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shop of Santander. They are ordered to The bulletins add, that the divisions
cvery side, and that the division of La. cowards. No individual can possess more
salle having fallen in with sixteen Eng. than one commandery in Spain. The In- lish stragglers, put them all to the sword. quisition is abolished. --The nuniber of con- The stragglers here alluded to, and thus vents in Spain shall be reduced to one- barbarously massacred, were probably third. All personal dues, all exclusive right some sick of General Hope's division, of fishery, or other rights of the same na- which had advanced to the Escurial ; ture, on the coasts, rivers, and banks of ri- and, as we have been given to undervers, and all barralities of mills, are sup- stand, afterwards rejoined Gen. Moore's pressed, and all shall be permitted to give army. As to the alleged general flight á free impulse to their industry. After the of the English troops, the French state1st of January, the barriers existing from
ment is evidently a gasconade. province to province shall be suppressed.
SPANISH ACCOUNTS. While these important measures were These are very confused; but the in progress at Madrid, Bonaparte does following private letter appears to connot appear to have lost sight of the ar. tain the best and most interesting informy of Castanos, which, after its defeat mation relative to the entrance of the at' Tudela, had proceeded sou h west, French into Madrid, &c. by Borja, Calatayud, and Siguenza, in “ Truxillo, Dec, 15.-(The writer sets the direction of Madrid, with intent to out with some accounts of the state of cover that city. On the 2d, it was re- athe Spanish armies.) Romana, after connoitred in the vicinity of Guadalax. Blake's reverses, in which he acquired ara, about 22 miles north-east of Ma. great glory, had united all the dispersed drid, under the command of Gen. Pena; remnants of the army in Leon, amountCastanos having been, according to re. ing to 20,000 men, who were subseport, suspended by the Military Junta, quently joined by the reserves of the we presume in consequence of his de. Asturias and Gallicia, the whole mak. feat at Tudela, an event which has been ing 35,000 men, of which 1200 were attributed to an injudicious position of cavalry. The army of Estremadura, his army on that day. Upon the com after its partial defeat at Burgos, fell munication of this intelligence, the Duke back upon Samosierra, and covered that of Istria (Marshal Bessieres) was sent point. The troops that were in Madrid with a large force of cavalry, followed were ordered to proceed to Guadarama by the Duke of Belluno (Marshal Vic- to defend that pass, and the reserve of tor,) to watch its movements. On the Andalusia was ordered to proceed by arrival of the French at Guadalaxara, forced marches to Madrid; it was also they found there only the rear guard of wished that Sir John Moore should the army of Castanos, the main body march towards Madrid, to assist in de. having passed, on its retreat, in the di. fence of the capital, but Sir John refu rection of Andalusia. This rear guard sed to divide his troops. The letter the French attacked and dispersed, tak then proceeds as follows: ine 500 prisoners; while, it is said, ano- “ In the mean time we received inther French force, under Gen. Ruffin, telligence of the battle of Tudela, and advanced to Aranjuez, where he put to that Napoleon was marching to Madrid flight the part of the army of Castanos with his whole army, without concernwhich had passed Guadalaxara, and, pru. ing himself about Castanos or Saragosceeding to Ocano, cut off its retreat to On the 26th it was resolved to forCuenca. We apprehend, however, that tify the capital, and to organise its inha. the Spanish army did not mean to re- bitants, as well as circumstances would treat to Cuenca, which lies to the east. admit, trusting that the posts of Samoward, but that it was proceeding, and sieria and Guadarama would be able to did proceed, south-west, in the direction maintain themselves until time was gi. of the Sierra Morena, probably to To. ven for the arrival of Castanos, who ledo.
was coming by way of Siguenza.
“On the 28th, 29th, and 30th of Nov. twenty thousand troops composing the the enemy sttacked Samosierra with army already in the city, and those who the utmost vigour, and with a succession were that day expected to arrive from of fresh troops. The garrison, after Segovia and Guadaramı. From these maintaining its ground, and repeiling the motives, the white flag was hoisted, and enemy with great loss, on the 25th and the troops evacuated the city in the 29th, was, on the 30th, unable to sup. course of the evening and night, by the port the fatigue of further resistance; gates of Sezovia and Toledo. The and after galleatly desending itself to people, potwithstanding the determinathe last mome!:t, retreated in good or. tion of the Junta, caused the white flag der to Seguria. In consequence of this, to be lowered, and persisted in the in. the road to Madrid was open to the ene- tention of defending themselves. my; and accordingly advanced parties “ On the 4th, there were various at. of their horse made their appearance tacks by the onemy at different gates, on the ist instant, in the environs of but in all of them they were repulsed. the city, which not having previously Meanwhile the enemy fortified them. thought of constructing fortifications une selves at Retiro; and the people, being til the 26th of the preceding month, was without leaders on regular troops, rein a condition which you may easily treated gradually to their own houses. imagine ; and every one being employed “ The state of affairs since is the most in erecting bulwarks. palisades and other surprising and unacountable ever heard works, there was no time to organize of in the world. Up to the 9th, the the inbabitants; in addition to which, it French had not disarmed the inhabitants, is to be considered that the troops of but during the day sent strong detachSamusierra, who were advancing from ments to occupy the gates, and in the Segovia by Guadarama, and those also · evening all of them withdrew to the of the latter post, could not arrive until Retiro. The authority of the new King the 3d. Castanos likewise found his is not recognised by the city, which is march towards the capital cut off, and entirely governed by its own Magisthere were in Madrid only 7000 or 8000 trates, without any interference on the veteran soldiers. Nevertheless the peo. part of the French. This fact may ap. ple, andismayed, expressed their deter. pear to you incredible; but it is unmination to prefer total ruin to capitu- doubted, and no one is capable of giving lation. The enemy, in considerable any explanation of it. force, attacke’ the gates of Fuencarral, “ of the 22,000 troops who were in Toros, and St Bernardino, in the morn- the capital, 12,000 have proceeded, un. ing of the 2d, but they were gallantly der the command of Maria, to join Cassepulsed with considerable loss.
tanos ; and 10,000, under that of Gallu. “In the evening, and during the whole zo, to the bridge of Almaran, which is night of the 2d, the enemy attacked with fortifying in order to cover this province. a considerable quantity of artillery, the “ General Don Benito San Juan has gate of Alcala and the Retiro. They been put to death by his troops at Ta. were unable to make themselves masters lavera de la Reyna, and his dead body of the former ; but the Retiro, in conse. dragged along the road. This officer quence of continued attacks from the commanded at Samosierra ; and it must preceding evening, fell into their hands be admitted, that in the defence of that at 11 o'clock in the morning of the 3d, post his conduct was in every respect with a most dreadful loss on the part of satisfactory, notwithstanding his being the enemy. The Junta of Armament, compelled to abandon it. But, accord taking these circumstances into consi. ing to report, the cause of his unfortuderation, and having received the un- nate fate was his having refused to en. expected intelligence that the English ter Madrid with his troops, on the 3d, troops were retreating upon Portugal, alleging that such a step would end in considered all attempts at defence use the certain destruction of all of them, less-as, on account of the reinforce. Upon this subject he had some alterca. ments which were daily joining the tion with General Heredia, in conse. French army, resistance could have no quence of which the misinformed solnther result than that of the total de- diers committed this gross enormity and struction of the capital, and the loss of injustice on this brave officer."
The first accounts relative to Ma. pute, spread reports that the latter hava drid stated that that city had surrendere approved the capitulation of Madrid. ed at discretion. But we learn from This sovereign body feel it to be their Madrid Gazettes of more recent dates, duty to contradict rumours, the object that it surrendered, not at discretion, and tendency of which is to sow distrust but upon capitulation. The terms are between the Government and the peoin substance as follow:
ple, and to produce general discourage. “No religion but the Roman Catho- ment and anarchy, and to expose to lic religion to be legally tolerated. Li- contempt the sacred oath of your repreberty and security. to the lives and pro- sentatives. Spaniards, the Supreme Juna perty of the citizens, including the se- ta, whose motto is · Death or Liberty,' cular and regular ecclesiastics, with the are far from approving of the capitularespect due to churches, &c. also of tion of any town. That which recogmilitary officers, &c. They may re- nizes the usurper, and submits to the move if they chuse. No prosecutions law of the tyrant, is not Spanishmit is for political opinions or writings. By
These are the sentiments the 5th article it is provided, that no of the Supreme Junta---sentiments which other contributions shall be exacted, be. they will never belie, in word or deed; yond the ordinary ones that have hither- and whatever you may be told by the to been paid ; that the laws, customs, partisans of despotism, those vile wretand courts of justice, shall be preserved ches who sacrifice to a miserable self-inin their present constitution. The troops terest the sacred rights of their country, shall leave their arms and cannon. The be assured that their reports are calumarnied peasants shall also leave their nies--snares laid for you by the tyrant, arms. The individuals that had enlist- to entangle you in the mazes of his ined among the troops of the line four fernal policy. The country you have months ago, are freed from their en- sworn to defend, the religion wherein gagements, and the rest remain priso- you have sworn to die, the spouses and ners of war until regularly exchanged. offspring you have sworn to protect, a The public debts and arrangements of captive King whom you have sworn to the State shall be faithfully discharged. rescue-all demand' the fulfilment of Generals may continue in the capital, your promise. And ye, brave inhabiand preserve their rank, or quit it if tants of Madrid, who refused your as. they please."
sent to a shameful capitulation, and riIt will be observed, that to the article sing superior to others invested with the providing that“ no other contribution," command, and even to yourselves, pre&c. and we believe all that follow, the ferred death to misery and slavery, peranswer is, “Granted, until the kingdom severe in your generous resolution. The undergo its definitive organization.”- momentary occupation of the buildings There is not one word about King Jo- of the city by the enemy is of no imseph, nor of the Bayonne Junta, nor of portance, whilst they are not masters of their definitive organization, nor of that your hearts. Continue to resist them constitution there boasted as so full of in the very bosoms of your families ; • freedom, and so likely to produce per: place no confidence in their deceitful manent prosperity to the country. This professions ; reflect that to every people definitive organization alludes, no doubt, they have promised happiness, and all to the change which he threatened in they have plunged into misery. The his proclamation after the capture of Junta, who watch over your destiny, Madrid, that he would place the crown will cause numerous reinforcements to of Spain upon his own head, and fix march to that unfortunate capital. another for his brother,-and that other They have not forgotten you; no ! keep will be Portugal.
alive your hopes, retain your bravery The Supreme Junta bave published and firmness, and your deliverance will the following strong protest against the be the more glorious, as the danger you capitulation :
have encountered has been great." “ Spaniards--The hired emissaries of We regret to learn from the Spanish the tyrant, with the design of mislead- papers, a circumstance which must prova ing you, and bringing the Supreme Go- . highly detrimental to the cause of the verning Junta of the kingdom into disre. Spaniardso-It appears that strong susJan, 1809.
picions are now entertained of the loy: been given to the Duke del Infantado; alty of some of their military leaders, and the former, it is said, is now on his whose character stood high in their opin trial at Seville. nion when they first took up arms a- The Spanish papers contain a letter gainst their invaders,
from Gen. Vives, giving the particulars The former services of General Mor- of some successful operations of the la should, it might be supposed, place Spaniards in Catalonia. It states that, him far above the suspicion of disaffec; on the 26th of Nov, a general attack tion; yet it has been repeatedly assert- took place on all the posts occupied by ed in the Spanish letters and papers, the enemy, without the limits of Barcethat at that very interview in which he lona, from all of which he was immediwas so grossly, insulted by Bonaparte, ately dislodged, and compelled to take he sold himself to the tyrant, and that refuge under the guns, of the fortress, he wrote a letter to Cadiz,“ in pressing with the loss of six or eight pieces of arthe folly of making any further resist tillery, and some magazines of ammuniance to the power of the French, which tion, stores, &c. At the same time a was invincible, expatiating at the same firing was commenced from the right time on the generosity and goodness of and centre of the line, and the enemy the Emperor Bonaparte, and his brother were repulsed as far as the walls of Bar.
Joseph; and above all, cautioning them celona, from which it will not be an easy against the English, who could now on- task for them to advance again. ly endeavour to carry off their feet.” We learn, however, from the French But the circumstance of Morla's name bulletins, that Gen. St Cyr, had driven being affixed to the capitulation of Ma the Spaniards from before Barcelona, drid, is considered as a conclusive proof and had joined Gen. D'hesme, and that of his treachery, and certainly it wears the French force in Catalonia now avery much the air of a transaction se- mounted to 40,000 men. The bulletins cretly concluded in the imperial tent, as further add, that the garrison of Ro. it bears date the 4th Dec, when he could sas, amounting to 2000 men, had surscarcely have had time to consult any rendered to the French, the British men of the authorities in the city, Still, of war stationed there not being able however, we want proof of Morla's to give them any further relief. treachery.
The following bulletin was issued Another officer of high fame (Gene from the French army at Madrid preral Castanos) has also been charged with vious to its march against Sir John treason, but the case is widely different Moore's army. from that of Morla. Here we have an “ Madrid, Dec. 19.--His Majesty this accuser, and a direct charge. The ac. day reviewed the army which is at Mad. cuser is Gen O'Neill, who commanded rid, with all its equipage and appointthe left wing of the Spanish army in the ments. Sixty thousand men, 150 pieces battle of Tudela, and who has publish- of cannon, more than 1500 carts loaded : ed an account of it. He attributes the with biscuit and brandy, formed an asdefeat of the Spaniards to : Castanos, semblage formidable in every respect. who drew off the centre at the moment The right of the army was stationed on when the left wing was completely vic- , Charmartin, and the left stretched betorinus. It will be remembered, that yond Madrid. The Duke of Belluno according to the statement given by the still continues at Toledo with the whole French themselves, they succeeded by of his corps. The Duke of Dantzic, a movement against the centre of the with the whole of his corps, still contiSpanish army, which enabled them to nues at Talavera de la Reyna. The 8th interpose a force between the two corps has arrived at Burgos. General wings.-General O'Neill says, that had St Cyr is forming his junction at Barce. Castanos " ordered the centre of the ar. lona with General Duhesme. Our posts my to sustain us, without doubt it would
of cavalry are clearing the roads to the have been one of the most glorious days borders of Andalusia. The Emperor
for the arms of our King of any record. has given the army a few days of repose. sed in the history of the war.”—Castanos, -. Very fine fortifications are carrying on it is said, has since been removed from . upon the heights of Madrid. Six thou. the command of the array, which has sand men are employed on these works.
The small besieging train, composed of Marquis de la Romana informed me the 24-pounders and of small mortars, that the French were advancing from is arrived. There have been tound at Madrid either to Valladolid or Salaman. Talavera de la Reyna, about 60 men in It was evident that it was too late the hospitals, two or three hundred sad. to prosecute the attempt upon Scult, dles, and some remains of magazines, that I must be satisfied with the diverbelonging to the English troops." sion I had occasioned, and that I had no
It appears that Marshal Soult was de- time to lose to secure my retreat. tached to Leon, with about 16,000 men, “ The next morning Lieut.-General to reconnoitre the English army, and Hope, with his own division and that of that Sir John Moore had formed a plan Lieut.-Gen. Fraser, marched to Major. to cut off this division, before any rein- ga. I sent Sir David Baird with his di. forcements should arrive from Madrid. vision'to pass the river at Valmira, and The difficulties of the country, however, followed Lieut. Gen. Hope on the 25th and the bad state of the weather, seem with the reserve and the light brigades, to have frustrated this scheine. We are by Majorga and Calderas, to Benevente. told that Suult's expedition was a feint, The cavalry under Lord Paget followto draw on Sir John Moore, in order to ed the reserve on the 26th ; both the favour a general attack by Bonaparte in latter corps entered this place yesterday, per un. Be this as it will, the British We continue our march on Astorga. cavalry have had some sharp and success. Generals Hope and Fraser are already ful skirmishes with that of the French. gone on; Sir David Baird proceeds toSir John's report of his operations was morrow from Valencia; and I shall published in the London Gazette of the leave this with the reserve at the same gth, as follows:
time ; Lord Paget will remain with the Downing Street, Jan. 10. 1809. cavalry, to give us notice of the approoch Dispatches, from which the following of the enemy. Hitherto their infantry are extracts, were on the sth inst. re- have not come up, but they are near, cieved at the office of Lord Viscount and their cavalry is round us in great Castiereagh, one of his Majesty's prin. numbers ; they are checked by our cacipal Secretaries of State, from Lieut.- valry, which have obtained, by their spi. General Sir John Moore, K. B. Com- rit and enterprise, an ascendancy over mander in Chief of his Majesty's forces that of the French, which nothing but employed in Spain.
great superiority of numbers on their “ Benevente, Dec, 28. 1808. part will get the better of. “ Since I had the honour to address “ The diversion made by our march you upon the 16th from Toro, the army on Sahagun, though at great risk to has been almost constantly marching ourselves, has been complete. It rethrough snow, and with cold that has mains to be seen what advantage the been very intense. The weather, tvith- Spaniards in the south will be able to in these few days, lias turned to rain, take of it; but the march of the French which is much more uncomfortable than on Badajoz was stopped when its adthe cold, and has rendered the roads al. vanced guard had reached Talavera de most impassable. On the 21st the ar. la Reina, and every thing disposeable my reached Sahagun ; it was necessary is now turned in this direction. to halt there, in order to refresh the “ The only pårt of the army which men, and on account of provisions. The has been hitherto engaged with the eneinformation I received was, that Mar- my is the cavalry, and it is impossible shal Soult was at Saldana with about for me to say too much in their praise. 16,000 men, with posts along the river I mentioned to your Lordship, in my from Guarda to Carriton..
letter of the 16th, the success Brigadier “ The army was ordered to march in Gen. Stewart had met with in defeating two columns, at eight o'clock on the a detachment of cavalry at Rueda.. night of the 23d, to force the bridge at Since that, few days have passed with. Carriton, and from thence to proceed to out his taking or killing different parties Saldana. At six o'clock that evening, of the French, generally superior in force I received information that considerable to those which attacked them. On the reinforcements had arrived at Carriton march to Sahågun, Lord 'Paget had infrom Palencia, and a letter from the formation of 600 or 700 cavalry being