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country; and a person who had not there in numbers, from Connecticut : paid some attention to the subject Maryland has furnished a few, as have would, from the increase, not only Massachusetts, Vermont, and the other of purchasers, but of settlers, be apt to Eastern States, as well as Virginia think that a vast emigration had taken and N. Carolina : the preponderancy place from some foreign countries.— of Pennsylvanians is however perceptiThe sale of lands is limited to two ble both in the institutions, manners, dollars an acre, by law, and this price and policy of the state. None of the is common to all parts of the public states furnishing these emigrants have lands. Those lands which have what diminished their own population ; for is called a clear title, are generally example, at our last election this state most in demand; this is particularly (Pennsylvania)gavel5,000 more votes exemplified in the State of Ohio, than on any former election; and in where the surveys were so exactly the census, which will be taken in the made, and the plots, so judiciously laid year 1810, promises to add to our redown, that there could be no dispute presentation in Congress three or four about boundary or previous settlement. additional members : Ohio is expected Accordingly this state has encreased to have six, which has now but two; in settlements to an extent so extraor- and Kentucky is expected to have four dinary as to surpass any thing ever in additional. this country: in 1790 it had scarcely Georgia is the only one of the Southa white inhabitant, and was the hunt- ern States on the sea coast that ining ground principally of the Shawa. creases ; Tenessee, which is inland, is nese, Wyandots, and Leeni Lenappe increasing rapidly; S. Carolina, Virgi(or Delaware) tribes of Indians; pur- nia, and Delaware are stationary; the chases were made from those tribes and latter rather decreasing: Maryland the whole obtained by.successive pur- certainly is decreasing, as is North chases, and cessions, made voluntarily Carolina : but from different causes : by the Indians and unforced by us. In the monopoly of lands in immense 1802 its population had increased to quantities, by which settlement and such a degree as to authorise its becom- cultivation are retarded, and the existing an independant member of the confe- ence of slavery, added to the compaderation ; that is, to establish its own rative inferiority of the soil, affect Malegislature, which were to make laws ryland : the same causes operate in for internal concerns, and to send Virginia: Delaware is, 1 regret to say, representatives to Congress for the eaten up by ignorance, and what alconeerns of the whole Confederacy of ways follows, a degeneracy of the states; it must therefore have obtained, human species : the upper country of between 1790 and 1802, above 30,000 the three which compose it, is an exo white inhabitants. This little sketch ception, but the other two appear is connected with the subject of the going back insensibly to a state of naquestion put; and shews by unquestion- ture. able data, the progress of settlement These observations answer your sea and population : the state is about 250 tond question. miles from E. to W. by 200 broadbetween 38' and 42° N. latitude and 50
2. Which of the states is preopling fast
est ? West of Philadelphia. The climate is fine, the soil fertile, the surface of In a considerable degree, tho' not the country uneven, and variegated by fully, New York, from a wise and hill and dale.
salutary policy, is settling faster than This state is principally settled by any of the old thirteen states; this poemigrants from Pennsylvania, and sent licy is the construction of good roads,
and facilitating internal water navi- Louisianians had to suffer from thevilegation, Pennsylvania thrives from ness which boiled over from our prot not various causes; its climate; its benefi- a little , and suffer still, though not in cent institutions; the, vast body of the same degree: they have been curIrish, and their descendants, already sed with pettyfoggers and swindlers, settled, who have a strong attrac
and this will account to you for the tion to each other; it is therefore quantity of disaffection which the the rendezvous of all who come from traitor Burr found prepared for any Ireland, and sends its thousands over desperate deed in that quarter. This the hills into the valleys of the Ohiostate sent a few emigrants to LouisiaMississippi, Alleghany, and even into na; a few that it was a blessing to this the countries on the Missouri.
society to part with, and a curse to 3. Are there any people going to Loui: that to obtain ; we sent, however, sicna, and from what States princi- dit to themselves and to the state.
manyindustrious citizens, who do crepally ? The emigration to Louisiana, the 4. Are any of our people emigrating first two years after we obtained
from New England to Canada and
Nova Scotia ? possession, was enormous. The habits of Americansare migratory now, as About eight years ago, there were when the Farmers letters were written: very numerous enigrations from the and emigrants from foreign countries eastern states, and even from this state very soon catch the ruling passion, to Canada. From the county of from the necessity which strangers usu- Bucks, within 30 miles of Philadelally are under of looking out for some- phia, above sixty families of the religi. thing to please them; and after look- ous sect of Menonists (pronounced ing for a long time for something that here Meneese) emigrated and carried is like what they have been accusto- off their household goods in waggons med to, they acquire the new habit, drawn by six or eight horses : crownand find themselves perfectly at home, lands had been held out to them upoften without perceiving the cause.- on easy terms; but after two or three The emigrations to Louisiana were, years residence they found that there from all the States of the Union, more was some difference between our laws perhaps from the states east of the and those of Upper Canada: many of Hudson, and from the sea coast cities, them sought to obtain their former than from other quarters. All the farms here without success; and I young and adventurous, some few with learn they have made a large settlegood morals, some hundreds with bad: ment in the state of Ohio, on the all the pettyfogging lawyers, those who Muskinguin river, near a settlement had been in Europe and learned ex- called (after the royal palace near Vitravagance and gambling ; mercantile enna) Schoenbrunn ; this I learned in speculators ; and some without any consequence of having a tract of 100 other motive than adventure, crowded acres of my own in that neighbourinto Louisiana; but among such ha- hood, which one of them offered bits there must necessarily be little of to buy, but which I keep for one of the temperance that is required in a low, my children or grandchildren. moist, and hot climate, and none of the The adventuring disposition of the prudence that leads to the adaptation eastern folks leads them constantly inof the diet to the climate; there was of to Canada, and it is not uncommon to Course great mortality, and emigra- find families going into Canada ma. tion was soon reduced to a more ra- king a settlement, wholly for the purtional order ; though the unfortunate pose of selling it again ; the spirit of
speculation has nursed up much de- the Delaware, where it runs 4 miles pravity in the eastern States, to which an hour. Ours is only just begun; you the hypocrisy and profligacy of too will be amused to learn that the meanany of their clergy ministers too chanist who superintends the boat here much. For unhappily the morality is from the neighbourhood of Edinof religion has very much declined, burgh, from the works they call someand left little more than the ceremony thing like the Kaltoun works: they and the mask in its place. There say here he was one of those whom have been some emigrations to Nova Downie and Watt had some concern Scotia, but wholly of the adventuring with; however, he is here a very usecharacter; men who, as a home, think ful harmless mad, and there is no danno more of Halifax than of Boston, ger of his setting the Delaware on fire. nor of either, than of Ceylon or Kam: In the New York steam-boat there schatka ; they carry much activity are four cabins; they can dine and and unconquerable enterprize, with lodge 100 persons, and they travel habits well adapted for Buccaneers : with the same ease and with as much their family connexions are the only and asigood accommodation as you can: link that bind them; they sometimes obtain in the best regulated inn in bring home great wealth, which does Europe ; the best wines and the strictnot compensate for the vices they im. est order and decorum ; and they can port with them. We lose nothing by go two or three hundred miles in all these emigrations ; we may be said to weathers within an hour of the regugain by the loss. If we were at war, lated' time. This is perhaps the they would be to us a host, as they greatest improvement we possess at would arm vessels to practise their e- present, it is to be extended to the thics, from which the vengeance of law Mississippi and Ohio without delay. only restrains them.
In the southern states, where indi.
vidual intellect is advanced among 5.What Improvements are going on in those who enjoy leisure, and where Any of your States, as to Agriculture, all else are degraded by the preManufacturés, Canals, Roads, &C..?
sence of slavery, that cannot be got The progress of improvements of rid of without danger, the smaller imevery description is greater than a provements of arts and science, and of superficial view, or than the bounds public improvement, make but little of a quire of this paper would enable progress : they have, however, opened me to enumerate. Many of my friends, some important rivers, and completed who have never seen Europe, and who some canals in South and North Caroform opinions only by their reasoning lina': in Virginia, they have done someupon what they know can be done, thing of the same kind; a canal to usay that we are doing nothing ; for no- nite the waters of the Chesapeake and thing short of miracles, like the settle- Delaware, begun four years ago, linment of Ohio, or going six miles an gers from want of funds; the spirit of hour against wind and tide by force commercial speculation drains all our of steam, will serve them.
funds, and our passions are launched We have the honour of discovering with them on the ocean. the art of navigating a vessel 160 feet on still. Had our embargo continued keel, six miles an hour, without sails, 12 months, we should have astonished and against wind and tide. This a- Europe; as it' is, we astonish strangers. lone would do hononr to an age or à The best brick, and the best brick nation. We have these steam boats, as buildings in the world, are in this ciîhey are called, on the Hudson, where ty; we have built, since the embargo the tide runs 6 miles an hour; and, in was laid on in this city and suburbs,
But we go
above 500 three-storey brick houses, that so far north as Vermont, the sue which let from 400 to 600 dollars a- gar used is from the maple ; and the year rent.
We have built in this ci- preservation of the sweeting, as the ty two towers, one square 134 feet Green mountain farmer said to me, is high, one round 142 feet high, of as much a part of his domestic and brick, and only to cast shot to shoot farming economy as the raising of his birds ; each of these can make one crop. Very little sugar of any other ton of shot a-day; Louisiana gives sort is used in Vermont, lead inexhaustible for ages. Our sheep give as fine wool as any
7. Can we raise Hemp to serve our.
selves ? of Spain, and the passion for these is growing: twelve years since, mutton Yes, and all the world beside : in was rarely seen in the market; now Kentucky they have turned their atevery one likes and looks for it'; and tention to it this last year; and they sve have superfine broad cloth made are now provided with enough to from our own wool, of which I paid serve the United States, and abundance for the coat I wear (black) ten dollars for Europe. a-yard : we have cassimeres, serges, They have begun to weave sailhalf cloths of all colours ; and can in cloth in the two extremes of the U. a few years keep the old world to a nion ; in Kentucky and Rhode Island; coat after their mad wars have left the cloth for light topsails made at them bare and naked.
Rhode Island beats the Russian for Roads and bridges are advancing texture and cheapness. throughout the Union, but not half so fast as people wish. In agriculture 8. Are the numbers of the United States the improvement has been great : you
increasing? have heard of the Hessian fly, a far
Independent of the acquisition of mer told me a few days since, that a Louisiana, which makes us 6 millons, certain remedy for that fly is good cul
we calculate that the next census tivation ; they will not appear where will make us considerably more than the tillage is good : this, and the gyp- 7,000,000, in the old States and terrisum as a manure, has doubled our crops
tories. and our industry in this State : the States east and south of Pennsylvania are behind us as farmers, but the spi- Description of a Canadian Winter. rit is travelling; in Ohio they have obtained on this account the name of (From Gray's “ Letters from Canada." New Pennsylvanians. Every branch of
London. 8vo. 1809.) art grows up among us, and prospers, A Canadian winter is truly a subject in despite of many natural, and not a of curiosity to the natives of Brifew unnatural obstacles.
tain, or of any of the southern coun6. Does as much Sugar grow in Loui
tries of Europe. It presents a view of
nature perfectly new, and a variety of
phenomena so highly interesting, that
of any one at all conversant in natural
In Canada there cannot well be said dant, and the capacity to produce e- to be more than two seasons of the qual, not only to the consumption of year, summer and winter. The earth the United States, but of all Europe. hath scarcely laid aside her mantle You will be surprised perhaps to learn of snow, when you begin to feel the
force of summer heat; and although these pass the whole summer'in Canathe weather in September is mild and da; others, such as the pigeons, are onpleasant, it partakes more of the sum- ly found at certain seasons, as they mer than of the autumn of temperate pass from the southern to the more climates. The season of vegetation northerly parts of the American conseems kindly prolonged, till surprized tinent, and vice versa.
No sooner in a manner at once by the return of does the frost set in, than almost all winter, without much of what may be the feathered tribes take the alarm, and called autumn weather.
leave the country ; even the hardy Frost is felt in October, but the sun crow is obliged to take himself off.still retains enough of power to make A species of partridge, called the pine the weather, during the day, tolerably partridge (from its living on certain
parts of the pine tree, of which it tastes During the month of November very strongly), alone remains--but it the frost becomes daily more severe, is very rarely seen. Few quadrupeds and snow begins to fall. Your house are to be seen; some hares are found, is now put upon the winter establish- but to see them is difficult, for they ment; stoves are put up in your rooms, have changed their colour to as pure and in your passages; the windows are a white as the snow in which they lie; well secured and made tight; and you -a kind precaution in nature to conlay aside your summer dress, and a- ceal them from their enemies. Many dopt Aannels and furs.
other quadrupeds, no doubt, remain in One snow storm now succeeds ano- this country during the winter. Like ther, till the whole face of the country the bear, they probably do not change is covered. The eye in vain looks for their lodgings while the snow is on the a bit of ground to rest upon the trees ground, but remain stationary, and in alone remain visible--the chilling a torpid state. grasp of winter is every where felt, The Canadians change their appearand every preoaution is taken to resist ance as much as a complete change of its effects.
dress can do. The hat and bonnet
rouge There is something very awful and are laid aside, and they use fur caps, terrific in a Canadian snow storm. A fur cloaks, fur gloves, and worsted heavy fall of snow is generally accom- hose, over, as well as under boots.-panied by a violent gale of wind, which Thus defended, they venture with imdriving along the snow with immense punity into the severest frost. velocity, and forming a thousand ed. The snow soon covers the ground to dies and turnings, according to the in- the depth of several feet, and wheel equalities af the surface, and resistance carriages can no longer be used: the consequent thereon, you are able to wheels would sink so deep, that it form an idea of the velocity of the would be impossible to advance a step. wind-it becomes, as it were, visible. In place, therefore, of wheel carriages, The most severe snow. storms they a sort of sledge is used which in Canaexperience in Canada, come from the da is called a cariole. It passes over north-east, the frozen regions of Hud- the snow without sinking deep. It is son's bay and Labrador.
placed on what they call runners, which During summer the woods of Cana- resemble in form the irons of a pair of da abound with birds of a great varie- skaits, and rise up in front in the same ty of sorts and sizes ---partridges, wood- manner, and for the same purposes. cocks, pigeons, and singing birds with. The cariole is generally from nine to out number. The lakes and rivers a- twelve inches above the snow. Some bound with aquatic birds, such as called high runners, are about eighteen Sucks, geese, snipes, &c. Some of inches. The body of the cariole v va