and we ed to the dulcet melody of harps, sing hope they will consider themselves in. their vesper chorus. I fancy that the debted to us for the treat,) with Nuaerial strains reach my ears; and for a bilia's description of Mary of Buttermoment I am transported among them;

mere, and of her hair-comb. Here it is : then ! heaven opens on my eyes : I see transparent forms, whose milk - white

" She is a brunette in complexion : wings fo!d, like a cincture, round their her hair was turned up behind, and fastdazzling loins ; they lean on golden ned with a comb that had a pearl back, harps; the blazing floor, spangled with or perhaps only beads ; for I did not ac. stars innumerable, beams like a furnace; curately examine." pendant, from vaulted roofs, hang starry

To conclude, we are sensible that lamps, burning sweet incense, whose

we have used considerable freedom odours, wafted through the balmy air, fill the delighted sense with gladness. with this book : not more, however, Angelic shapes glide through Doric co we should think, than we were justifilumas, inwreathed with many a spiraled in doing, although a great deal fold of flaming cressets, which, circling more, we believe, than the author in magic dance around, reach a name seems to have been willing to allow to less height supporting roofs of frested

any

critic. He manifests an anxiety gold; these, as they move along, hold mutual discourse sweet, and look such throughout, to escape animadversion, dewy mildness from their eyes, as hea. by alleging, that it would be unfair venly spirits wont, when they, of old, in any one to indulge in it, who has descended to converse with man, swift not imbibed the feelings which he demessengers of God's eternal word; still, scribes. Had we resolved to abide by as my fancy works, methinks I'm led this rule, we should have been in the to softly breathing measures, from views situation of the man, who took his post less harps, by airy minstrels played, a.

at a river side, with the determination long the space of heaven: odorous

pero fumes from ten thousand fanning wings

to wait till the water had run by, that are wafted round me : trembling i stand, he might then walk over dryshod! even at the throne of God himself

, whencé We must again plainly declare that angels turn, with softened gaze away, so our opinion is against this publication. bright the effulgent glory which irra. We deny not, that there are a few diates from the clouds that dwell

, for good things contained in it; but this ever, round the Omnipotent! The lost

is no more than can be said of many a soul is lapped in ectasy and big with unutterable feelings : mysterious yisions book, which ought never to have seen sweep before my sight; and, in an

the light. We cannot at the same ocean plunged of pleasures, tempered to time help thinking, that the author its state by the creative mind that for. has done himself some injustice, by ined them, it dies, dissolves away, and ushering it into the world as a comconscious only of amazing bliss. The panion to the work of Mrs More. shadows of approaching night recall its Instead of being a companion, it is in wandering thoughts, and I awake to life, many particulars a perfect contrast to to misery and the world!" P.

291.

it ; and as a whole, after taking nineWe have also throughout this book teen parts out of twenty in “ Coelebs,” several curious expressions, such as, there yet remains in our opinion a much * unwarmed vacuity," " quotidian wis. better book than this is.

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II. A Dissertation on the Numbers of lions. He fully illustrates also the

Mankind in ancient and modern connection between food and populatimes. By Robert Wallace, D.D. tion, though he does not seem aware late one of the Ministers of Edin- of the difference between the ratios of burgh. Second edition. Revised their augmentation, nor of the eternal and corrected. 8vo. 9s. Edin- barrier which nature has thus placed burgh. Constable and Co. against the unlimited multiplication of

the species. A S it is now half a century since the After these preliminary observa

first edition of this work was pub- tions, Dr Wallace proceeds to an inFished, it may appear to be no longer vestigation of the facts connected with a fit subject of critical examination. his particular branch of the subject. Several circumstances, however, make This part of the work displays abunus disposed to enter into a short exa dance of learning and ingenuity; at the mination of it. It is revived, after ha- same time, we cannot help remarking ving been for some time out of print, a want of steadiness in the application and almost forgotten; and as the sub- of his general principles, the illustraject has received so much light from tion of which seems to have been emrecent investigations, it may be cu- ployed rather as a becoming introducrious to apply these to the prior obser tion to the work, than as the clue vations of our author,

which is to guide him through it.It is well known that this treatise is Nor does he appear to have escaped particularly opposed to one on the the usual faults of wresting facts, in orsame subject by David Hume.. The der to suit them to his hypothesis, as. circumstances under which they were well as of turning aside from those published are stated by one of our cor- which militate

against

it. respondents, who has enriched the pre He begins, however, with obsersent number with a life of Wallace*. ving, very justly, that although the The whole controversy was conducted general tendency of mankind is to in. with exemplary learning, ability, and crease in number, this tendency is ofgood temper.

ten counteracted by various causes of The author begins with laying down a moral and political nature; that the general principles by which popu- many nations, instead of advancing in lation is regulated. The manner in

this

respect, become retrograde. He which he performs this part of his un- proposes to make a comparison bedertaking is extremely creditable to tween the ancient and the modern him, especially as we believe it to have world, and to ascertain which of the been, at the time, original. He clear- iwo was the most populous. This ly unfolds that power of rapid in- comparison, of course, can be institucrease, of which the human species,' ted only with regard to the world as when placed in favourable circumstan- familiarly known to the ancients, which ces, is capable. He calculates indeed includes only Europe, and the neighthe period of doubling at SS} years, bouring coasts of Asia and Africa. whereas subsequent observation seems As the subject is both curious and of to have shewn that it may take place considerable importance, we shall fol. in little more than half that time, but low him in some of his calculations. even at this rate he proves that a sin He begins with Eygpt. There can gle couple may in twelve hundred years be no doubt that this country was anproduce four hundred thousand mil- ciently much more populous than now.

It is even probable, from the sort f
Chinese system which prevailed, that it

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*See p. 591.

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was exceedingly populous. Our au- the annexation of Latium and Sabinthor has different calculations, which um, was of considerable extent, and raise its population to 28, 32, 34, and extremely fertile. The earliest census 40 millions. As there is rather a ten- took place about the 175th year of dency towards the marvellous in the Rome, and produced, according to Livy, accounts transmitted to us of this ce 80,000 Roman citizens. Fabius Piclebrated country, we rather incline to tor, whom he quotes, says, that these the lowest of these.

were all able to carry arins ; a stateOur author is successful in proving ment which we suspect to be erronous, the same superiority in Palestine, Sy- unless Rome became afterwards less ria, and Asia Minor.

populous. Between the years 200 and There can be no doubt also that 300, the census varied from 130 to Greece was much more populous; at 140,000, and between 400 and 500 the same time, we cannot subscribe to from 250 to 300,000. We suspect our the full extent of our author's calcu- author means to have it supposed, that lations. He seems to prove Attica to all these were men able to bear armis. have contained about half a million ; The contrary, however, is the case; for and supposing all Greece to have been Livy, in mentioning one of these enpeopled at the same rate, the whole umerations, says, it was “praeter orbos would have amounted to 12,000,000. orbasque;' besides male and female But we must observe, that Athens, orphans. The census therefore inclufrom her commercial and conquering ded females, and probably all citizens, character, possessed a great accumula- with this singular and apparently tion of people, who were not supported himsical exception. We do not think, by her own soil ; she drew copious sup- from a quotation of our author himself, plies of grain from Eubra and other and from other circumstances, that the fertile islands, and even from the Cher- number of slaves not bearing arms was sonese. Attica, therefore, like Hol- considerable. We have not now, maland, possessed a forced population, terials for calculating the present pomaintained at the expence of other pulation of this territory ; but we have districts, and cannot be considered as little doubt that, even in its present affording a fair measure of the general sunk state, it is more considerable than population of Greece.

the above. It is not probable that In proceeding to Sicily and Mag- any of the neighbouring nations, who na Græcia, our author completely were all conquered by the Romans, triumphs. The arts of Greece and were more considerable than they. Egypt, transported into that luxuriant Livy mentions an instance, in which, climate, seem to have produced a de- by the loss of 14,000 men, the Volscian gree of wealth and pooulousness truly name was almost destroyed. Dr Walastonishing But we cannot agree lace considers the population as diwith him so fully, when he comes to minished by the progress of Roman conthe interior and northern parts of Italy. quest'; in which we incline to differ A number of small nations, continually from him, though we doubt if it was at war with each other, and car

very greatly increased. rying on these wars chiefly for the sake Our author next proceeds to Gaul, of plunder, could not well manage which being nearly in the same situatheir agricultural operationsin a manner tion as Italy during the first years of necessary for the support of a numer- Rome, could not well be more popuous people. Scarcely a year passed lous. Accordingly Belgium, then a that the Aequi and Volsci did not car fourth of Gaul, because it extended to ry their devastations to the gates of the Seine and Marne, could yield onRome. The Roman territory, afterly 500,000 warriors ; and calculating

these

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war.

1.

these at the usual proportion of a that these were men possessed of arms,
fourth of the whole, the number of in- and accustomed to the use of them.
habitants would be 2,000,000, and the There appears to us therefore every
entire population of Gaul 8,000,000. reason to believe, that, in the enume-
By another calculation, which appears ration of men whom each state could
to us somewhat strained, he raises bring into the field, the whole nation,
them to upwards of nine millions. the Plebes not excepted, are included ;
But by neither of these do they a- though, unless in cases of extreme ne-
mount to a third of the present inha- cessity, only a part were brought into
bitants. Our author indeed contrives the field. There will remain, therefore,
to quadruple these numbers, by sup- as above, only 8 or 9 millions for the
posing that in Gaul, as in the Grecian population of all Gaul, including
republics, there were a body of slaves France, the Netherlands, and Switzer.
three times greater in number than land.
the freemen, and who did not serve in Our author candidly admits Bri-

As this question is of impor- tain to be a decided exception to his tance, we shall examine it with some general doctrine. Here, however, he attention.

stops. He declines penetrating into Cæsar divides the Gauls into Druids, the wilds of the Hercynian forest ; inEquites, and Plebes. The Plebes, he to Germany, Poland, and Scandinasays, " are treated almost as slaves." via, those immense tracts, formerly alThe Equites,“ when there is occasion, most desert, but now covered with and any war occurs, are all employed people. in war.” This expression, however, From these data, it may now be does not, to us, necessarily imply, that interesting to endeavour some opinion they alone were employed in war. It on the grand question respecting the rather gives us the idea, that while, on comparative population of thai part of a war breaking out, the whole of this the world to which our enquiry rebody served in the army, only a draft lates. The fact appears to be simply was made from the inferior orders. --- this; that all the south-eastern extreThe word Equites seems clearly to mity of Europe, with all the countries imply serving on horseback ; but tho' of Asia and Africa, adjoining or cavalry formed the most esteemed part opposite, were much more populous of the Gallic force, yet her infantry than now, when they are bowed be

When the Nervii are neath the united yoke of despotism described as removing among marshes and superstition. But the case is re all who were unfit for war, there is versed with respect to the middle, and mention only of women, children, and northern states of Europe. The old men, not of slaves. When the question is, whether the increase in one Helvetic nation migrated in a body part is sufficient to compensate for the with their "wives, children, and all decrease in another. Here it is to be their effects, to seek a more fruitful remarked, that the countries anciently territory, it cannot be doubted that well cultivated were more fortunate the Plebes would accompany them. in soil and climate than those which Yet of the whole number of 368,000, are so now. The former, therefore, which, by the bye, is remarkably would probably be more highly peosmall, one fourth, or 92,000, are sta- pled than the latter. On the other ted as able to bear arms. This is the hand, agriculture has been considerabfull proportion ; there could not be ly improved since that time, and Turmore. If Orgetorix, by collecting his key, Barbary, &c. however much defamilia, could set the laws of his coun- cayed, are probably still more potry at defiance, it cannot be doubted pulous than were anciently GerAugust 1809.

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