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its place of action to the English side $ 2. of this report. It may be sufficient of the borders. To such
who to say here, that these feuars are anahave little or nothing to lose, the great logous to English copy. holders of inprofits of their petty illicit dealings heritance, though not exactly similar. hold out irresistible temptation to About the year 1747, the late Wiltransgress the laws, and they are much liam Crow, Esq. of Netherbyres, a encouraged to persevere, by regularly gentleman of distinguished genius, and established
agents of the Kentish and of great mathematical and mechanical Flushing smugglers, who allow credit knowledge, planned what is now cal. for the smuggled goods. Until some led the old Pier, which he got conuniform and effective system can be structed by means of private subscripdevised, for striking at the root of this tions. By this the accumulation of evil, so injurious to the revenue, the gravel was much prevented, in consefair trader, and the morals of the peo- quence of its resisting the oblique reple, partial and local exertions of the verberation of the waves, from the revenue officers only compel the prin- beach of the bay into the mouth of the cipal smugglers to shift the stations of river. After this the harbour became their nefarious traffic.
practicable for coasting vessels of some The harbour of Eyemouth is the size. Before this material improveprivate property of a country gentle- ment, hardly any thing whatever could man, to whom some ancient small cus- either be imported or exported at Eyetomary dues are payable from trade month. Sensible of their monopoly and shipping, but without any recipro- from situation, it is said that the traders
cal obligation to improve the port, or in Berwick behaved very cavalierly to to keep its necessary accommodations the Berwickshire farmers who had grain in repair, for which, indeed, these dues to sell, and to the country gentlemen are utterly inadequate. It consequent. who had occasion for any imports ; ly long remained a mere open tide creek, but after the building of this pier, and at the influx of the Eye into a bay of their experience of the rivalship of the some extent, and entirely exposed to trade at Eyemouth interfering mate. the sea in several directions. In that rially with their own, they altered their state nothing but boats and barks, or conduct very considerably in these ressloops of the smallest size, could enter, pects. Yet more grain and oatmeal and the mouth of the river was often and malt continued to be shipped from blocked up by a bar or bank of gravel, Eyemouth than from Berwick, until driven in by gales from the sea,
from that town opened its trade, as before the beach of the bay. In the old feu mentioned, to resident non-freemen. charters to the vassals of Evemouth, About 1766, the elbow of the Old the feuars are taken bound to assist in Pier, constructed under the direction clearing away such obstructions from of Mr Crow, was undermined by a the mouth of the river, which often ac- great flood of the Eye, and fell down, cumulated so as to prevent all access greatly obstructing the harbour, by a or exit during weeks or months, unless number of large stones from its ruins. thus removed by labour, or by freshes Sensible of the great advantages de or floods in the river.
rived from this pier, and wishing to It may be necessary to mention, that protect the harbour from the sea, which by feuars are meant hereditary pro- made free passage in heavy gales, over prietors of small portions of land, or the rocks where the New Pier now of houses, holding under the great stands, the gentlemen of the county freeholder or lord of the manor ; the got the late highly celebrated Mr particular nature of which tenure will Smeaton to inspect the place, and to be explained in Chap. II. Sect. II. examinę shipmasters and pilots, that
he might direct such improvements as for removing a sand bank, which conhe should jndge necessary,
He ac- siderably hampers the entrance : but cordingly planned the New Pier, hitherto, it rather seems to have ocwhich was begun in 1769, and finish- casioned a second bar within the har-, ed in 1773, at the expence of L.2100. bour, and it has too much lessened the The contractor is supposed to have harbour space, insomuch that, in a lost near L.100 by his bargain ; and gale of wind in September 1807, sethe members of the committee, though veral vessels that had taken shelter, appointed by a county meeting, hav were obliged to go to sea for want of ing rashly contracted for the work, room. Upon repairs and improvewtihout sufficient funds, had a deficien- ments, the trustees have expended, cytof above L. 600 to defray them- since June 1796 to September 1807, selves. Owing to this, little was then the sum of £.2250. Plans are now done towards repairing the gap at the in agitation for deepening the harbour, ? elbow of the Old Pier, nor for a good and for. laying down anchors with many years afterwards.
buoys, for warping vessels in and out At last, in 1796, a resolution was of the bay, and the funds are amply formed to endeavour to procure funds sufficient for such gradual ameliorafor rebuilding the gap in the old pier, tions as may be thought requisite, and and a further breach of its turret, or for keeping the present accommodaextremity, which took place from an tions in repair. In these circumstanimmense flood of the Eye in Novem- ces, it is much to be desired, that the ber 1794, and for repairing the para trustees were provided with a plan and pet of the new pier, which had become specification for putting the harbour defective. Private subscriptions were into the best order, and capable of procured to the extent of nearly being gradually executed as their funds £. 1000 ; and a donation was given of become efficient. £.300 by the Convention of the Scots The harbour dues imposed by the royal boroughs. In consequence of act, which are sufficiently moderate, these aids, the necessary works were are, one penny for every quarter of all commenced. Sensible, however, that grain, malt, meal and four ; sixpence nothing permanent could be effected, per ton on all potatoes; one halfpenny without some regular and certain in- . per bushel on all salt, shipped from or come, for repairs and farther improve- landed in the harbour ; twopence per ment, an act of parliament was procur- . ton register, on all vessels which may ed in 1797, imposing certain duties arrive in the harbour' to load or unon vessels coming into the harbour, load their cargoes, or any part thereand vested under the management of of; one penny per ton register, trustees with perpetual succession, for on all other ships or vessels that the express purpose of improving, may enter the harbour ; one guinea cleaning and deepening the harbour. for every foreign ship that may come
Under this trust, from the before- into the harbour. From these dumentioned subscriptions and donation, ties, the yearly revenue derived by and out of the funds created by the the trustees has hitherto averaged aact, the Old and New Piers have been bout L.60. The small ancient dues thoroughly repaired, and an extensive still belong to the private proprietor. quay wall has been built, for facilitat Forthese advantages of this harbour ing the loading and unloading of car- : in its present state, Eyemouth has goes. A break-water lias been con- · been principally indebted to the perstructed to keep off land foods from severing and judicious exertions of the injuring the vessels at the quay, and late John Renton, Esq.of Chesterbank, which was expected to prove useful, a most intelligent and active magistrate,
many years in the commission of the
To the exertions of the same respecpeace, and long under Sheriff of the table gentleman, Mr Renton, Eyecounty, who was nearly 80 years of mouth likewise owes, about the same age when heundertook and accomplish- period, the construction of a very use. ed this most beneficial improvement. ful stone bridge over the deep dell of
From this material amelioration of the Eye; by which a most incommoits harbour, Eyemouth bids fair to diously steep bank, in the communicarecover some respectable portion of tion towards Berwick, has been effectrade hereafter. In the mean time, tually surmounted. however, it has to struggle against the superior advantages of Berwick, which already possesses capital and shipping. Scottish REVIEW. The only considerable inconvenience A Narrative of the Campaign of the of the port of Eyemouth, besides be
British Army in Spain, commanded ing a tide harbour, which is irremediable, is being above 20 miles distant
by his Excellency Lieutenant Genfrom its custom-house at Dunbar, which
eral Sir John MOORE, K. B. Auoccasions
thenticated by Official Papers and expence and delay to trade. It
Original Letters. By James MOORE, may
proper to mention in this place, that in the entrance of Eye
Esq. 4to. £.1. 11s. 6d. mouth bay, there are some detached ONSIDERING the importance of rocks, called the Hircars, in deep wa
the events narrated in this volume, ter, partly covered at high tides, partly and considering also how completely always above water. The reporter does this was a
sacampaign of Scottish Officers, not pretend to any knowledge in mari- and what glory, amid all its disasters, time affairs, or in the science of civil it reflected on the military character engineering ; but were it practicable to of this country, we conceive that a join these rooks with either shore of the pretty full analysis of it may be inter, bay, by a pier, or buttress of cones esting to most of our readers. It like those of Cherburg, a safe harbour comes certainly in a very authentic might be formed for vessels of any shape, consisting chiefly of official let. size and burthen, accessible at all times ters and papers which had passed beof tide, and in all winds, which would tween persons employed in these mocertainly be of infinite importance, mentous transactions. The interstices more especially in time of war, to the of these are filled up chiefly from a military and commercial marine of journal constantly kept by General Britain. Even if practicable, the ex Moore himself, and from which Mr pence could notfall short of L.100,000, Moore has compiled his narration.and consequently could only be afford- This narration is written with great ed at the public charge,
simplicity, and apparently without aimIt is said that an excellent harbour ing at the ornaments of composition; might be made near Dunglass, at the yet we cannot help regretting that north-eastern extremity of this county, General Moore should not have been or in the next adjoining county of oftener allowed to speak for himself, East Lothian, close upon the borders as his own expressions must have givof Berwickshire ; and that it might en a more lively idea of his views, and even admit of ships of war, A slight the situation of affairs, than any abattempt for this purpose was made stract which can be made of them, howthere long ago by the late Sir John ever elegant it might have been. We Hall of Dunglass ; but his erections shall proceed, however, to endeavour were ruined by a storm, and have ne- to give some idea of the information er been resumed.
which it contains.
Mr Moore gives some particulars, The reason assigned for it is this: not hitherto known, of the mysterious according to the imperfect information transactions in Sweden. One
which he was able to procure, the sal made by the King to Gen. Moore, road through the north of Portugal was to land in Zealand, and maké was impracticable for artillery, which himself master of that island. Ano was therefore to be sent by Elvas, ther was, that the English army a. Badajos, and Madrid. But the want lone should storm a strong fortress, of subsistence did not admit of the and assume a position in Finland. main body marching in this last direcThere was also a third, the nature of tion. It went therefore by the norwhich is not stated. All these were thern road, while General Hope, with rejected by the General, as operations the artillery and cavalry, was sent by to which his army was, wholly incom- the southern. The informations
provpetent. The King, while his force ed afterwards to be false, of which, was inadequate for defence, was whol- from their being given by natives of ly engrossed with schemes of conquest. the country, General Moore hadhad The manner, in which Sir John left no suspicion. Stockholm, was already known, and is The march through Portugal was slightly touched upon. There is no attended with considerable difficulty, doubt, that an opposite line of conduct from the state of the roads, and the would have been the one prescribed want of provisions and money. The by official dignity. But Sir John, Portuguese nobility received our counforeseeing that such a step must have trymen with politeness, but shewed a inevitably caused a breach between the very slender concern in the fortunes two governments, conceived, (we are of their country. Somewhat more aniinclined to think justly) that the strict- mation appeared when they entered ness of official propriety must give way Spain, At Ciudad Rodrigo, they to such strong motives of public expe were received with cries of Viva los diency. His former conduct had re- Ingleses. As they approached the moved to a distance all suspicions as to scene of action, however, accounts arpersonal courage;
rived, far different from what they had Sir John now returned home, where been taught to expect. The disposihe received immediate orders to pro- tion of the mass of the people was eviceed to Spain, the country to which dently sound; but every thing else every eye was then turned with hope was as unpromising as possible. An and expectation. He was superseded, unwieldy and divided government ; however, in the chief command, by generals destitute of experience, and Sir Harry Burrard; a trying arrange- acting without concert; troops deficient ment, in which he is said to have ac- equally in numbers and discipline, and quiesced with patriotic cordiality.- devoid of the most necessary supplies ; After, however, both that officer and while the flower of the French military General Dalrymple were recalled, in force was at this very moment pasconsequence of the convention of Cin.. sing the Pyrenees. The following detra, General Moore was left in the scription of the central army was recommand of the army, and received or- ceived from Capt. Whittingham. ders to conduct it into Spain. Here,
Head Quarters, Calahorra, therefore, the narrative of his campaign
28th Oct. 1808. properly begins.
“ On the 25th, General Castanos left General Moore has been censured this place for Logrono. We arrived a.
bout four in the evening. The army for dividing his army on the march, of Castile was drawn up to receive the and he seems himself fully sensible of General. Its strength about 11,000 the disadvantages of such a measure. men. But to form any idea of its com
the French army,
position, it is absolutely necessary to Frere, representing the necessity of as have seen it. It is a complete mass of many more British troops as you think miserable peasantry, without clothing, proper. It is certain, that the agents without organization, and with few of which our Government have hitherto ficers that deserve the name,
employed, have deceived them. For “ The General and principal Officers affairs here are by no means in the fouhave not the least confidence in their rishing state they are represented and troops; and what is yet worse, the men believed to be in England ; and the have no confidence in theniselves. sooner the truth is known in England,
“ This is not an exaggerated picture; the better. But you must observe, it is a true portrait,” &c. p. 15. my Lord, that wbatever is critical must It was found that the grand army
now be decided by the troops which under Castanos and Palafox did not
are here ; the French, I suspect, are exceed 40,000 men, nor that under ready, and will not wait. I differ'oniy
with you in one point ;--when you say Blake 30,000. This, considering the chief and great obstacle and resistthe character of these armies, was ance to the French will be afforded by scarcely sufficient to keep in check the English Army. If that be so, Spain
which was already is lost. The English Army, I hope, in Spain, far less to resist the immense will do all that can be expected from reinforcements which were pouring in. their numbers; but the safety of Spain In the provinces there was no armed depends upon the union of its inhabi
tants, their enthusiasm in their cause, force whatever, nor any efforts mak- and in their firm and devoted determi. ing to raise one, either for home de
nation to die rather than submit to the fence, or for reinforcing the armies.
French: nothing short of this will enaThe British arıny soon found itself ble them to resist the formidable aitack dependent upon
its own exertions for about to be made upon them. If they supplies of
est use to them; but if not, we shall soon seem never to have thought of estab. lishing magazines, either for its use, drupled.
be out-numbered, were our force quaor that of their own army. By the
“ I am, therefore, much more anxious most absurd negligence and stupidity, to see exertion and energy in the Go- . Sir David Baird's army was kept vernment, and enthusiasm in their Areight days from landing, nor, when mies, than to have my force augmented. permission arrived, was its situation The moment is a critical one-my own much bettered. Sir John Moore writes situation is particularly so--I have ne. to Lord William Bentinck:
ver seen it otherwise ; but I have push
ed into Spain at all lrazards ;--this was “I am sorry to say, from Sir David the order of my Government, and it Baird, I hear nothing but complaints of was the will of the people of England. the Junta of Corunna, who afford him I shall endeavour to do iny best, hoping no assistance. They promise every that all the bad that may happen, will thing, but give nothing; and after not happen ; but that with a share of waiting day after day for carts, which bad, we shall also have a portion of good they had promised to procure for the fortune.” carriage of stores, his Commissary was These bad omens were not long of at last obliged to contract for them at an exorbitant price, and then got them. being verified. News arrived that This is really a sort of conduct quite
the Estremaduran intolerable to troops that the Spanish completely defeated at Burgos; that Government have asked for, and for Valladolid had been abandoned withwhose advance they are daily pressing." out resistance, and that the Bri
P. 21. tish army, without having effected He concludes with the following its junction, was thus left completeanticipations :
ly uncovered. In these circum“ I have no objection to you, or Mr stances, the General thought it neces
army had been