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never use chairs or tables, but are al- batteries along shore are unable to ways reclining on couches, supported bear the shock of firing the cannon on every side by cushions. The in- that are upon them. I'wo forts are ternal construction of their houses is erected, for the protection of the haruniformly bad.

The passages are bour, on two points of land which prolong and narrow, and the staircases so ject considerably into the sea, at about steep that it is frequently difficult to a mile and a half from each other. mount them. At the Dola's, numer- An English man of war would level ous doors are well secured on the land- either to the ground with a single ing places, to prevent any sudden hos- broadside. There are two other battile attack. Little lime is used in any teries within the town, but they are in of their buildings, a constant care is

a still more defenceless state. The therefore necessary to prevent the in- guns on all these places are useless, extroduction of moisture; but, with cau- cept to return a salute. The Arabs, tion, they last for many years. If, when they purchased them from inhowever, a house is neglected, it spee- fidels, considered them as Sheitan, or dily becomes a heap of rubbish ; the belonging to the devil, and therefore walls returning to their original state immediately set to work to make them of mud, from which they had been holy, which to accomplish, their formed into bricks by the heat of the ignorance has led them to an extraorsun alone. The wooden materials dinary idea. They enlarge the touchvery soon vanish in a country where hole, till nearly the whole of the gunfiring is extremely scarce, so that even powder explodes by it, which is also the ruins of cities, which were cele- the way by which it frequently enters. brated for their magnificence in former As, however, they never had occasion times, may now be sought for in vain. to use these guns hostilely, they are

The best houses are all facing the not aware of the mischief they have sea, and chiefly to the north of the sea done. The walls on the land side are gate. The British factory is a large a sufficient defence against the Wahaand lofty building, but has most of bee, who always storm a town by means the inconveniences of an Arab house. of their cavalry, and the numerous It is, however, far superior to the round towers have a very imposing efFrench or Danish factories, which are fect on people who are totally ignorant rapidly falling to decay. The lower of the use of artillery. Although unorder of Arabs-live in huts composed der constant alarm from the Wahabee, of wicker-work, covered on the in- they have neglected to repair the forside with mats, and sometimes on the tifications, and seem to consider the outside with a little clay. The many small doors, nearly on the level roofs are uniformly thatched. - A of the ground, as affording no facility small yard is fenced off in front of of entrance to an enemy. Near the each house ; but this is too small to sea gate a part of the wall has actually admit a circulation of air. It is sin- fallen down, and has been repaired gular that these habitations should be with a few boards and matting. The crowded close together, while a large town runs, for about half a mile, in a part of the space within the walls is nearly straight line facing the sea, but left unoccupied.

afterwards the walls take a circular The town of Mocha is surrounded direction inland. The

thus incluby a wall, which, towards the sea, is ded is in part not built upon, and, I not above sixteen feet high, though on should suppose, does not contain a pothe land side it may, in some places, pulation of above five thousand souls. be thirty. In every part it is too The garrison, in general, consists thin to resist a cannon ball, and the of about eighty horse, and two hunSept. 1809.



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dred match-lock men, who receive a the Dola, on the Friday, as well as regular pay of two dollars and a half the soldiers, the procession is handper month, for which they provide some, several gay streamers being cartheir own arms, and powder and ballried by the horsemen, and before the for exercise ; but when they quit Dola the green and red flags of the Mocha, they are supplied with every Imaum; on the former of which is fithing, and have four dollars in advance. gured, in white, the double bladed There is not a vestige of discipline a- sword of Mahommed, which has a mong them, but they are by no means much greater resemblance to the fibad marksmen, though they are a long gure of an European, with his head, time in taking aim. When on guard feet, and hands, cut off. The Arab at the different gates, they recline on dress looks well on horseback, and is couches, with their match-locks lying composed of the richest satins and neglected by their sides; while the right kincaubs of India. The flowing hand is employed either in sustaining scarf, and the turban with the ends the pipe or a cup of coffee. Their hanging low on the back, adds great. match-locks are good, and richly orna- ly to the elegance of the dress, mented with silver. This, and their The Arabs, when very young, have crooked dagger, or jambea, are their an expressive, but mild countenance, chief pride ; and it requires the most ri- and a pleasing eye. As they become gid economy for several years, to en- men, the change is very disadvantaable a young Arab to provide himself geous : their figures are not good, and with them. T'he troops attend the Dola the beard is generally scanty ; but, in every Friday to the great mosque, and advanced age, their appearance is afterwards exercise in the front of his truly.venerable.

The fine dark eye house. I was present several times to is then admirably contrasted by the see the infantry fire three vollies, long white beard, and the loose drawhich they do with ball cartridge, pery prevents the meagre figure from or at least ought to do, though I sus- being observed. The few women, pect economy induces them frequent- who were visible, had rather pretly ly to leave out the ball. Before they countenances, but in contrast to the fire, they throw themselves into loose males, their legs were of an astonishdisorder;, a plan which the Dola ing thickness. An exchange, in this strongly justified to Mr Pringle, when respect, would be greatly to the adhe waited on him to announce the vantage of both parties. late glorious victories of the British The government of Mocha is the in the East. On that occasion he best in the gift of the Imaum; not fairly told him, that he was very much from the salary, which is trifling, but surprised our soldiers ever gained a from the large sums which he is able victory disciplined as they were. to squeeze from the Banians, and fo

Why," said he, “ your men are all reign merchants. The present Dola drawn


in a row, so that any man was a slave of the Vizier, but in conmay be distinguished by a person who sideration of his good conduct, he has has an enmity to him, and be shot im- received a title from the Imaum, and mediately; whereas my men, by stan- with it his freedom. He is avaricious ding in disorder, and continually and tyrannical; but he has realised a changing place, cannot be known." considerable revenue for the Imaum, The ball that they use is small and, as well as secured a great treasure for ill formed, so that, at the respectful himself. He invented a new method distance they keep from each other, å of extorting money from the Banians, wound is seldom received. As the by confining them in a room,

and fu. chief mussulmaun inhabitants attend migating them with sulphur, till they


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complied with his demands. Mr now walk about the streets of their Pringle has frequently been obliged to towns without being liable to insult. complain at Sana of the obstructions The different events which have ta. he has put in the way

of commerce,

ken place in India, and have so conand probably he will soon be recalled, spicuously elevated the Cross above and obliged to disgorge his plunder. the Crescent, have struck a panic to The Arabs have a whimsical apologue the heart of the Mussulmaun throughon the subject. They say, that when out the East. It cannot be supposed a Dola is appointed, he weighs no- that he has beheld the change withthing; that, on going out of the gates out repining; but it has forced upon of Sana he weighs a frasel ;

that his mind a conviction of the superior riving at the government, he weighs power of the Christian, whom he two, and goes on growing heavier hates as he ever did; but now fears, and heavier, during his stay ; but that instead of despising: The English he dwindles and dwindles as he re- have been the chief instruments in turns, till the gates of Sana reduce producing this change, and are therehim to his primitive leanness.

fore less popular in Arabia than their The present Cadi is a most respec- rivals, the French. Arabia was for a table character, and I am assured that long time too remote from the scene of he would consider it as an insult were action to form any idea of the British a fee to be offered him. The conse- power; the veil was removed by the quence is, that Mocha is, in general, expedition to Egypt, when they were a peaceable town, and during my supported by the Firmaun of the whole residence there no act of vio Grand Seignior, ordering them to delence took place. The police is strict stroy any of the ports in the Red Sea at night ; and if any person should be that did not afford them protection ; found out of his house after the Dola and when it was evident that they had has retired to rest, a period that is the power to put the order into exemarked by the drums beating before cution. Still the neglect, or timid his door, he would be conducted to caution of our officers, in submitting prison. Opposite to the British fac- to the insult of having their seamen tory is a collection of thatched huts, stolen from them, and circumcised, in which answer this purpose, where a

defiance of their remonstrances, preprisoner lives as comfortably as he can vented the Arabs from feeling our do in any part of the town. At pre- real power; and this was heightened sent, a large number of people are into contempt, by the not resenting of confined there, who quarrelled with the affronts which were heaped on the Vizier at Sana about religion, Sir Home Popham, who endeavoured broke his windows, and committed to make his way to Sana as an ambasseveral other outrages. They were

sador, but was obliged to return, as I originally confined in the island of have been informed by Mr Pringle, Zeila, but the Dola there, finding in no very pleasant manner; though that the violent heat of the climate attended, when he set out, by a guard injured their health, humanely sent of one hundred marines, which ought them back to Mocha, where they still either not to have been taken, or to remain, without a hope of release. have been employed in protecting him They are fanatics, and regularly chant from insult. The defeated soldiers of their evening prayers in a plaintive, Scindiah at length returned in hun. and by no means unpleasing manner. dreds, and, after great difficulty, con

The Arab has essentially altered his vinced the Dola, and the inhabitants conduct towards Christians, who may of Mocha, that the English actually

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could, and would fight: a fact which minions, and these were his property, Mr Pringle had found it impossible to being sent down to Mocha for sale. make them credit.

The price rarely exceeds one thousand A calm and moderate firmness dollars. The Arab system of riding would, I have no doubt, easily pro- totally destroys a horse in a very short cure, for Christians in Arabia, every time. He is taught only to walk, immunity and privilege which, as canter, or gallop, as at the menage ; strangers, they could require. A and when at full speed is made to single ship of war could at any time stop short by means of a strong bit, stop, not only the whole trade of Mo- which ruins his mouth in a year or cha, but also the necessary supplies of two, while the force einployed throws provisions from Berbera. This would him on his haunches, and very freforce a compliance with the reason- quently founders him at an early age. able demand, that the deserters should The asses are of two species, the one be given up ; and this once done, the has a stripe of black down the shoulidea of impunity would be done away, ders, and cross bands of black on the and not a seaman would ever after. legs; the other is like the Spanish, wards place any confidence in their and as fine a breed; the mules are threats. A disgraceful prohibition consequently very handsome. also ought to be removed ; a Chris- Coffee is the only article of trade tian is not permitted to go out at the produced in Arabia, and formerly the Mecca gate, although Jews and Ba- whole of this was carried from Loheia,

This is the more singular, by dows to Jidda, and thence either as the two latter are considered by by the caravan of pilgrims to ConMussulmauns as inferior in character stantinople, or, in large Turkish vesto the former, the Jews not believing sels by sea, to Suez, and across Ein Christ, nor the Banians in Moses gypt to Alexandria ; whence it found or Christ, who are both revered by its way to every part of Europe. As the followers of Mahommed.

early, however, as the beginning of The British factory, though one of the last century, the large European the best houses in the town, has many vessels began to carry the coffee round inconveniences, independently of its the Cape of Good Hope ; which so construction, the chief of which is its much reduced the duties in Egypt, vicinity to the Dola's stables, where that the Porte sent an embassy to the asses keep up an incessant braying, Sana to complain of this new system particularly if any noise in the night of trade, and to request that no cof. excite their attention. The horses fee might be exported except through are, in the day time, brought out in- Egypt. The average quantity, that to the streets, where they are fastened annually went up to Jidda, was about by their hind legs with chains to the sixteen thousand bales till the year ground, and by the head to the wall, 1803, when a single American ship so that it requires some precaution to appeared, and by the great profit of pass between them, and to enter the her voyage, induced so many others gates of the factory, from the crowd of to follow her example, that the quanchildren belonging to the stable-keep- tity sent to Egypt was reduced nearers, who demand, rather than petition ly one half. Previously to this event for charity.

The horses of Arabia the Porte seems to bave had little are celebrated for their superior quali- cause of complaint against the Euroties, and certainly I saw some at Mo- pean merchants, as will appear from cha of uncommon beauty, particularly the following account of the quantity about the head and neck. The I. of coffee exported by them during the u is the only horse-dealer in his do. eight years prior to 1803.

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In 1795, 2154; of which 2100 for the India Company.

1796, 2000 for the India Company.
1797, 130 for a private merchant.
1798, 72 for a private merchant.
1799, 1866 for a private merchant.
1800, 6441 ; of which 1000 for the India Company*.
1801, 1340; of which 716 for the India Company,


The Company have, according to the Mediterranean, at a less price chan the above statement, which was given it can be by the Americans, and conme by their broker, taken in the eight sequently that the trade might be comyears not quite six thousand bales of pletely recovered out of their hands, coffee ; a circumstance that seems, at were it not for the insuperable impefirst sight, unaccountable, as the A- diment of the Red Sea being within the mericans not having then made their charter of the East India Company, way to Mocha, the market remained It may be also considered as worthy free from competition, and coffee was of remark, that, with respect to the at its usual price of from thirty-six to produce of Arabia, the discovery of forty dollars the bale of 305 lbs, net. the passage round the Cape of Good At present a competition having arisen Hope seems to have been of but little by the Company's broker and the A- use; since the articles, according to mericans bidding against each other, the present system of trade, as carried the price has been raised to fifty on by the East India Company, can dollars; but at that price, above eight be delivered equally cheap at Alexthousand bales have been exported andria by the old route. direct for America, and two thousand Independently of coffee, the export bales for Bombay for the use of the trade of Mocha is very considerable in Company.

Gum Arabic, Myrrh, and FrankinFrom undoubted calculations we cense; which is imported from the may learn the following very important posite coast of Africa, but chiefly from facts:--that the Mocha coffee, which Berbera, without the straits, where a the East India Company brings into great fair is annually held, which bethe English market for sale, costs gins in October, and continues until L.10.. 3 .. 8 per cwt. ; that the A- April. The first caravan is always mericans do actually take it to A- the largest. It brings down of Gum merica, where it costs them only Arabic about fifteen thousand bahar, L.6. 18 .. 9 per cwt. ; and that each 320 lbs. ; also all the myrrh that they are therefore enabled greatly to is consumed, about two thousand bahar. undersell the East India Company in The former brings on the spot about the markets of the Mediterranean, 15 dollars, the latter twenty-two dolwhere the actual consumption is : but lars per bahar. The Frankincense is that it may be brought direct to Eng. chiefly produced near to Cape Gardaland, in British vessels, and only cost fui, and is exported from a harbour of L. 6

18 .. 10 per cwt. which being the Samaulies called Bunder Cassim, only one penny per cwt. more than near to Jibbel Feel, called by the it costs in America, it is evident that English Cape Felix, and is usually it might be se-sold by the British in sold at about 12 dollars per




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* The French were in Egypt.

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