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a more speedy return; land laid down with them in April yielding a crop of hay or of green food the same season. The strings have this further advantage, that they may be scattered or planted, any mild day in the year, with nearly equal advantage.
We have been thus particular, in order if possible to induce some of our Scottish agriculturists, in different parts of the country, fairly to make the experiment. This may be done at a very trifling expence, as the worst land may be selected. Ifa considerable quantity of fiorin strings were wanted, or if good arable land were to be occupied with the experiment, it might be proper to apply to some experienced botanist like Mr George Don of Forfar (than whom no one could be more fit, he being completely versant with British gramina,) to collect the strings. It might at first be difficult otherwise to avoid mistakes; the Agrostis vulgaris, A. alba, and A. canina, being exceedingly apt to be confounded with the fiorin by persons unaccustomed to the discriminating of grasses indeed it is sometimes difficult even for a tolerably acute botanist to distinguish the shoots of Agrostis vulgaris from those of A. stolonifera. The strings might be kept in store till needed, as one of the many striking qualities of fiorin is, that the shoots, though withered and kept for several months, will revive and grow when spread upon soil.
30th October 1809.
the thickness of cream; then dip a bit of damp sponge into it, and rub the plate until the tarnish disappear: very little of the whiting to be used. Before it is quite dry, rub the whiting off with a Shamoy skin, which must be kept free from sand. Any of the whiting lurking in the crevices can be taken out with a small brush.
To give it a fine rich colour. After the above-mentioned process, dissolve a little rouge in water, until it also is about the thickness of cream, dip a bit of shamoy leather into it, and with the leather continue to rub the plate in one direction, until it assume the fine rich gloss which it has when it comes out of the warehouse. The rouge can be had at any of the goldsmiths at one shilling per ounce.
Many of our readers will probably recollect with what lively interest the brilliant discoveries of Professor Davy, of the Royal Institution, were some time since received by the scientific world. It must gratify every friend to the advancement and diffusion of knowledge to learn, that the execution of that very complex and diffi cult, though beautiful process, which has hitherto been almost exclusively confined to Professor Davy, was lately, at Glasgow, performed by Dr Ure, in the laboratory of Anderson's Institution, in the presence of two experienced practical chemists of that city, Messrs Henry and Tennant. The operation was uncommonly successful, the product of metal amounting to N. nearly half an ounce, whereas, formerly, a particle of the size of a small pinhead was all that could be exhibited. We understand that Dr Ure has sent a specimen of the metal to Dr Hope, Professor of Chemistry in Edinburgh University, along with a set of the apparatus necessary for forming it, in order to enable this distinguished teacher, and able cultivator of the science, to repeat the experiment with effect. Dr Ure has preserved a considerable quantity of this valuable metal, to gra
Memoirs of the Progress of MANUFACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, and the FINE Arts.
Dissolve a little washed whiting into a saucer with water, until about
tify the curiosity of the learned, and also to enable him to instruct his class, in the approaching session, in those new doctrines of chemistry, which are pregnant with such auspicious results to the philosophy of nature and the various chemical arts.
A correspondent of Nicholson's Journal, has discovered a process for obtaining from ginger, an acid, which he proposes to call Zingiberic. One ounce of the best white ginger was infused two or three days, in six ounces of nitrous acid; after which, rather more than an equal quantity of water was added, and the whole was kept at the heat of 2120, adding water to supply the loss by evaporation, till the nitrous smell had disappeared. Carbonate of lead was then added to saturation, and the solution filtered; after which the lead was precipitated by sulphuric acid, and a second filtration was made. By evaporating the filtered liquor, an acid similar in appearance to short white pieces of raw silk, was obtained, which oxidates zinc and iron, and dissolves potash, soda, and ammonia, barytes, strontian, lime, magnesia, and the oxides of zinc, iron, lead, and copper. The zingiberic acid differs from the sulphuric, sulphurous, carbonic, oxalic, tartarous, citric, mucous, succinic, and camphoric acids, in forming a soluble salt with barytes and lime; from the nitric, nitrous, muriatic, acetic, acetous, sebacic, malic, and prussic, by remaining in the solid form at 212°; from the benzoic, and suberic, by its greater solubility; and it does not, like gallic acid, precipitate copper of a brown colour.
Mr William Curtis, of the Botanic garden, Brompton, has been rewarded by the Society of Arts, for his valuable application of the Long White Moss of the Marshes (Sphagnum palustre. LINN.) to the packing of young trees for exportation. This is done by squeezing out part of the moisture from the moss, and laying courses of it about three inches thick, interposed
with other courses of the trees (previously shortened in their branches and roots) stratum above stratum, till the box is filled, when the whole must be trodden down, and the lid properly sécured. The trees will want no care, even during a voyage of ten or twelve months; the moss being wonderfully retentive of moisture, and seeming to possess an antiseptic property, which totally prevents fermentation, or putrefaction. In fact, vegetation actually proceeds during the time the trees remain inclosed; shoots being formed both from the branches and roots, which, however, are blanched and tender, for want of light and air, to which the trees consequently require to be gradually inured. This moss is very common in most parts of Europe and America, which renders the application more easy, and the discovery more important.
M. Lenormand has succeeded in producing a fine colourless varnish with copal. As all copal is not fit for this purpose, to ascertain such pieces as are good, each must be taken separately, and a single drop of pure essential oil of rosemary, not altered by keeping, must be let fall on it. Those pieces which soften at the part that imbibes the oil, are good; reduce them to powder, which sift through a very fine hair sieve, and put it into a glass, on the bottom of which it must not lie more than a finger's-breadth thick. Pour upon it essence of rosemary to a similar height; stir the whole for a few minutes, when the copal will dissolve into a viscous fluid. Let it stand for two hours, and then pour gently on it two or three drops of very pure alcohol, which distribute over the oily mass, by inclining the bottle in different directions with a very gentle motion. Repeat this operation by little and little, till the incorporation is effected, and the varnish reduced to a proper degree of fluidity. It must then be left to stand a few days, and when very clear he decanted off. This var
nish, thus made without heat, may be applied with equal success to pasteboard, wood, and metals, and takes a better polish than any other. It may be used on paintings, the beauty of which it greatly heightens.
M. Fournier has invented an apparatus, for determining with precision, the quantity of spirit contained in any liquid, to which he gives the name of alcohometer, or œnometer. This instrument is composed of a glass tube, six or seven inches long, and placed vertically upon a cap of copper, and having a graduated bar of the same metal attached to its centre. At the place where the bar enters the tube adjusted to its base, there is a screw, by which it is hermetically closed, and which prevents the liquid to be analysed from spilling. This little apparatus stands upon three legs: at the foot is a lamp with spirit of wine, placed under the copper cap, and directly beneath the bar, to heat it quickly. On one of the legs is a moveable ferrule, with a damper, for the purpose of moderating, at pleasure, the action of the flame, and thus preventing the liquid of the tube from running over.
In order to obtain acetate of potash white and well crystallized, it is necessary to employ distilled vinegar, and very pure and saturated carbonate of potash, because if there were potash in excess, that alkali would give out charcoal and colour the solution and the salt. In order to avoid this inconvenience, and to make acetate of potash in an economical manner, M. Lenoble advises to dissolve carbonate of potash in common vinegar, to evaporate the liquor to dryness, to subject the salt to aqueous fusion, then to dissolve it in pure water, to filtre through charcoal, and to evaporate the liquid gently in a silver basin. In this way a perfectly white salt is obtained.
M. Parmentier, whose labours are always directed to some useful end, has made public a new method of preparing the extract of opium, which
appears far superior to all those hitherto known. It takes from that substance the smell by which it is distinguished, and which is always in proportion to its malignant qualities. The manner of preparing 24 ounces of opium is as follows:-Macerate in rainwater for five days: then boil for a quarter of an hour with two pounds of pulverized charcoal: strain, and clarify with white of egg, and, by a suitable evaporation, you will obtain twelve ounces of extract.
M. Hiernke, has invented a new kind of bellows, in which the current of air may be increased or diminished, without interrupting its action.
M. Bozzini has announced, in several Journals, the invention of a machine, intended to throw light into the interior of the animal body. It is composed of a recipient containing the light; of tubes which direct its rays to the cavities which it is wished to enlighten; and of reflecting tubes which transmit the luminous rays to the eye of the observer.
On the 22d of August, last year, M. Andreoli, and M. Brioschi, ascended in a balloon at Padua. When the mercury had fallen to fifteen inches, about the height of three miles. and an half, the latter began to feel an extraordinary palpitation of the heart, without any painful sensation in breathing. When the mercury was down to twelve, (four miles and an half) he was overpowered with a pleasing sleep, that soon became a real lethargy. The balloon continued ascending, and when the mercury was about nine inches, (near six miles,) M. Andreoli perceived himself swollen all over, and could not move his left hand. When the mercury had fallen to 8,5 (about six miles and a quarter,) the balloon burst with a loud explosion, and began to descend rapidly with much noise, which awoke M. Brioschi. It fell about twelve miles from Padua, without any injury to the aerial travellers.
(Continued from p. 445.)
42. The following lines, engraved on a stone, were afterwards found to be over the burial-place of Prince Henry, son of James the First of England.
Reader, hence! and ask not me
A matchless jewel-Heaven's prize;
43. Inscription sur une tombe.
44. In Sherborne Church. On Mr
45. In the Cathedral Church de Notre-Dame, at Antwerp in Brabant.
Illmo. ac Revmo. Domino
VII Antverpiensium Episcopo.
Eleemosynari ex asse haeredes pio et
46. On Henry Chicheley, founder, of All-souls College, Oxford. 1443. Pauper eram natus, post primas hic relevatus,
Jam sum prostratus, et vermibus esca paratus,
Ecce meum tumulum.
Further Remarks on the Second Exhibition of SCOTTISH Paintings.
(Continued from p. 674.) 107.-A Landscape. A. GEDDES. THIS piece is too much executed with the pallet-knife; but may be pronounced a clever, and rather learned picture, and much after the manner of Rembrandt.
108. The Wooer's Visit. A. CARSE. -This artist has deservedly attained considerable reputation; and he certainly is not deficient in the expression or character in his figures; an attention to which constitutes the chief merit of an artist in his department. At the same time, we generally observe too much of a family likeness, together with a want of variety and animation in his pictures: as an instance, it may be remarked, that the wooer far more strongly resembles the old woman's brother, than her intended sonin-law. Sufficient attention does not appear to have been given by this artist to studies after the antique; the only infallible method, in our opinion, of acquiring a correct taste in drawing figures of any kind. The subjects of still life are by far the best parts of Mr Carse's pictures. In the present instance, we would particularly remark the admirable style in which he has treated the furniture of the table, and the dish of potatoes in the woman's hands; to which we may add, that his knowledge of reflected lights apears to us to be very accurate.
111.-Portrait of John Usher, Esq, Darnock. G. WATSON.-This is a very pleasing portrait, deep in the tone, well drawn, and harmoniously coloured; and, we are informed, is an admirable likeness. It points out to us, that Mr Watson's skill keep space with the increase of his reputation as an artist.
113. Country Fair. A. CARSE.We think that the figures in this picture are still more incorrectly drawn than those in the "Wooer's Visit." October 1809.
The composition, partly owing to the subject, is very much scattered; the colouring unharmonious, and the light. injudiciously distributed. We give
the artist, however, great credit for the good conception of the different circumstances in the picture; and if the figures had been more correctly studied from nature, and more carefully grouped, he would doubtless have proved more successful.
116.-A young Lady at her Toilet. G. WATSON.-This picture was exhibited in London last year. It is a very ingenious artifice to give a profile and front view of the face, which is produced by the reflection in a mirror, and extremely well painted. We have seen an engraving in mezzotinto from this picture, which very suc cessfully conveys the original effect.
120.-A Storm. D. THOMSON, This is a distinct, beautifully drawn, and chastely coloured piece of painting. The gleam of light thrown from the sky, and the aerial perspective, are admirably managed. The sea agitated by a storm is, perhaps, one of the greatest difficulties the artist has to encounter; but in this piece we conceive the painter to have completely succeeded in his design. Perhaps the figure introduced in the fore-ground might have been habited and placed in an attitude rather more consistent with the general character of this picture.
126.-Landscape Composition. The Rev. JOHN THOMSON. This picture belongs to that class of subjects, in which we consider Mr Thomson as peculiarly sucessful. In the composi tion he admits general and great ideas alone, never stooping to the minutia of objects. The colouring is grave and harmonious; all sudden transitions, in light and shadow, or in colouring, being carefuliy avoided, as unsuitable to the subject. But in this instance, we rather conceive this contempt of particulars to have been carried too far, and that there is hardly air enough in the distance.