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ries in shape, according to the fancy part of their time to amusements. It': of the owner. It is sometimes like is necessary to do something to give a the body of a phaeton, sometimes like little variety to the sameness of a six a chair or gig, sometimes like a vis-a- months winter. They have parties vis, and sometimes like a family of pleasure in town, and parties of coach or chariot. The cariole, in pleasure in the country, in which you. short, is the name for all sorts of ve- have dancing and music, and the sokicles used in winter, from a market cial enjoyments of conviviality. cart, up to a state coach.

There is a public assembly once a The generality of them are light, o. fortnight, which is very well attended. pen carriages, drawn by one horse. If you are fond of dancing you have The snow, after being trodden on for an opportunity of indulging in it; if some time, becomes compact enough you like a sober rubber, you find very to bear the horse, and gives very lit- good whist players. The civil and tle resistance to the cariole. Some military gentlemen mix very cordially people are extremely fond of driving together. Such of the Canadians as out in carioles; for my own part, I can afford it, and have an inclination, think it is a very unpleasant convey- join the amusements that are going ance, from the constant succession of forward, particularly the assemblies : inequalities which are formed in the and dancing parties; and indeed they snow by the carioles. These inequa. are an acquisition, as many of the lalities the Canadians call cahots (from dies want neither beauty nor the aco the French word cahoter, to jolt,) and complishments necessary for their grathey certainly are very well named, cing an assembly. for you are jolted as if

you crossed a : One should naturally suppose that field with very deep furrows and high very bad consequences would be likenarrow ridges. The motion is not: ly to arise from being heated by danunlike rowing in a boat against' a cing in so cold a climate. This, howhead-seamma thing that requires to be ever, is not the case: both ladies and only once tried, to be disliked. gentlemen, in the coldest weather, are

As no other sort of carriage cán, dressed in the assembly room as thinhowever, be used in this country, cus- ly as they are in England in summer ; tom and example reconcile one to it: and the rooms are very comfortable, all ranks use them, of one' sort or o-' being kept moderately warm by a ther. Sometimes you see them con- stove. Immediately after dancing, veying a dashing buck up one street and while very warm, the company and down another at a gallop, to the go into the open air in the middle of no' small annoyance of people who the night when the cold is extreme are fond of keeping their bones whole, (from 20 to 30 degrees below the a thing those gentlemen seem very: freezing point,) without next day carciess about. Sometimes you see feeling the least inconvenience. It the close covered family ones, convey-· is true, they take every precaution neing an old lady quietly and steadily to cessary, by clothing themselves very church, or to have a little gossiping warmly, with a friend ; and sometimes you see

People are less liable to suffer from them coming in from the country con

cold in Canada than they are in Engveying beef and mutton, turkies and land, notwithstanding the greater se. geese, for the supply of the market. verity of the weather. Many reasons When the navigation of the St. Laws' are assigned for this fact.

The Carence becomes impracticable, little nadians take care not to expose thembusiness is done by the merchants, selves to the external air without be. who then appropriate a considerable ing warmly clothed; particular at



tention is paid to keeping the feet, the wind, which blows occasionally, in the hands, and the head warm.

end of summer, in the southern counThe air is extremely dry in winter, tries of Europe. The Italians call it being deprived of its moisture by con- the siroc wind. It is equally known gelation; the intense frost causes na- and dreaded, for your sensations are turally a deposition of the aqueous par extremely disagreeable; the effect on ticles, in the shape of hoar frost.- furniture is the same as that of the air Now, it has been accurately ascertain- of this count:y, heated by the stove ; ed and proved by experiments, that but its effects on your body are much cold dry air is not so good a conductor more severe. The skin, when the of heat from our bodies as cold moist westerly wind blows, is covered with air ; it follows, therefore, that the ther- a gentle moisture, but as soon as the

shew a

very low temper- easterly or siroc wind blows, the skin ature in cold dry air, such as we have becomes dry and parched, and your here, without our being sensible of a sensations are oppressive, and undesgreat degree of cold ; and, that in cold cribable. When the air here is very moist air, such as you have in England, much heated by the stoves; you feel the thermometer may not be under the in some degree the same sensations and freezing point, and yet the quantity of effects; but you have a remedy at caloric or heat carried off from your hand : you have only to open a door, body, be greater than if the thermo- and you get a fresh supply of cold air. meter shewed a temperature many de- There is no avoiding the siroc windgrees below freezing. Were the effect let your doors and windows be ever so of the cold here on one's feelings, to tight before it begins to blow, it soon increase in proportion as the thermo. makes a passage for itself through the meter falls, and go as far beyond what crevices of the shrunk pannels. it is in England, as the real quantum An Englishman can with difficulty of caloric in the atmosphere is more form an idea of the cold of Canada, there than here, it would be impossible or of its effects, till he feels and sees to exist in this country, but the evil them. The coldest weather is gencarries its cure along with it, the frosterally during the month of January. deprives the air of its moisture, and The thermometer fell last January 60 consequently decreases its power of degrees below the freezing point, and carrying off from our body the heat it it continued at that temperature for secontains. If we wish to know how veral days. The medium temperature the weather is to affect us, we should in December and January is about 22 consult a hygrometer as well as a degrees below freezing. thermometer.

About the beginning of December When the cold dry air of this coun- all the small rivers are frozen so comtry enters your apartment, and is pletely, and covered with snow, that warmed by the heat of the stove, its bridges for passing them are no longdrying power becomes very great.- er necessary, and very little attention To be convinced that this is the case, is paid to keeping in the summer roads. it is only necessary to observe how Where they are hollow, or where there much the furniture of the house suffers are fences, the roads are so completely from it. The very pannels of the filled up with snow, that they are on doors shrink so much as almost to fall a level with the fields on each side, out of the frame, and the frame itself The country people who first form shrinks to such a degree that the bolt the winter roads on the snow,

direct loses its hold.

their Carioles by the nearest course I recollect to have remarked the where the snow is most level ; and they very same effects from the hot easterly go in as straight a line as possible, to Nov. 1809.


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the place to which they are destined. mirror. Thousands of people crowd, They put up branches of trees on each upon it every day, and booths are erecside the new track, as a direction to ted for their entertainment. In one others who wish to go that

way. quarter, you see numbers of people enThese they call des balises, or beacons, joying the amusement of skaiting ; in When they can conveniently follow the another, you see carioles driving in difcourse or bed of a river it is generally ferent directions; for the ice is so done, because the surface is evener strong, that horses go on it with the than over the fields, and there is less greatest safety. Sometimes you see snow on them, as they do not freeze till cariole races, they go over the ice after a considerable quantity of snow


great swiftness. In short, when has fallen on the fields:

the pont takes, (as they term it) it ocEven the great St. Lawrence is ar- casions a kind of jubilee in Quebec. rested in its course.

It freezes com- In one point of view it is a subject pletely over, a few leagues above Que- of real rejoicing to the city; it is acbee, and serves occasionally as a road companied with substantial advantato Montreal. It seldom freezes over, ges. Provisions of all kinds, and fireopposite to Quebec, or in the bason. wood, a no less necessary article in As the river narrows here, the current this country, fall in price, from an inis increased, and the tide sets up and crease in quantity, as soon as the pont down with such force, that it general- enables the people in the country bely keeps the floating masses of ice in low Quebec to bring their surplus motion. When the river freezes over, stock to market in their carioles, withopposite to Quebec, it is called, in the out the expence and risk of passing language of the country, a pont,

be- the river in canoes.

These canoes cause it answers the purpose of a bridge are not such as have been before desto the people who live below Quebec, cribed, used in the north-west trade. and who then bring up provisions and They are one solid piece of wood, the fire-wood in great quantities.

trunk of a large tree scooped out, and A variety of circumstances must

formed in the outside something like a combine to form a pont; when many boat; some of them are very large, very large masses of ice happen to carrying easily 15 or 20 people. come in contact, and fill the whole The passing of the St Lawrence in space between one side of the river canoes, in the middle of winter, is a and the other, they become stationary. very extraordinary operation. The If this happens at neaptides, and in time of high water is chosen, when the calm weather, the frost fixes the whole, large masses of ice are almost stationand it becomes a solid mass before the ary. The canoe is launched into the rising tides derange it; when it has water, where there is an opening : the stood a few days, it generally acquires people are provided with ropes, boatstrength enough to resist every impulse hooks, and paddles, When they it may receive, till the warmth of the

come to a sheet of ice, they jump out April sun affects it.

of the canoe upon it ; draw the canoe All these circumstances so seldom ир. after them ; push it to the other happen at the same time, that it is a-, side of the sheet of ice; launch it into bout ten years since the river took op- the water ; paddle till they come to aposite to Quebec. This year, how- nother sheet of ice; again haul up the ever, I have had the pleasure of seeing canoe, cross the ice, and again launch it in that state, and it certainly is an - and so on till they reach the other interesting and curious sight. For the side. You see twenty to thirty cadistance of eight miles, you see an im- noes crossing in this way at the same mense sheet of ice, as smooth as a time ; and you cannot help trembling


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Military Expeditions. for them, when you see two immense sity to pass the river in this way;

and masses of ice coming together, and I must own that it seemed fraught they between, apparently in the great- with so much danger, that I never est danger of being crushed to pieces; from mere curiosity was induced to but the people extricate themselves attempt it. One might, by the aid of with great dexterity.

the people, escape drowning, if one Custom has taught them to avoid even did fall into the water ; but I con the danger which seems to threaten ceive that a ducking in the river St them with destruction: they dexter- Lawrence, in the month of January, ously jump upon the first piece of ice and remaining half an hour or more with which they come in contact, and in wet clothes, would be likely to put haul the canoe after them. I have a period to one's existence as effectual never, myself, been under any neces- ly as drowning.

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Military Expeditions sent by ENGLAND to the Continent of Europe, from the

Commencement of the War betwixt GREAT BRITAIN and FRANCE, in 1793, to the present period.


To France.
When sent--Feb. 1793. Failed. After a loss of 28,000 men, and an ima
Commander-D. of York.

mense quantity of cannon and stores: the wreck Force---35,000 Troops. of the army returned to England in March 1795.

Second to France.
When sent-May 1794. Failed. Could not effect a landing in Britanny;
Commander-Earl Moira. sailed to Ostend ; and shared the fortunes of the
Force--10,000 Troops. Duke of York's ill-fated army.
Object -- Re-establishment
of Royalty in Britanny,

To Quiberon.
When sent- June 1795. Failed. Three-fourths of the Anglo-Emigrant
Commander-M. Puisaye. army was lost, together with 70,000 stand of
Force-12,000 Troops. arms, magazines, and clothing for 40,000 men,

a large sum in specie, and six ships richly laden,

To Brabant.
When sent-May 1798. Failed. The works of the Bruges Canal were
Commander-Gen. Coote. blown

but General Coote and his


Force--1,200 Troops. into the hands of the enemy.
Object-Todestroy the Na-
vigation of Holland, &c.

Second to Holland.
When sent-August 1799. Failed. Lost nearly half the army, and entered
CommandersaD.of York, into a capitulation on the 18th of October, where-

and Generals Harmann by the Duke agreed, on condition of being allow-
and Essen.

ed to re-embark, to liberate 8000 French and Force-27,000 English, Batavians then prisoners in England.

and 20,000 Russians. Object Deliverance of Europe.

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To Italy.
When sent-July 1806. Failed in the object, but succeeded in vanquishing
Commander---Sir J. Stuart. 7000 Frenchmen, 4000 of whom were either
Force-5000 Troops. killed, wounded, or taken prisoners.
Object--Expulsion of the
French from Italy.


To Copenhagen.
When sent-August 1807. 1 Succeeded. Took from Denmark 16 ships of the
Commander-Lord Cath- line, 15 frigates, 6 brigs, and 25 gun-boats, be-

sides vessels on the stocks, together with naval
Force--20,000 Soldiers. stores to the amount of twenty thousand tons.
Object--To obtain posses-
sion of the Danish Fleet..

To Sweden.
When sent-May 1808. Failed. Gustavus put Sir J. Moore under arrest ;
Commander-SirJ. Moore. he escaped with difficulty; and his army, after
Force - 14,000 Troops. temaining on board the transports several weeks,
Object-- To aid Sweden a- returned to England.
gainst Russia.

First to Spain.
When sent - July 1808. The Junta of Gallicia declined the proffered assis.
Commander Sir A. Wel. tance, asserting that they wanted not men, but

merely arms, ammunition, and money. Advised Force-10,000 Troops.

Sir Arthur to proceed to Portugal.
Object-To assist Spain.

First to Portugal.
When sent-August 1808. Failed. The Campaign which produced the vic-
Commander Sir A. Wel- tory of Vimiera was terminated by the memo-

lesley; superseded by rable Convention of Cintra. The French army
Sir H. Burrard ! super-

was sent home in safety, and the principal part seded by Sir Hew Dal. of the British army was sent to Spain. The rymple!

remnant of our forces subsequently quitted Por-
Force--27,000 Troops. tugal on the advance of the French.
Object- Expulsion of the
French from the Penin-

Second to Spain.
When sent.Nov. 1808. Failed. The English army advanced from the
Commander-Sir J. Moore. 'coast into the interior of Spain, but on finding
Force-28,000 Troops. themselves unsupported, and the French armies
Object-The Expulsion of rapidly advancing upon them, they were obliged
the French from Spain. to retreat to the coast, and finally re-embark at

Corunna, where their gallant commander fell;
1-3d of his army having perished by famine and
the sword.


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