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In this conflict Major Napier, advancing viour during his last moments. The too far, was wounded in several places, first is by Captain Hardinge. and taken prisoner; and Major Stanhope unfortunately received a mortal “I had been ordered by the Comwound.

mander in Chief to desire a battalion of Sir John Moore proceeded to the 42d, the Guards to advance ; which battalion addressing them in these words, “ High

was at one time intended to have dislanders, remember Egypt.” They rush. lodged a corps of the enemy from a ed on, driving the French before them, large house and garden on the opposite till they were stopped by a wall. Sir side of the valley; and I was pointing John accompanied them in this charge,

out to the General the situation of the and told the soldiers that he was “ well battalion, and our horses were touching, “ pleased with their conduct.”

at the very moment that a cannon-shot He sent Captain Hardinge to order from the enemy's battery carried away up a battalion of Guards to the left flank his left shoulder and part of the collare of the Highlanders; upon which the of. bone, leaving the arm hanging by the ficer commanding the light company

flesh. conceived that, as their ammunition was

66 The violence of the stroke threw nearly expended, they were to be relie. him off his horse, on his back. Not a yed by the Guards, and began to fall muscle of his face altered, nor did a sigh back; but Sir John, discovering the betray the least sensation of pain. mistake, said to them, “ My brave 42d,

“ I dismounted, and, taking his hand, "join your comrades, ammunition is he pressed mine forcibly, casting his

coming, and you have your bayonets.” very anxiously towards the 42d reThey instantly obeyed, and all moved giment, which was hotly engaged; and forward.

his countenance expressed satisfaction, Captain Hardinge now returned, to

when I informed him that the regiment report that the Guards were advancing. was advancing, While he was speaking, and pointing

“ Assisted by a soldier of the 42d, he cut the situation of the battalion, a hot

was removed a few yards behind the fire was kept up, and the Enemy's artil. shelter of a wall. lery played incessantly on the spot.

66 Colonel Graham Balgowan and Sir John Moore was too corspicuous. Captain Woodford about this time came A cannon-ball struck his left shoulder, up; and perceiving the state of Sir John's and beat him to the ground.

wound, instantly rode off for a surgeon. He raised himself, and sat up with an

“ The blood flowed fast ; but the atunaltered countenance, looking intent. tempt to stop it with my sash was usely at the Highlanders, who were warm

less, from the size of the wound. ly engaged, Captain Hardinge threw “ Sir John assented to being removed himself from his horse, and took him by in a blanket to the rear. În raising the hand; then, observing his anxiety, him for that purpose, his sword, hanghe told him the 42d were advancing ; ing on the wounded side, touched his upon which his countenance immediate. arm, and became entangled between his ly brightened.

legs. I perceived the inconvenience, His friend Colonel Graham now dis- and was in the act of unbuckling it mounted, to assist him; and, from the from his waist, when he said, in his u. composure of his features, entertained sual tone and manner, and in a very dishopes that he was not even wounded; tinct voice, ' It is as well as it is. I had but, observing the horrid laceration • rather it should go out of the field with and effusion of blood, he rode off for surgeons.

“ Here I feel that it would be impro. The General was carried from the per for my pen to venture to express field on a blanket, by a serjeant of the the admiration with which I am pene42d, and some soldiers. On the way he trated, in thus faithfully recording this ordered Captain Hardinge to report his instance of the invincible fortitude, and wound to General Hope, who assumed military elicacy of this great man. the command.

“ He was borne by six soldiers of the Several very interesting details are

42d and Guards, my sash supporting

him in an easy posture. given by private friends, of his beha

Observing the resolution and com


o me.'

P. 214

October 1809

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for me

P. 220

posure of his features, I caught at the and then said to me, Anderson, re. hope that I might be mistaken in my member

you go to

and tell him fears of the wound being mortal; and 'it is my request, and that I expect he remarked, that I trusted, when the sur • will give Major Colbourne, a Lieute. geons dressed the wound, that he would 'nant.Colonelcy.--He has been long be spared to us, and recover. He then with me, and I know him most wor. turned his head round, and looking “thy of it. He then asked Major Col. stedfastly at the wound for a few se. bourne, “if the French were beaten?' conds, said, “ No, Hardinge, I feel that And, on being told they were on every to be impossible.'

point, he said, “It's a great satisfaction “ I wished to accompany him to the

to know we have beaten rear, when he said, “You need not go the French. Is Paget in the room?" * with me. Report to General Hope On my telling bim, no; he said, “ Re' that I am wounded, and carried to the ' member me to him.--- It's General Pa. < rear.

get I mean,he is a fine fellow._I feel There is another by Colonel Ander myself so strong-I fear I shall be long son, who had been the intimate friend • dying. It is great uneasiness--It is of General Moore during one and

great pain. -Every thing Francois says

is right. I have the greatest confi. twenty years.

. dence in him.' “I met the General, in the evening of the 16th, bringing in a blanket and trouble. Captains Percy and Stanhope,

“ He thanked the Surgeons for their sashes. He knew me immediately, tho' it was almost dark, squeezed me by the into the room.

two of his Aides-de-camp, then came

He spoke kindly to hand, and said, Anderson, don't leave both, and asked Percy *, if all his Aides6 me.'

de-camp were well ? “ He spoke to the surgeons on their

“ After some interval he said, “ Stan. examining his wound, but was in such

hope t-remember me to your sister.' pain he could say little. “ After some time, he seemed very and in a few minutes died without a

He pressed my hand close to his body, anxious to speak to me, and at intervals

struggle. got out as follows : ' Anderson, you

“ This was every syllable he uttered, • know that I have always wished to • die this way.' He then asked, ' Are occasionally to be placed in an easier

as far as I can recollect, except asking • the French beaien ?' which he repeated to every one he knew as they came

“ P. ANDERSON. Lieut. Col." in. 'I hope the people of England

will be satisfied !--I hope my Country ' will do me justice !-- Anderson,

Upon the whole, we are of opinion you will see my friends as soon as

that this volume will add to the repu

you can.-Tell them every thing.–Say tation of General Moore; that it will to my mother,'—Here his voice quite shew him to have possessed not merefailed, and he was excessively agitated. ly (of which there could be no doubt)

- Hope-HopeI have much to say the talents of a General of division, 'to him, but cannot get it out-Are

Colonel Graham—and all my Aides. gallantry, activity and precision of . de. Camp well?' (a private sign was

movement; but also those which are made by Colonel Anderson not to in. peculiarly required in a commander in form him that Captain Burrard *, one chief, extensive views, foresight and of his Aides-de-camp, was wounded in mature reflection. Even if we should the action.) I have made my will, conceive him to have erred in some

and have remembered my servants.— particular measures, this is no more Colbourne has my will, -and all my than must be expected from the abpapers.'

lest Major Colbourne then came into the He spoke most kindly to him, The Honourable Captain Percy, son

of Lord Beverley. Son of Sir Harry Burrard, a promising + The Honourable Captain Stanhope, young officer, who died two days after third son to Earl Stanhope, and nephew to wards of his wound,

the lase Mr Pitt.


P. 223.


lest officers, especially in a campaign, tion, regarding her probable prospects so essentially different from any which of securing her independence, which has recently been experienced by a has been so eagerly and so variously British army. The retreat was cer

discussed. To the extravagant and rotainly glorious to the military charac- mantic hopes which were inspired by ter of this country; the enemy, not- the first movements of that people, withstanding the superior numbers there seems to have succeeded, in this with which they pressed upon, us never country, an entire despondence, and attacked without being repulsed. The even sentiments of decided hostility loss of our army, though certainly con to every thing Spanish. Public opisiderable, seems to have arisen chiefly nion is generally extreme and precipi. from the impossibility of maintaining tate ; and we doubt if the turn which strict discipline on so long a march, it has now taken be much more reasonand particularly retreat. Nor, while able than that which it assumed at the we do justice to British valour, must first unexpected appearance of resistwe forget that that valour has repeat- ance in that country. The grounds edly proved unavailing, even in less upon which men are generally anticiarduous circumstances, when not se- pating a speedy and fatal issue to this conded by the skill of the commander. eventful struggle are doubtless plausi

The following account of the man ble; yet to those who look a little ner in which General Moore employ- deeper, there will still appear circumed his time during his advance into

stances sufficient to encourage hopes of Spain, gives a strong view of his in a different result. dustry :

The ground of unfavourable antici

pations with regard to Spanish affairs He always rose between three and rests chiefly on two deficiencies ; on the four in the morning, lighted his fire and candle by a lamp which was placed in

want of ability in her councils, and of his room, and employed himself in writ. courage in her armies. These, cering till eight o'clock, when the officers: tainly, are not trifling wants ; but, on of the family were assembled for break the contrary, such as, if without rea fast.

medy, must preclude all hopes of a After breakfast he received the Ge. favourable issue. But the question neral Officers, and all persons with whom is, whether they arise from any

radihe had business; and the necessary ore ders were issued.

cal deficiency in the character of the His pen was frequently in his hand in the forenoon also; nation ; whether they did not necesfor he wrote all his letters himself. He sarily spring from the singular situaalways rode before dinner for an hour tion in which it stood ; and whether or two, either to view the troops, or to they are not wants which time is likereconnoitre the country.

ly to supply. His table was plentiful; and the com The government is weak: this repany varied from fourteen to twenty officers. He was a very plain and mo.

quires no proof. It has been too juste derate eater, and seldom drank more

ly observed, that “ it has exhibited than three or four glasses of wine, con.

only the faults of popular governversing with his officers with great frank ments, combined with the failings of ness and cheerfulness, His portfolio decrepit monarchies." (Ed. Rev.) was usually opened again before he went But

upon a

little consideration we to bed ; but, unless kept up by business, shail find that this is no more than he never sat up later than ten o'clock.

might naturally be expected under P. 62.

the peculiar circumstances. A free Since we are in the midst of Spanish government, and great public emeraffairs, it is difficult to refrain from ha

gencies, have indeed the most sure and zarding some reflections on that ques- powerful tendency to call forth ta


lents, and to form great men.

But In services for which new troops are this effect is not instantaneous; it re. fit, such as the defence of towns, the quires time to shew itself. Great men

Great men Spaniards have surpassed the glory of must be formed by discipline and ex every other nation; and they seem alperience ; and after being formed, so to be prosecuting a partisan warthey must have opportunities to pro- fare with considerable success. duce and display themselves. No go If we look into the early part of vernment perhaps was more inimical the history of the French revolution, to their growth than the ancient one we shall find all the military disorders of Spain, both from being absolute, so much complained of in the Spaand from the political unimportance nish : the same shameful routes and into which it had sunk. Now, when dispersions; the same quarrels bein consequence of the peculiar circum- tween the generals, and foolish interstances of the French usurpation, the ferences of the civil dodies ; the same despotic head was suddenly struck off, deficiency in every species of supply the nation merely lost the unity of an and equipment. Yet in two years

all absolute, without having yet time to these evils were surmounted, and the acquire the energies of a free govern- French arms triumphed in every diment; they were managed at first rection. even worse than by their ancient ru. From all these considerations, if lers. Still we have no doubt that a Spain could by any means be kept a. popular government, and the necessity float for two or three years, we should for talents, will in time produce the ef- entertain very little doubt indeed of fect of calling them forth. This pro- her final success.

But the important cess has not indeed proceeded with all and doubtful question remains whether the rapidity that might be wished. this time will be allowed her ; whether Yet affairs are not conducted so very the enemy will not, by an overwhelmill as at first; an evident anxiety ap- ing rapidity, crush at once all the buds pears to place proper officers at the of future energy. It is certainly im. head of the army; and in regard to possible to restrain our fears, when we domestic arrangements, the most li- consider the nature of the power which beral system has been adopted. This is to be brought against them. Yet Jast circumstance, with the fermenta- there are not wanting resources, which, tion at present prevailing in the pub- if duly managed, may be sufficient to lic mind, seems to promise, that im- protract the contest, and to balance provement will proceed with accelera- the inferiority of the Spanish troops. ted rapidity.

These are chiefly mountains and forGood councils would little avail, tresses. The latter of these are not unless there were hands to execute indeed very strong in themselves, them. If the armies do not stand, but are capable, it appears, of bewhat resistance can be expected ? U. ing rendered so, by the patriotism pon this subject we must observe, that of the inhabitants. With regard to it is when fighting in the open field the mountains, although they have only that this cowardice has become never stopt the advance of the French so conspicuous. Now, by the expe- armies to any particular point, yet rience of all ages, new levies have they seem, from experience, to offer been found unfit to contend with ve very great facilities for that species terans. Before we

can expect the of irregular warfare, which alone the Spanish armies to do this, we must Spaniards at present are fit to cargive them time to become regulars, ry on. None of the mountainous diswhich they certainly will in two or tricts have hitherto been found tena. three campaigns, and perhaps sooner: ble by the enemy. A stronger instance


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cannot be given than Galicia. This tone of philanthropy, have considered province, at the beginning of the pre as inhuman all attempts to promote a sent year, was entered by a French ar system of protracted warfare, and have my of 40 or 50,000 men, who estab- conceived instant subjugation to be lished themselves in it. It appeared greatly preferable. We must, in the at first completely subdued; yet in a first place, observe, that all the guilt few months after, we find Romana, of war certainly falls upon those who with the wreck of his army, reinforced make it unjustly, not upon those who by the armed peasantry, making head, defend their lawful rights. Confining gaining ground upon them, and finally ourselves, however, to consequences, reducing them to the mere ground we cannot assent to the above statewhich they occupied. The Asturias ment. That one hundred, or two hunand Catalonia, notwithstanding their dred thousand men should be killed or proximity to France, have remained wounded, is, no doubt, a very great eunconquered ; and, since the first cam- vil; but it is a much greater, that. paign, no attempts have been made to twelve millions should be enslaved. It penetrate the Sierra Morena. The in- has always been amid commotion and vasion of

any of these districts has hic suffering, that nations have renewed therto had no other effect than to o.. their strength; and with regard to vercome that sluggishness and false Spain in particular, her capacities are confidence, which are the besetting so ample, and the probable prosperity sins of the nation, and to call out, to which she would rise, under a free more effectually than any thing else, and enlightened government, so great, the strength of the country.

as would not, we conceive, be too dearThat the Spanish force, even at pre- ly purchased, even by a series of the sent, is somewhat respectable, appears bloodiest warfare. from the large French force which it One word more with regard to Brihas held completely in check. There tish co-operation. It seems quite eviis no doubt, indeed, that when peace dent, from repeated experience, that, is concluded with Austria, very consi- so long as the Spaniards have no rederable reinforcements will march in- gular army, British troops cannot carto Spain. But we do not apprehend ry on war in the heart of Spain. that, in the present state of the East Those of our allies are fit only for a of Europe, these reinforcements will warfare of their own, and cannot cobe of such formidable magnitude as operate with ours, which must therepersons in general seem to imagine. fore contend alone with the whole force When they arrive, however, there can of the enemy. By floating armaments, be no doubt that the tide of success however, and by temporary incursions, will, for some time, run against Spain; with a secure opportunity of retreat, it that wherever the French direct their is probable that a good deal might be main strength, they will, in the first done, and the pressure upon our allies instance, carry all before them; and, considerably lightened. It is likely inthat should the Spaniards be again so deed to be still a trying and difficult imprudent as to give battle, their warfare ; but if great good is to be done, armies will be beaten and disper- ' this will not weigh with a generous nased. But should they carefully pre tion, which has strongly pledged itself serve and nurse their strength ; should for its support, and which has, besides, they decline all general engagements ; great interests of its own at stake. If and merely, by an incessant petite the Spanish army shall ever be brought guerre, harass the enemy, and train into such a state as to be able to con. themselves to warfare, we see no rea tend in the field with their enemies, a son as yet to despair of their cause. more strict co-operation may advanSome persons, indeed, assuming a tageously take place.


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